Demographics of Burkina Faso

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burkina Faso, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Burkina Faso, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Burkina Faso's 15,3 million people belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Gur (Voltaic) and the Mandé. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population. The Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi are still bound by the traditions of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou.

About 12,000 Europeans reside in Burkina Faso, the majority are French.

Most of Burkina's people are concentrated in the south and center of the country, sometimes exceeding 48 per square kilometer (125/sq. mi.). This population density, high for Africa, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé to Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana for seasonal agricultural work. About a third of Burkinabé adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was initially resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, predominantly Roman Catholics, are largely concentrated among the urban elite.

Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is free but not compulsory, and only about 29% of Burkina's primary school-age children receive a basic education. The University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995.

Peanut seller in Ouagadougou

Population[edit]

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 16 469 000 in 2010, compared to only 4 284 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 45.3%, 52.4% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.2% was 65 years or older .[1]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4 284 40.7 57.3 2.0
1955 4 535 40.9 56.9 2.2
1960 4 882 41.3 56.4 2.3
1965 5 284 41.9 55.7 2.4
1970 5 807 43.6 53.9 2.5
1975 6 435 44.9 52.5 2.6
1980 7 212 46.4 50.9 2.7
1985 8 170 47.4 49.9 2.7
1990 9 324 47.7 49.7 2.6
1995 10 692 47.2 50.3 2.5
2000 12 294 46.5 51.2 2.3
2005 14 198 45.9 51.9 2.2
2010 16 469 45.3 52.4 2.2

Structure of the population [2][edit]

Structure of the population (09.12.2006) (Census) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 6 768 739 7 248 523 14 017 262 100
0-4 1 230 610 1 206 303 2 436 913 17,39
5-9 1 176 473 1 139 237 2 315 710 16,52
10-14 900 103 846 485 1 746 588 12,46
15-19 710 323 764 962 1 475 285 10,52
20-24 530 425 654 953 1 185 378 8,46
25-29 448 431 560 854 1 009 285 7,20
30-34 363 408 431 412 794 820 5,67
35-39 298 236 358 588 656 824 4,69
40-44 250 143 299 144 549 287 3,92
45-49 195 016 232 723 427 739 3,05
50-54 166 281 192 529 358 810 2,56
55-59 132 254 141 309 273 563 1,95
60-64 111 176 127 786 238 962 1,70
65-69 80 542 83 067 163 609 1,17
70-74 63 727 72 555 136 282 0,97
75-79 37 186 39 927 77 113 0,55
80-84 21 791 28 526 50 317 0,36
85-89 9 645 12 049 21 694 0,15
90-94 4 480 7 049 11 529 0,08
95+ 4 727 8 340 13 067 0,09
unknown 33 762 40 725 74 487 0,53
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 3 307 186 3 192 025 6 499 211 46,37
15-64 3 239 455 3 582 887 6 822 342 48,67
65+ 222 098 251 513 473 611 3,38

Structure of the population (01.07.2009) (Data refer to national projections) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 7 346 835 7 877 945 15 224 780 100
0-4 1 499 793 1 414 559 2 914 352 19,14
5-9 1 236 776 1 179 631 2 416 407 15,87
10-14 988 126 985 689 1 973 815 12,96
15-19 774 081 803 243 1 577 324 10,36
20-24 579 080 730 558 1 309 638 8,60
25-29 455 063 590 553 1 045 616 6,87
30-34 389 101 488 994 878 095 5,77
35-39 308 106 371 797 679 903 4,47
40-44 263 840 325 937 589 777 3,87
45-49 206 387 246 707 453 094 2,98
50-54 172 330 210 565 382 895 2,51
55-59 133 841 146 677 280 518 1,84
60-64 118 221 136 751 254 972 1,67
65-69 81 902 85 418 167 320 1,10
70-74 64 975 73 639 138 614 0,91
75-79 37 101 38 563 75 664 0,50
80+ 38 112 48 664 86 776 0,57
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 3 724 695 3 579 879 7 304 574 47,98
15-64 3 400 050 4 051 782 7 451 832 48,95
65+ 222 090 246 284 468 374 3,08

Structure of the population (DHS 2010) (Males 39 183, Females 41 651 = 80 835) :

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-4 18,9 17,3 18,0
5-9 18,0 16,0 16,9
10-14 14,7 13,6 14,1
15-19 9,0 8,1 8,5
20-24 6,1 8,1 7,1
25-29 5,4 7,4 6,4
30-34 5,1 6,3 5,7
35-39 4,3 4,9 4,6
40-44 3,8 4,0 3,9
45-49 3,3 3,1 3,2
50-54 2,5 4,1 3,3
55-59 2,1 2,4 2,3
60-64 2,4 1,8 2,1
65-69 1,6 1,1 1,3
70-74 1,4 1,0 1,2
75-79 0,8 0,3 0,6
80+ 0,7 0,5 0,6
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-14 51,6 46,9 49
15-64 43,9 50,2 47,3
65+ 4,5 2,9 3,7

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Burkina Faso not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [1]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 208 000 138 000 70 000 47.3 31.3 16.0 6.10 308
1955-1960 225 000 135 000 90 000 47.7 28.6 19.1 6.24 258
1960-1965 243 000 134 000 109 000 47.9 26.4 21.5 6.35 217
1965-1970 269 000 135 000 134 000 48.4 24.3 24.1 6.56 184
1970-1975 294 000 135 000 160 000 48.1 22.0 26.1 6.70 157
1975-1980 335 000 136 000 199 000 49.1 20.0 29.1 7.02 136
1980-1985 373 000 138 000 235 000 48.5 18.0 30.6 7.06 121
1985-1990 417 000 149 000 268 000 47.7 17.1 30.6 6.94 111
1990-1995 469 000 165 000 304 000 46.8 16.5 30.3 6.71 101
1995-2000 527 000 179 000 348 000 45.8 15.6 30.3 6.40 93
2000-2005 594 000 189 000 406 000 44.9 14.2 30.6 6.14 86
2005-2010 672 000 193 000 479 000 43.9 12.6 31.2 5.95 79
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[3][4] [5] [6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 43,0 6,9 (6,0) 39,0 5,0 (3,9) 43,0 7,3 (6,5)
1998-99 45,1 6,8 (6,0) 32,6 4,1 (3,4) 47,0 7,3 (6,5)
2003 42,6 6,2 (5,4) 32,4 3,7 (3,2) 44,5 6,9 (6,0)
2010 41,2 6,0 (5,2) 33,3 3,9 (3,3) 43,3 6,7 (5,9)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

15,746,232 (July 2009 est.)
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 46.8% (male 3,267,202/female 3,235,190)
15-64 years: 50.7% (male 3,513,559/female 3,538,623)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 140,083/female 208,315) (2006 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 16.8 years
Male: 16.6 years
Female: 17 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

3.103% (2009 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
A girl from Burkina Faso

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

all 54 years
Male: 51.04 years
Female: 54.91 years (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 1.6% (2007 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (2007 est.)
Deaths: 9,200 (2007 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact diseases: rabies (2009)

Nationality[edit]

Noun: Burkinabé (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burkinabé

Ethnic groups[edit]

Mossi - over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Fulani, Mandé, European

Religions[edit]

Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 30%, Indigenous beliefs 20%

Languages[edit]

Further information: Languages of Burkina Faso
French (official), native African languages (spoken by 90% of the population) including: More, Dioula, Gurma, Senufo

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 21.8%
Male: 29.4%
Female: 15.2% (2003 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

4.2% of GDP (2006)

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition".