Demographics of Burkina Faso

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Burkina Faso population pyramid in 2020

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burkina Faso, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Burkina Faso, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Burkina Faso's 19.8 million people belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Gur (Voltaic) and the Mandé. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population. The Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi are still bound by the traditions of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou.

About 12,000 Europeans reside in Burkina Faso, the majority of whom are French.

Most of Burkina Faso's population is concentrated in the south and center of the country, with a population density sometimes exceeding 48 inhabitants per square kilometer (120 inhabitants per square mile). This population density, high for Africa, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé to Ivory Coast and Ghana for seasonal agricultural work. About a third of Burkinabé adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was initially resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, predominantly Roman Catholics, are largely concentrated among the urban elite.

Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is free but not compulsory, and only about 29% of Burkina's primary school-age children receive a basic education. The University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995.

Population[edit]

According to the United Nations' Population Division, the total population was 20,903,000 in 2020, compared to only 4,284,000 in 1950.[1] The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2020 was 44.4%, 53.2% of the population was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.4% was 65 years or older.[1]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4 284 000 40.7 57.3 2.0
1955 4 517 000 41.0 56.9 2.2
1960 4 829 000 41.3 56.3 2.3
1965 5 175 000 42.2 55.2 2.5
1970 5 625 000 43.3 53.9 2.8
1975 6 155 000 44.2 52.8 3.0
1980 6 823 000 45.6 51.2 3.2
1985 7 728 000 46.7 50.0 3.3
1990 8 811 000 47.3 49.5 3.3
1995 10 090 000 47.1 49.8 3.1
2000 11 608 000 46.8 50.5 2.8
2005 13 422 000 46.5 50.9 2.6
2010 15 605 000 46.2 51.3 2.5
2015 18 111 000 45.6 52.0 2.4
2020 20 903 000 44.4 53.2 2.4

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Burkina Faso not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [1]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 207 600 140 600 67 000 47.2 31.9 15.2 6.10 228
1955-1960 221 400 138 400 83 000 47.4 29.6 17.7 6.24 209
1960-1965 235 800 137 800 98 000 47.2 27.5 19.6 6.35 192
1965-1970 256 800 137 800 119 000 47.5 25.5 22.0 6.56 172
1970-1975 279 800 139 800 140 000 47.5 23.7 23.8 6.70 153
1975-1980 316 800 139 800 177 000 48.8 21.5 27.3 7.02 133
1980-1985 356 400 132 000 224 400 49.0 18.1 30.9 7.17 119
1985-1990 395 200 141 800 253 400 47.8 17.2 30.6 7.07 110
1990-1995 445 400 159 800 285 600 47.1 16.9 30.2 6.93 104
1995-2000 506 400 175 200 331 200 46.7 16.2 30.5 6.73 99
2000-2005 570 800 183 000 387 800 45.6 14.6 31.0 6.43 90
2005-2010 634 600 173 000 461 600 43.7 11.9 31.8 6.08 78
2010-2015 687 600 161 400 526 200 40.8 9.6 31.2 5.65 65
2015-2020 745 000 161 400 583 600 38.2 8.3 29.9 5.23 54
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change rate (per 1000; CBR-CDR); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[2][3] [4] [5][6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 43.0 6.9 (6.0) 39.0 5.0 (3.9) 43.0 7.3 (6.5)
1998-99 45.1 6.8 (6.0) 32.6 4.1 (3.4) 47.0 7.3 (6.5)
2003 42.6 6.2 (5.4) 32.4 3.7 (3.2) 44.5 6.9 (6.0)
2010 41.2 6.0 (5.2) 33.3 3.9 (3.3) 43.3 6.7 (5.9)
2014 38.6 5.5 33.6 4.0 40.2 6.1
2017-18 35.1 5.2 30.9 3.7 36.1 5.6

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[7]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Centre 3.7 6.8 5.3
Boucle du Mouhoun 6.8 10.8 7.1
Cascades 6.0 10.4 7.0
Centre-Est 6.3 8.1 6.6
Centre-Nord 6.7 10.7 7.1
Centre-Ouest 6.4 10.4 7.1
Centre-Sud 5.6 9.4 6.8
Est 7.5 15.0 7.9
Hauts Bassins 5.2 9.3 5.9
Nord 6.2 10.3 7.0
Plateau Central 5.8 9.4 6.8
Sahel 7.5 12.9 7.6
Sud-ouest 6.4 10.8 7.1

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[8]
1950–1955 30.94
1955–1960 Increase 33.29
1960–1965 Increase 35.59
1965–1970 Increase 38.04
1970–1975 Increase 40.28
1975–1980 Increase 43.40
1980–1985 Increase 48.40
1985–1990 Increase 49.48
1990–1995 Decrease 49.33
1995–2000 Increase 49.86
2000–2005 Increase 51.61
2005–2010 Increase 55.27
2010–2015 Increase 58.71
2015–2020 Increase 60.92

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[9]

  • One birth every 42 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 21 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 55 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[10]

Demographic profile[edit]

Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country's limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today's large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso's large working-age population.[10]

Population[edit]

21,382,659 (July 2021 est.)
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure[edit]

Pyramid population of Burkina Faso in 2017
0-14 years: 43.58% (male 4,606,350/female 4,473,951)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 2,121,012/female 2,114,213)
25-54 years: 29.36% (male 2,850,621/female 3,265,926)
55-64 years: 3.57% (male 321,417/female 423,016)
65 years and over: 3.16% (male 284,838/female 374,057) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 44.88% (male 4,519,960/female 4,503,937)
15-24 years: 20.07% (male 2,024,501/female 2,012,053)
25-54 years: 29.42% (male 2,999,941/female 2,915,264)
55-64 years: 3.2% (male 284,374/female 359,159)
65 years and over: 2.43% (male 181,996/female 306,324) (2017 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 17.9 years Country comparison to the world: 216th
Male: 17.0 years
Female: 18.7 years (2020 est.)
Total: 17.3 years
Male: 17.1 years
Female: 17.4 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.58% (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 14th
3% (2017 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

34.34 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th

Death rate[edit]

7.92 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 89th

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 131st

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.4 years (2010 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.39 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

32.5% (2018/19)

Urbanization[edit]

Urban population: 30.6% of total population (2020)
Rate of urbanization: 4.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
A girl from Burkina Faso

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 63.06 years
Male: 61.28 years
Female: 64.89 years (2021 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2019 est.) County comparison to the world: 51st
People living with HIV/AIDS: 100,000 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 44th
Deaths: 3,100 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact diseases: rabies (2020)

Nationality[edit]

Noun: Burkinabé (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burkinabé

Ethnic groups[edit]

Mossi 52%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Ikelan 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, Unspecified/No answer 0.3%, Other 7.2% (including Europeans) (2010 est.)

Religions[edit]

Religion in Burkina Faso (2017-2018)[11]

  Islam (63.2%)
  Roman Catholic (24.6%)
  Protestant (6.9%)
  Animism (4.2%)
  Other and none (1.1%)
Islam 61.5%, Roman Catholic 23.3%, Traditional/Animist 7.8%, Protestant 6.5%, Other/No Answer 0.2%, None 0.7% (2010 est.)

Languages[edit]

French(official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 41.2%
Male: 50.1%
Female: 32.7% (2018 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

5.4% of GDP (2018)

Slavery[edit]

In 2018, an estimated 82,000 people in the country were living under "modern slavery" according to the Global Slavery Index.[12] News reports also indicate that "most child slaves on cocoa farms (Ivory Coast and Ghana) come from Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest nations on Earth. The children, some as young as ten, are sent by their families or trafficked by agents with the promise of money. They are made to work long hours for little or no money."[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: Data Query". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  2. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1993" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  3. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1998-99" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  4. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2003" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  5. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2010" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  6. ^ "STATcompiler". www.statcompiler.com. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  7. ^ "Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  9. ^ "Burkina Faso Population 2019", World Population Review
  10. ^ a b "The World FactBook - Burkina Faso", The World Factbook, January 31, 2021Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/burkina_faso/religions.html
  12. ^ https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/2018/data/country-data/burkina-faso/
  13. ^ http://theconversation.com/the-modern-slavery-bill-is-a-start-but-it-wont-guarantee-us-sweeter-chocolate-102765

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.

External links[edit]