Demographics of Canada

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Historical population
YearPop.±%
1851 2,414,519—    
1861 3,174,442+31.5%
1871 3,689,000+16.2%
1881 4,325,000+17.2%
1891 4,833,000+11.7%
1901 5,371,000+11.1%
1911 7,207,000+34.2%
1921 8,788,000+21.9%
1931 10,377,000+18.1%
1941 11,507,000+10.9%
1951 14,050,000+22.1%
1961 18,271,000+30.0%
1971 21,962,032+20.2%
1981 24,819,915+13.0%
1991 28,037,420+13.0%
2001 31,020,596+10.6%
2011 33,476,688+7.9%
2016 35,151,728+5.0%
Starting in 1951, figures represent third quarter populations (July 1).
Source: Statistics Canada, 1851–1941[1] and 1951–2011[2]

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada.

Population[edit]

Population density of Canadian provinces and territories

The Canada 2016 Census had a total population count of 35,151,728 individuals, making up approximately 0.5% of the world's total population.[3][4]

Provinces and territories[edit]

Province or territory Population,

2016 Census

Population,

2011 Census

Population

Change (%),

2011–2016

Total land
area (km2)
Density
(people/km2)
House of
Commons
seats
People per
seat
Number Percentage Number Percentage
 Ontario 13,448,494 38.26% 12,851,821 38.39% 4.64% 1,076,395 12.49 121 111,145
 Quebec 8,164,361 23.23% 7,903,001 23.61% 3.30% 1,365,128 5.98 78 104,671
 British Columbia 4,648,055 13.22% 4,400,057 13.14% 5.63% 925,186 5.02 42 110,668
 Alberta 4,067,175 11.57% 3,645,257 10.89% 11.57% 642,317 6.33 34 119,623
 Manitoba 1,278,365 3.64% 1,208,268 3.61% 5.80% 553,556 2.31 14 91,312
 Saskatchewan 1,098,352 3.12% 1,033,381 3.09% 6.29% 591,670 1.86 14 78,454
 Nova Scotia 923,598 2.63% 921,727 2.75% 0.20% 53,338 17.32 11 83,963
 New Brunswick 747,101 2.13% 751,171 2.24% -0.54% 71,450 10.46 10 74,710
 Newfoundland and Labrador 519,716 1.48% 514,536 1.54% 1.01% 373,872 1.39 7 74,245
 Prince Edward Island 142,907 0.41% 140,204 0.42% 1.93% 5,660 25.25 4 35,727
 Northwest Territories 41,786 0.12% 41,462 0.12% 0.78% 1,183,085 0.04 1 41,786
 Nunavut 35,944 0.10% 31,906 0.09% 12.66% 1,936,113 0.02 1 35,944
 Yukon 35,874 0.10% 33,897 0.10% 5.83% 474,391 0.08 1 35,874
 Canada 35,151,728 100% 33,476,688 100% 5.00% 9,252,161 3.80 338 103,999
Sources: Statistics Canada[5][6]

Cities[edit]

Census metropolitan areas[edit]

CMA Province Population CMA Province Population
Toronto Ontario 5,928,040 London Ontario 494,069
Montreal Quebec 4,098,927 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 406,074
Vancouver British Columbia 2,463,431 Halifax Nova Scotia 403,390
Calgary Alberta 1,392,609 Oshawa Ontario 379,848
OttawaGatineau OntarioQuebec 1,323,783 Victoria British Columbia 367,770
Edmonton Alberta 1,321,426 Windsor Ontario 329,144
Quebec Quebec 800,296 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 295,095
Winnipeg Manitoba 778,489 Regina Saskatchewan 236,481
Hamilton Ontario 747,545 Sherbrooke Quebec 212,105
KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo Ontario 523,894 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 205,955
Growth rate of Canadian provinces

Population growth rates[edit]

According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/World Bank, the population in Canada increased from 1990 to 2008 with 5.6 million and 20.4% growth in population, compared to 21.7% growth in the United States and 31.2% growth in Mexico. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, for the same period the world population growth was 27%, a total of 1,423 million people.[8] However, over the same period, the population of France grew by 8.0%. And from 1991 to 2011, the population of the UK increased by 10.0%.

Total Fertility Rates in the 19th century[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. Source: Statistics Canada.[9][10]

Years 1851 1871 1891
Total Fertility Rate in Canada 6.56 6.83 4.92

Life expectancy at birth from 1831 to 2015[edit]

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1831-1950

Years 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930[11]
Life expectancy in Canada 39.0 40.3 41.0 41.6 42.6 44.7 45.2 48.6 52.5 57.0 57.0 56.9 58.8 59.2 57.2 58.6 58.4 57.9 58.9
Years 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940[11]
Life expectancy in Canada 60.3 61.4 62.3 62.7 62.4 62.7 61.3 63.3 63.7 64.0
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950[11]
Life expectancy in Canada 63.7 64.6 64.6 65.3 66.3 66.5 66.7 67.3 67.6 68.2

1950-2015

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 69.1 1985–1990 76.8
1955–1960 70.3 1990–1995 77.8
1960–1965 71.3 1995–2000 78.6
1965–1970 72.2 2000–2005 79.7
1970–1975 73.0 2005–2010 80.8
1975–1980 74.3 2010–2015 81.8
1980–1985 75.9

Source: UN World Population Prospects[12]

Vital statistics[edit]

[13][14][15] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Birth rate (per 1,000) Death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total Fertility Rate[a][10][16]
1900 5,500,000 150,000 89,000 61,000 27.2 16.2 11.0
1901 5,600,000 175,000 79,000 96,000 31.2 14.1 17.1
1902 5,760,000 180,000 77,000 103,000 31.3 13.4 17.9 4.8
1903 5,930,000 186,000 78,000 108,000 31.3 13.2 18.1
1904 6,100,000 192,000 82,000 110,000 31.4 13.5 17.9
1905 6,280,000 195,000 82,000 113,000 31.0 13.0 18.0
1906 6,460,000 193,000 85,000 108,000 29.9 13.2 16.7
1907 6,650,000 196,000 85,000 111,000 29.5 12.8 16.7 4.74
1908 6,850,000 208,000 86,000 122,000 30.3 12.6 17.7
1909 7,040,000 213,000 90,000 123,000 30.2 12.8 17.4
1910 7,250,000 220,000 95,000 125,000 30.4 13.1 17.3
1911 7,460,000 225,000 100,000 125,000 30.1 13.4 16.7 4.7
1912 7,610,000 238,000 99,000 139,000 31.3 13.0 19.3 4.62
1913 7,760,000 246,000 102,000 144,000 31.7 13.1 19.6
1914 7,910,000 252,000 100,000 152,000 31.9 12.6 19.3
1915 8,060,000 257,000 101,000 156,000 31.9 12.5 19.4
1916 8,220,000 252,000 107,000 145,000 30.7 13.0 17.7
1917 8,380,000 244,000 106,000 138,000 29.1 12.7 16.4 4.26
1918 8,450,000 243,000 134,000 109,000 28.8 15.9 12.9
1919 8,710,000 241,000 119,000 122,000 27.7 13.7 14.0
1920 8,880,000 259,000 118,000 141,000 29.2 13.3 15.9
1921 9,060,000 265,000 105,000 160,000 29.3 11.6 17.7 3.98
1922 9,230,000 261,000 107,000 154,000 28.3 11.6 16.7 3.86
1923 9,400,000 251,000 111,000 140,000 26.7 11.8 14.9
1924 9,560,000 255,000 104,000 151,000 26.7 10.9 15.8
1925 9,730,000 254,000 104,000 150,000 26.1 10.7 15.4
1926 9,890,000 244,000 113,000 131,000 24.7 11.4 13.3
1927 10,040,000 244,000 110,000 134,000 24.3 11.0 13.3 3.32
1928 10,190,000 246,000 114,000 132,000 24.1 11.2 12.9
1929 10,350,000 243,000 118,000 125,000 23.5 11.4 12.1 3.22
1930 10,498,000 251,000 113,000 138,000 23.9 10.8 13.1 3.28
1931 10,630,000 247,000 108,000 139,000 23.2 10.2 13.0 3.2
1932 10,794,000 243,000 108,000 135,000 22.5 10.0 12.5 3.08
1933 10,919,000 229,000 106,000 123,000 21.0 9.7 11.3 2.86
1934 11,029,000 228,296 105,277 123,019 20.7 9.5 11.2 2.8
1935 11,135,000 228,396 109,724 118,672 20.5 9.9 10.6 2.76
1936 11,242,000 227,980 111,111 116,869 20.3 9.9 10.4 2.70
1937 11,339,000 227,878 118,019 109,859 20.1 10.4 9.7 2.65
1938 11,448,000 237,091 110,647 126,444 20.7 9.7 11.0 2.70
1939 11,565,000 237,991 112,729 125,262 20.6 9.7 10.9 2.65
1940 11,682,000 252,577 114,717 137,860 21.6 9.8 11.8 2.77
1941 11,810,000 263,993 118,797 145,196 22.4 10.1 12.3 2.83
1942 11,962,000 281,569 117,110 164,459 23.5 9.8 13.7 2.96
1943 12,125,000 292,943 122,640 170,303 24.2 10.1 14.1 3.04
1944 12,291,000 283,967 120,393 163,574 24.0 9.8 14.2 3.01
1945 12,441,000 300,570 117,319 183,251 24.3 9.5 14.8 3.02
1946 12,637,000 343,504 118,785 224,719 27.2 9.4 17.8 3.37
1947 12,919,000 372,443 121,478 250,965 28.9 9.4 19.5 3.60
1948 13,167,000 359,860 122,974 236,886 27.3 9.3 18.0 3.44
1949 13,475,000 367,092 124,567 242,525 27.2 9.2 18.0 3.46
1950 13,737,000 372,009 124,220 247,789 27.1 9.0 18.0 3.46
1951 14,050,000 381,092 125,823 255,269 27.1 9.0 18.2 3.50
1952 14,496,000 403,559 126,385 277,174 27.8 8.7 19.1 3.64
1953 14,886,000 417,884 127,791 290,093 28.1 8.6 19.5 3.72
1954 15,330,000 436,198 124,855 311,343 28.5 8.1 20.3 3.83
1955 15,736,000 442,937 128,476 314,461 28.1 8.2 20.0 3.83
1956 16,123,000 450,739 131,961 318,778 28.0 8.2 19.8 3.86
1957 16,677,000 469,093 136,579 332,514 28.1 8.2 19.9 3.93
1958 17,120,000 470,118 135,201 334,917 27.5 7.9 19.6 3.88
1959 17,522,000 479,275 139,913 339,362 27.4 8.0 19.4 3.94
1960 17,909,000 478,551 139,693 338,858 26.7 7.8 18.9 3.895
1961 18,271,000 475,700 140,985 334,715 26.0 7.7 18.3 3.840
1962 18,614,000 469,693 143,699 325,994 25.2 7.7 17.5 3.767
1963 18,964,000 465,767 147,367 318,400 24.6 7.8 16.8 3.694
1964 19,325,000 452,915 145,850 307,065 23.4 7.5 15.9 3.192
1965 19,678,000 418,595 148,939 269,656 21.3 7.6 13.7 3.449
1966 20,048,000 387,710 149,863 237,847 19.3 7.5 11.9 2.749
1967 20,412,000 370,894 150,283 220,611 18.2 7.4 10.8 2.528
1968 20,744,000 364,310 153,196 211,114 17.6 7.4 10.2 2.386
1969 21,028,000 369,647 154,477 215,170 17.6 7.3 10.2 2.334
1970 21,324,000 371,988 155,961 216,027 17.4 7.3 10.1 2.258
1971 21,962,000 362,187 157,272 204,915 16.7 7.3 9.5 2.141
1972 22,218,000 347,319 162,413 184,906 15.8 7.4 8.4 1.98
1973 22,492,000 343,373 164,039 179,334 15.4 7.4 8.1 1.89
1974 22,808,000 350,650 166,794 178,851 15.3 7.4 7.9 1.837
1975 23,143,000 359,323 167,176 191,919 15.6 7.3 8.3 1.824
1976 23,450,000 359,987 167,009 192,978 15.4 7.2 8.3 1.796
1977 23,726,000 361,400 167,498 193,902 15.3 7.1 8.2 1.782
1978 23,963,000 358,852 168,179 190,673 15.0 7.0 8.0 1.768
1979 24,202,000 366,064 168,183 197,881 15.1 6.9 8.2 1.754
1980 24,516,000 370,709 171,473 199,236 15.1 7.0 8.1 1.74
1981 24,820,000 371,346 171,029 200,317 14.9 6.8 8.0 1.7
1982 25,117,000 373,082 174,413 198,669 14.8 6.9 7.9 1.69
1983 25,367,000 373,689 174,484 199,205 14.6 6.8 7.8 1.68
1984 25,608,000 377,031 175,727 201,304 14.6 6.8 7.8 1.65
1985 25,843,000 375,727 181,323 194,404 14.4 7.0 7.5 1.67
1986 26,101,000 372,913 184,224 188,689 14.3 7.1 7.2 1.675
1987 26,449,000 369,742 184,953 184,789 14.0 7.0 7.0 1.68
1988 26,795,000 376,795 190,011 186,784 14.1 7.1 7.0 1.68
1989 27,282,000 392,661 190,965 201,696 14.4 7.0 7.4 1.77
1990 27,698,000 405,486 191,973 213,513 14.6 6.9 7.7 1.83
1991 28,031,000 402,533 195,569 206,964 14.4 7.0 7.4 1.7
1992 28,367,000 398,643 196,535 202,108 14.1 6.9 7.1 1.71
1993 28,682,000 388,394 204,912 183,482 13.5 7.1 6.4 1.7
1994 28,999,000 385,114 207,077 178,037 13.3 7.1 6.1 1.67
1995 29,302,000 378,016 210,733 167,283 12.9 7.2 5.7 1.639
1996 29,611,000 366,200 212,880 153,320 12.4 7.2 5.2 1.592
1997 29,907,000 348,598 215,669 132,929 11.7 7.2 4.4 1.55
1998 30,157,000 342,418 218,091 124,327 11.4 7.2 4.1 1.53
1999 30,404,000 337,249 219,530 117,719 11.1 7.2 3.9 1.51
2000 30,689,000 327,882 218,062 109,820 10.7 7.1 3.6 1.49
2001 31,021,000 333,744 219,538 114,206 10.8 7.1 3.7 1.505
2002 31,373,000 328,802 223,603 105,199 10.5 7.1 3.4 1.52
2003 31,676,000 335,202 226,169 109,033 10.6 7.1 3.4 1.53
2004 31,941,000 337,072 226,584 110,488 10.6 7.1 3.5 1.53
2005 32,245,000 342,176 230,132 112,044 10.6 7.1 3.5 1.54
2006 32,576,000 354,617 228,079 126,538 10.9 7.0 3.9 1.586
2007 32,930,000 367,864 235,217 132,647 11.2 7.1 4.0 1.659
2008 33,318,000 377,886 238,617 139,269 11.3 7.2 4.2 1.681
2009 33,727,000 380,863 242,277 138,586 11.3 7.2 4.1 1.668
2010 34,127,000 377,213 247,926 129,287 11.1 7.3 3.8 1.627
2011 34,484,000 377,636 254,731 122,905 11.0 7.4 3.6 1.61
2012 34,880,000 381,869 256,965 124,904 10.9 7.4 3.6 1.614
2013 35,293,000 380,323 256,982 123,341 10.8 7.3 3.5 1.587
2014 35,667,000 383,478 259,520 123,958 10.7 7.3 3.4 1.582
2015 35,981,000 385,292 267,353 117,939 10.7 7.4 3.3 1.563
2016 36,503,000 389,874 273,374 116,500 10.7 7.5 3.2 1.543
2017 36,963,000 390,573 281,457 109,116 10.6 7.6 3.0 1.6

Current population growth[edit]

[17]

  • Births from January–March 2017 = Increase 93,487
  • Births from January–March 2018 = Increase 93,944
  • Deaths from January–March 2017 = Negative increase 76,706
  • Deaths from January–March 2018 = Negative increase 78,907
  • Natural increase from January–March 2017 = Decrease 16,781
  • Natural increase from January–March 2018 = Decrease 15,037

Population projection[edit]

Age characteristics[edit]

Population by age and gender, 2016[20]
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0 to 4 years 973,030 925,760 1,898,790 5.4%
5 to 9 years 1,034,685 983,445 2,018,130 5.7%
10 to 14 years 985,200 937,445 1,922,645 5.5%
15 to 19 years 1,039,215 986,940 2,026,160 5.8%
20 to 24 years 1,144,495 1,098,200 2,242,690 6.4%
25 to 29 years 1,144,470 1,141,515 2,285,990 6.5%
30 to 34 years 1,148,290 1,181,110 2,329,395 6.6%
35 to 39 years 1,118,635 1,169,730 2,288,365 6.5%
40 to 44 years 1,104,440 1,150,695 2,255,135 6.4%
45 to 49 years 1,157,760 1,202,210 2,359,965 6.7%
50 to 54 years 1,318,755 1,359,320 2,678,075 7.6%
55 to 59 years 1,285,190 1,335,055 2,620,240 7.5%
60 to 64 years 1,114,885 1,175,630 2,290,510 6.5%
65 to 69 years 953,075 1,019,405 1,972,480 5.6%
70 to 74 years 677,975 742,900 1,420,875 4%
75 to 79 years 469,550 552,300 1,021,850 2.9%
80 to 84 years 325,765 423,880 749,650 2.1%
85 years and over 268,790 501,990 770,780 2.2%
Total 16,414,225 17,062,460 33,476,685 100%
0 to 14 years 2,992,920 2,846,645 5,839,565 16.6%
15 to 64 years 11,576,130 11,800,400 23,376,530 66.5%
65 years and over 2,695,150 3,240,485 5,935,630 16.9%

Other demographics statistics[edit]

32.3% of Canadians considered their ethnic origin to be Canadian. Other major groups recorded were English (18.3%), Scottish (13.9%), French (13.6%), Irish (13.4%), German (9.6%) and Chinese (5.1%). When reading these figures, you should bear in mind that census respondents could select multiple ethnic groups.[21]

Nearly 22% of the population is now foreign-born, and about 60% of new immigrants come from Asia, particularly China and India.[21]

Frank Trovato, a professor of population and demography studies at the University of Alberta, told CBS news that "Canada needs a robust increase to keep up with demands in the workforce and maintain a strong economy. It may be time for policymakers in the country to consider ways to boost Canada's fertility rates, such as with "family friendly" policies that allow women to combine a family with a career."[21]

Although there are 11 aboriginal languages, only a few are spoken by enough people to ensure that they are safe from extinction.[21]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review (beginning of 2018).[21]

  • One birth every 1 minutes
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 2 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 2 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[16]

Population
35,623,680 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
Population pyramid in 2017
0-14 years: 15.44% (male 2,819,279/female 2,680,024)
15-24 years: 11.85% (male 2,171,703/female 2,048,546)
25-54 years: 39.99% (male 7,227,145/female 7,020,156)
55-64 years: 14.1% (male 2,492,120/female 2,529,652)
65 years and over: 18.63% (male 2,958,721/female 3,676,334) (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.6 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 183rd
Median age
total: 42.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 29th
male: 40.9 years
female: 43.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 40.6 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 41.5 years (2011)
Median age by province and territory, 2011
  1. Newfoundland and Labrador: 44.0
  2. Nova Scotia: 43.7
  3. New Brunswick:43.7
  4. Prince Edward Island: 42.8
  5. Quebec: 41.9
  6. British Columbia: 41.9
  7. Ontario: 40.4
  8. Yukon: 39.1
  9. Manitoba: 38.4
  10. Saskatchewan: 38.2
  11. Alberta: 36.5
  12. Northwest Territories: 32.3
  13. Nunavut: 24.1

Total: 40.6

Sources: Statistics Canada[22]
Population growth rate
0.73% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 141st
Birth rate
10.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 190th
Death rate
8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th
5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.1 years (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 81.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 21st
male: 79.3 years
female: 84.7 years (2017 est.)
Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Religions

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 13.1% Country comparison to the world: 100th
male: 14.8%
female: 11.3% (2016 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 81% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010–2015 est.)

Sex ratio:

  • at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15 – 24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 25 – 54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  • 55 – 64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 180th
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality rate
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015. World Health Organization[23]) Country comparison to the world: 161st

Ethnicity[edit]

Ethnic origin[edit]

As data is completely self-reported, and reporting individuals may have varying definitions of "Ethnic origin" (or may not know their ethnic origin), these figures should not be considered an exact record of the relative prevalence of different ethno-cultural ancestries but rather how Canadians self-identify.

Statistics Canada projects that immigrants will represent between 24.5% and 30.0% of Canada’s population in 2036, compared with 20.7% in 2011.[24] Statistics Canada further projects that visible minorities will make up 33.7-34.3% of Canada's total population, compared to 22.3% in 2016.[25]

Counting both single and multiple responses, the most commonly identified ethnic origins were (2016):

Ethnic origin[26] % Population
Canadian[b] 32.32% 11,135,965
English 18.34% 6,320,085
Scottish 13.93% 4,799,010
French 13.55% 4,670,595
Irish 13.43% 4,627,000
German 9.64% 3,322,405
Chinese 5.13% 1,769,195
Italian 4.61% 1,587,970
First Nations[c] 4.43% 1,525,565
East Indian 3.99% 1,374,710
Ukrainian 3.95% 1,359,655
Dutch 3.23% 1,111,655
Polish 3.21% 1,106,585
Filipino 2.43% 837,130
British, not included elsewhere 1.87% 644,695
Russian 1.81% 622,445
Métis 1.74% 600,000
Portuguese 1.40% 482,610
Welsh 1.38% 474,805
Norwegian 1.34% 463,275
Spanish 1.15% 396,460
American 1.10% 377,410
Swedish 1.02% 349,640
Hungarian 1.01% 348,085

The most common ethnic origins per province are as follows in 2006[27] (total responses; only percentages 10% or higher shown; ordered by percentage of "Canadian"):

  • Quebec (7,723,525): Canadian (59.1%), French (29.1%)
  • New Brunswick (735,835): Canadian (50.3%), French (27.2%), English (25.9%), Irish (21.6%), Scottish (19.9%)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (507,265): Canadian (49.0%), English (43.4%), Irish (21.8%)
  • Nova Scotia (906,170): Canadian (39.1%), Scottish (31.2%), English (30.8%), Irish (22.3%), French (17.0%), German (10.8%)
  • Prince Edward Island (137,375): Scottish (39.3%), Canadian (36.8%), English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%)
  • Ontario (12,651,795): Canadian (23.3%), English (23.1%), Scottish (16.4%), Irish (16.4%), French (10.8%), German (9.5%), Italian (7.2%)
  • Alberta (3,567,980): English (24.9%), Canadian (21.8%), German (19.2%), Scottish (18.8%), Irish (15.8%), French (11.1%)
  • Manitoba (1,174,345): English (21.8%), German (18.6%), Canadian (18.5%), Scottish (18.0%), Ukrainian (14.9%), Irish (13.2%), French (12.6%), North American Indian (10.6%)
  • Saskatchewan (1,008,760): German (28.6%), English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (12.2%), North American Indian (12.1%)
  • British Columbia (4,324,455): English (27.7%), Scottish (19.3%), Canadian (19.1%), German (13.1%), Chinese (10.7%)
  • Yukon (33,320): English (28.5%), Scottish (25.0%), Irish (22.0%), North American Indian (21.8%), Canadian (21.8%), German (15.6%), French (13.1%)
  • Northwest Territories (40,800): North American Indian (37.0%), Scottish (13.9%), English (13.7%), Canadian (12.8%), Irish (11.9%), Inuit (11.7%)
  • Nunavut (31,700): Inuit (85.4%)

Bold indicates either that this response is dominant within this province, or that this province has the highest ratio (percentage) of this response among provinces.

Visible minority population[edit]

Visible and non-visible minority populations by group, 1996–2016
Group 1996[28][29] 2001[30] 2006[31] 2011[32] 2016[33]
Total Pct. Total Pct. Total Pct. Total Pct. Total Pct.
Total visible minority population 3,197,480 11.2% 3,983,845 13.4% 5,068,095 16.2% 6,264,750 19.1% 7,674,580 22.3%
South Asian 670,590 2.4% 917,075 3.1% 1,262,865 4% 1,567,400 4.8% 1,924,635 5.6%
Chinese 860,150 3% 1,029,395 3.5% 1,216,565 3.9% 1,324,750 4% 1,769,195 5.1%
Black 573,860 2% 662,215 2.2% 783,795 2.5% 945,665 2.9% 1,198,540 3.5%
Filipino 234,195 0.8% 308,575 1% 410,695 1.3% 619,310 1.9% 780,125 2.3%
Latin American 176,970 0.6% 216,980 0.7% 304,245 1% 381,280 1.2% 447,325 1.3%
Arab/West Asian 244,665 0.9%
Arab 194,685 0.7% 265,550 0.9% 380,620 1.2% 523,235 1.5%
Southeast Asian 172,765 0.6% 198,880 0.7% 239,935 0.8% 312,075 0.9% 313,260 0.9%
West Asian 109,285 0.4% 156,700 0.5% 206,840 0.6% 264,305 0.8%
Korean 64,835 0.2% 100,660 0.3% 141,890 0.5% 161,130 0.5% 188,710 0.5%
Japanese 68,135 0.2% 73,315 0.2% 81,300 0.3% 87,270 0.3% 92,920 0.3%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 69,745 0.2% 98,915 0.3% 71,420 0.2% 106,475 0.3% 132,090 0.4%
Multiple visible minorities 61,575 0.2% 73,875 0.2% 133,120 0.4% 171,935 0.5% 232,375 0.7%
Not a visible minority 25,330,645 88.8% 25,655,185 86.6% 26,172,935 83.8% 26,587,575 80.9% 26,785,480 77.7%
Aboriginal identity (see breakdown below) 799,005 2.8% 976,305 3.3% 1,172,785 3.8% 1,400,685 4.3% 1,673,785 4.9%
Others (European or White) 24,531,640 86% 24,678,880 83.3% 25,000,150 80% 25,186,890 76.7% 25,111,695 72.9%
Total population in private households 28,528,125 100% 29,639,030 100% 31,241,030 100% 32,852,320 100% 34,460,065 100%

By province and territory[edit]

Visible minority population by province and territory, 2011[34]
Province/territory Not a visible minority South Asian Chinese Black Filipino Latin American Arab Southeast Asian West Asian Korean Japanese Visible minority, n.i.e. Multiple visible minorities Total visible minority population Total population Percent visible minority
Alberta[35] 2,690,960 156,665 133,390 74,435 106,035 41,305 34,920 41,025 16,030 15,000 12,415 6,270 18,840 656,325 3,567,980 18.39%
British Columbia[36] 2,911,295 313,440 438,140 33,260 126,040 35,465 14,090 51,970 38,960 53,770 38,120 6,465 31,160 1,180,870 4,324,455 27.31%
Manitoba[37] 824,830 25,265 17,025 19,610 59,220 9,140 3,235 7,565 2,040 3,045 1,745 1,765 3,975 153,625 1,174,350 13.08%
New Brunswick[38] 696,080 2,445 2,540 4,870 1,100 1,160 1,380 730 305 1,855 305 85 360 17,135 735,835 2.33%
Newfoundland and Labrador[39] 464,540 1,855 1,645 1,455 350 185 370 320 155 80 60 205 250 6,930 507,270 1.37%
Northwest Territories[40] 16,920 185 380 555 895 105 115 230 60 50 45 75 30 2,720 40,800 6.67%
Nova Scotia[41] 825,055 4,965 6,050 20,790 1,890 1,360 6,290 1,155 1,365 960 445 720 1,290 47,270 906,175 5.22%
Nunavut[42] 3,825 95 65 120 130 25 15 30 0 10 0 10 0 510 31,700 1.61%
Ontario[43] 9,070,800 965,990 629,140 539,205 275,380 172,560 151,645 137,875 122,530 78,290 29,085 81,130 96,735 3,279,565 12,651,795 25.92%
Prince Edward Island[44] 130,890 485 1,830 390 85 235 200 205 345 140 210 75 70 4,260 137,380 3.10%
Quebec[45] 6,740,375 83,320 82,845 243,625 31,495 116,380 166,260 65,855 23,445 6,665 4,025 8,895 17,420 850,235 7,732,525 11.00%
Saskatchewan[46] 787,745 12,325 11,300 7,255 16,025 3,250 2,095 4,910 1,600 1,270 720 745 1,775 63,275 1,008,760 6.27%
Yukon[47] 23,590 365 400 100 675 110 0 210 0 0 80 35 35 2,025 33,320 6.08%
Canada[48] 25,186,890 1,567,400 1,324,750 945,665 619,310 381,280 380,620 312,075 206,840 161,130 87,270 106,475 171,935 6,264,750 32,852,325 19.07%

By city over 100,000[edit]

Visible minority in Canadian cities over 100,000 people, 2016[34]
City Population Visible minority Black East Asian Latin American South Asian Southeast Asian West Asian Arab Multiracial Other
Toronto 2,731,571 51.5% 8.9% 13.2% 2.9% 12.6% 7.2% 2.2% 1.3% 1.8% 1.4%
Montreal 1,704,694 34.2% 10.3% 3.7% 4.1% 3.3% 3.5% 0.9% 7.3% 0.7% 0.3%
Calgary 1,239,220 36.2% 4.2% 8.5% 2.1% 9.5% 7.3% 1.0% 2.0% 1.1% 0.4%
Ottawa 934,243 26.3% 6.6% 5.1% 1.2% 4.2% 2.7% 1.0% 4.5% 0.9% 0.3%
Edmonton 932,546 37.1% 5.9% 7.3% 1.9% 9.5% 7.7% 0.7% 2.6% 1.1% 0.4%
Mississauga 721,599 57.2% 6.6% 8.7% 2.3% 23.2% 7.2% 1.1% 5.1% 1.9% 1.3%
Winnipeg 705,224 28.0% 3.9% 3.6% 1.0% 5.4% 11.8% 0.4% 0.7% 0.9% 0.4%
Vancouver 631,486 51.6% 1.0% 30.2% 1.8% 6.0% 8.7% 1.4% 0.5% 1.8% 0.2%
Brampton 593,638 73.3% 13.9% 1.7% 2.4% 44.3% 4.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.6% 2.7%
Hamilton 536,917 19.0% 3.8% 2.5% 1.6% 4.2% 2.8% 0.9% 2.0% 0.7% 0.5%
Quebec City 531,902 6.4% 2.4% 0.5% 1.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.1%
Surrey 517,887 58.5% 1.8% 7.8% 1.4% 32.8% 8.8% 0.7% 1.1% 1.2% 0.4%
Laval 422,993 26.1% 7.8% 1.0% 3.1% 2.1% 2.1% 1.0% 8.2% 0.3% 0.1%
Halifax 403,131 11.4% 3.8% 2.2% 0.3% 1.6% 0.9% 0.3% 1.8% 0.3% 0.1%
London 383,822 19.9% 3.0% 3.8% 2.4% 3.1% 2.1% 0.9% 3.6% 0.6% 0.4%
Markham 328,966 77.9% 2.9% 46.8% 0.5% 17.8% 3.8% 2.4% 1.0% 2.1% 0.9%
Vaughan 306,233 35.4% 2.7% 8.7% 2.4% 10.1% 5.1% 2.9% 1.4% 1.4% 0.8%
Gatineau 276,245 13.5% 6.1% 1.0% 1.5% 0.4% 0.7% 0.3% 3.1% 0.3% 0.2%
Longueuil 239,700 18.6% 7.0% 1.4% 3.1% 0.8% 1.3% 0.8% 3.2% 0.4% 0.3%
Burnaby 232,755 63.6% 1.6% 38.9% 2.0% 8.1% 7.7% 2.2% 0.7% 2.1% 0.3%
Saskatoon 246,376 19.8% 2.2% 3.6% 0.8% 5.5% 5.4% 0.5% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2%
Kitchener 233,222 21.8% 4.1% 2.6% 2.6% 5.0% 2.9% 1.2% 1.8% 0.8% 0.8%
Windsor 217,188 26.9% 5.0% 3.6% 1.2% 4.5% 3.0% 0.6% 7.5% 0.9% 0.6%
Regina 215,106 19.2% 3.0% 6.2% 0.6% 5.9% 5.2% 0.3% 0.7% 0.4% 0.2%
Richmond 198,309 76.3% 0.6% 55.6% 0.8% 7.3% 7.9% 0.6% 0.8% 2.4% 0.2%
Richmond Hill 195,022 60.0% 2.0% 32.5% 0.8% 7.7% 2.7% 10.4% 1.8% 1.6% 0.4%
Oakville 193,832 30.8% 2.9% 9.0% 1.9% 8.9% 2.4% 1.1% 3.2% 1.0% 0.4%
Burlington 183,314 16.0% 2.1% 2.9% 1.3% 4.8% 2.0% 0.6% 1.4% 0.6% 0.4%
Greater Sudbury 161,531 3.8% 0.9% 0.7% 0.2% 0.9% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% 0.0%
Sherbrooke 161,323 7.3% 2.2% 0.4% 1.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.8% 1.2% 0.2% 0.0%
Oshawa 159,458 16.0% 5.5% 2.0% 0.8% 3.8% 1.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 0.8%
Saguenay 145,949 1.4% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0%
Lévis 143,414 2.2% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
Barrie 141,434 10.3% 2.7% 1.8% 1.1% 2.2% 1.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3%
Abbotsford 141,397 33.7% 1.0% 3.0% 0.8% 25.5% 2.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2%
St. Catharines 133,113 12.7% 2.9% 2.7% 1.7% 1.4% 1.8% 0.3% 1.1% 0.7% 0.2%
Trois-Rivières 134,413 3.5% 1.4% 0.3% 0.8% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0%
Cambridge 129,920 15.6% 2.5% 1.4% 1.3% 6.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
Coquitlam 139,284 50.2% 1.1% 29.3% 1.6% 4.5% 5.2% 5.6% 1.0% 1.7% 0.2%
Kingston 123,798 9.7% 1.5% 2.7% 0.7% 2.0% 1.1% 0.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.1%
Whitby 128,377 25.3% 8.0% 3.1% 1.1% 6.6% 2.4% 1.0% 0.8% 1.5% 0.9%
Guelph 131,794 18.8% 2.2% 3.6% 1.0% 5.0% 4.1% 1.2% 0.6% 0.9% 0.2%
Kelowna 127,380 9.5% 0.8% 2.9% 0.6% 2.6% 1.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2%
Saanich 114,148 22.1% 1.0% 10.5% 0.7% 5.0% 3.0% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 0.2%
Ajax 119,677 56.7% 16.7% 3.2% 1.4% 20.9% 5.3% 2.4% 1.7% 2.4% 2.7%
Thunder Bay 107,909 4.5% 0.6% 1.1% 0.3% 0.9% 0.8% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.0%
Terrebonne 111,575 11.8% 4.5% 0.4% 1.7% 0.1% 0.6% 0.1% 1.7% 0.1% 0.0%
St. John's 108,860 7.0% 1.4% 1.6% 0.5% 1.5% 0.7% 0.2% 1.0% 0.1% 0.1%
Langley 117,285 18.7% 1.0% 8.0% 0.9% 4.4% 3.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.1%
Chatham-Kent 101,647 4.6% 2.1% 0.6% 0.2% 0.6% 0.5% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
Milton 110,128 42.8% 4.8% 3.1% 2.4% 21.0% 4.7% 0.9% 3.5% 1.4% 0.9%
Waterloo 104,986 26.4% 1.9% 10.6% 1.4% 6.4% 1.7% 1.1% 1.8% 0.9% 0.6%
Delta 102,238 36.0% 0.8% 9.2% 0.8% 20.3% 3.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.8% 0.3%
Red Deer 100,418 15.5% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 1.7% 7.0% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.1%

Aboriginal population[edit]

Aboriginal population in Canada, 1996–2016 censuses
Group 1996[28] 2001[30] 2006[31] 2011[32] 2016[49]
% Total % Total % Total % Total % Total
Total Aboriginal 2.8% 799,005 3.3% 976,305 3.8% 1,172,785 4.3% 1,400,685 4.9% 1,673,780
First Nations 1.8% 529,040 2.1% 608,850 2.2% 698,025 2.6% 851,560 2.8% 977,230
Métis 0.7% 204,115 1.0% 292,305 1.2% 389,780 1.4% 451,795 1.7% 587,545
Inuit 0.14% 40,220 0.16% 50,485 0.2% 59,445 0.2% 65,025

Note: Inuit, other Aboriginal and mixed Aboriginal groups are not listed as their own, but they are all accounted for in total Aboriginal

By province and territory[edit]

Aboriginal population by province and territory, 2011[34]
Province/territory Not Aboriginal First Nations Métis Inuit Aboriginal, n.i.e. Multiple Aboriginal identities Total Aboriginal population Total population
Alberta[35] 2,690,960 116,670 96,870 1,985 3,300 1,870 220,695 3,567,980
British Columbia[36] 2,911,295 155,020 69,475 1,570 3,745 2,480 232,290 4,324,455
Manitoba[37] 824,830 114,225 78,830 580 1,055 1,200 195,895 1,174,350
New Brunswick[38] 696,080 16,120 4,850 485 1,020 150 22,620 735,835
Newfoundland and Labrador[39] 464,540 19,315 7,660 6,265 2,300 260 35,800 507,270
Northwest Territories[40] 16,920 13,350 3,250 4,335 185 45 21,160 40,800
Nova Scotia[41] 825,055 21,895 10,050 695 980 225 33,850 906,175
Nunavut[42] 3,825 125 130 27,070 15 20 27,365 31,700
Ontario[43] 9,070,800 201,100 86,020 3,355 8,040 2,910 301,430 12,651,795
Prince Edward Island[44] 130,890 1,520 410 55 235 0 2,230 137,380
Quebec[45] 6,740,375 82,425 40,960 12,570 4,415 1,545 141,915 7,732,525
Saskatchewan[46] 787,745 103,205 52,450 290 1,120 675 157,740 1,008,760
Yukon[47] 23,590 6,585 845 175 70 25 7,705 33,320
Canada[48] 25,186,890 851,560 451,795 59,440 26,475 11,415 1,400,685 32,852,325

All statistics are from the Canada 2011 Census.

By city over 100,000[edit]

Aboriginal population in Canadian cities over 100,000 people, 2011[34]
City Population European Total Aboriginal First Nations Métis
Toronto 2,576,025 50.2% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2%
Montreal 1,612,640 67.7% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2%
Calgary 1,082,235 67.3% 2.7% 1.2% 1.4%
Ottawa 867,090 74.2% 2.1% 1.2% 0.7%
Edmonton 795,675 64.7% 5.3% 2.4% 2.7%
Mississauga 708,725 45.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1%
Winnipeg 649,995 66.9% 11.7% 5.9% 6.3%
Vancouver 590,210 46.2% 2.0% 1.3% 0.6%
Brampton 521,315 32.9% 0.7% 0.4% 0.2%
Hamilton 509,640 82.3% 2.0% 1.6% 0.3%
Quebec City 502,595 95.0% 0.9% 0.5% 0.4%
Surrey 463,340 44.5% 2.9% 1.9% 1.0%
Laval 392,725 78.7% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2%
Halifax 384,330 88.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8%
London 360,715 82.0% 1.9% 1.4% 0.4%
Markham 300,135 27.5% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
Vaughan 286,305 68.4% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%
Gatineau 261,665 86.2% 3.5% 1.8% 1.5%
Longueuil 227,970 84.8% 1.0% 0.6% 0.0%
Burnaby 220,255 39.1% 1.5% 0.9% 0.5%
Saskatoon 218,315 77.4% 10.2% 4.9% 4.6%
Kitchener 215,950 80.1% 1.5% 0.9% 0.5%
Windsor 208,015 74.8% 2.3% 1.3% 0.9%
Regina 189,740 78.6% 9.9% 5.8% 3.9%
Richmond 189,305 28.6% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
Richmond Hill 184,370 46.9% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%
Oakville 180,430 77.2% 0.6% 0.4% 0.2%
Burlington 173,495 87.1% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
Greater Sudbury 157,765 89.1% 8.2% 3.8% 4.1%
Sherbrooke 150,255 93.6% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
Oshawa 147,680 88.7% 2.0% 1.2% 0.8%
Saguenay 141,335 96.6% 2.5% 0.8% 1.6%
Lévis 135,835 98.0% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2%
Barrie 133,240 89.8% 2.6% 1.4% 1.2%
Abbotsford 130,950 66.5% 4.0% 2.5% 1.6%
St. Catharines 128,770 88.3% 1.9% 1.2% 0.6%
Trois-Rivières 126,980 96.3% 1.1% 0.6% 0.4%
Cambridge 125,060 85.4% 2.0% 1.2% 0.6%
Coquitlam 125,015 54.1% 2.1% 1.1% 0.9%
Kingston 118,930 89.7% 2.9% 2.0% 0.8%
Whitby 120,285 79.5% 1.2% 0.7% 0.4%
Guelph 120,550 82.7% 1.6% 1.0% 0.6%
Kelowna 114,570 87.9% 4.5% 2.1% 2.3%
Saanich 107,855 79.3% 2.7% 1.5% 1.1%
Ajax 109,220 53.2% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
Thunder Bay 105,950 87.1% 9.5% 7.3% 2.0%
Terrebonne 105,610 91.7% 0.7% 0.5% 0.1%
St. John's 103,905 93.3% 2.6% 1.2% 0.8%
Langley 103,145 83.2% 3.4% 1.6% 1.7%
Chatham-Kent 101,680 93.2% 2.9% 1.7% 0.9%

Languages[edit]

Languages in Canada
Language Percent
English
58%
French
22%
English and French
11%
others
9%

Language used most often at work:[50]

Languages by language used most often at home:[51]

Languages by mother tongue:

First language Population (2016) % of total population (2016) Population (2011) % of total population (2011) Population (2006) % of total population (2006) Notes
Single language responses 33,947,610 97.64% 32,481,635 98.07% 30,848,270 98.74%
Official languages 26,627,545 76.59% 25,913,955 78.24% 24,700,425 79.06%
English 19,460,855 55.97% 18,858,980 56.94% 17,882,775 57.24%
French 7,166,700 20.61% 7,054,975 21.3% 6,817,650 21.82%
Non-official languages 7,321,070 21.06% 6,567,680 19.83% 6,147,840 19.68%
Combined Chinese Responses 1,227,680 3.53% n/a n/a n/a n/a Combined responses of Mandarin, Cantonese, Chinese n.o.s. and Min Nan
Mandarin (Standard Chinese) 592,035 1.7% 248,705 0.75% 170,950 0.55%
Cantonese 565,275 1.63% 372,460 1.12% 361,450 1.16%
Punjabi 501,680 1.44% 430,705 1.3% 367,505 1.18%
Spanish 458,850 1.32% 410,670 1.24% 345,345 1.11%
Tagalog (Filipino) 431,385 1.24% 327,445 0.99% 235,615 0.75%
Arabic 419,895 1.21% 327,870 0.99% 261,640 0.84%
German 384,040 1.1% 409,200 1.24% 450,570 1.44%
Italian 375,645 1.08% 407,485 1.23% 455,040 1.46%
Portuguese 221,535 0.64% 211,335 0.64% 219,275 0.7%
Persian (Farsi) 214,200 0.62% 170,045 0.51% 134,080 0.43%
Urdu 210,820 0.61% 172,800 0.52% 145,805 0.47%
Russian 188,255 0.54% 164,330 0.5% 133,580 0.43%
Polish 181,705 0.52% 191,645 0.58% 211,175 0.68%
Vietnamese 156,430 0.45% 144,880 0.44% 141,625 0.45%
Korean 153,425 0.44% 137,925 0.42% 125,570 0.4%
Tamil 140,720 0.4% 131,265 0.4% 115,880 0.37% Most of the Canadian Tamils live in Toronto.
Ukrainian 102,485 0.29% 111,540 0.34% 134,500 0.43%
Dutch 99,015 0.28% 110,490 0.33% 128,900 0.41%
Greek 106,520 0.31% 108,925 0.33% 117,285 0.38%
Gujarati 108,775 0.31% 91,450 0.28% 81,465 0.26%
Hindi 110,645 0.32% 90,545 0.27% 78,240 0.25%
Romanian 96,660 0.28% 90,300 0.27% 78,495 0.25%
Cree, n.o.s.[nb 1] 64,045 0.18% 77,900 0.24% 78,855 0.25% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to simply as 'Cree'.
Hungarian 61,235 0.18% 67,920 0.21% 73,335 0.23% The majority of Hungarian speakers in Canada live in Ontario. A community of Hungarian speakers is found within a part of Windsor, Ontario.
Creoles 72,130 0.21% 61,725 0.19% 53,515 0.17%
Bengali 73,125 0.21% 59,370 0.18% 45,685 0.15%
Berber languages (Kabyle) n/a n/a 57,855 0.17% 25,578 0.08%
Serbian 57,345 0.16% 56,420 0.17% 51,665 0.17%
Croatian 48,200 0.14% 49,730 0.15% 55,330 0.18%
Japanese 43,640 0.13% 39,985 0.12% 40,200 0.13%
Chinese, n.o.s.[nb 1] 38,575 0.11% 425,210 1.28% 456,705 1.46%
Inuktitut 35,215 0.1% 33,500 0.1% 32,015 0.1% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Inuktitut, n.i.e.'.[nb 2]
Somali 36,760 0.11% 31,380 0.09% 27,320 0.09%
Armenian 33,455 0.1% 29,795 0.09% 30,130 0.1%
Turkish 32,815 0.09% 29,640 0.09% 24,745 0.08%
Albanian 26,895 0.08% 23,820 0.07% n/a n/a
Czech 22,295 0.06% 23,585 0.07% 24,450 0.08%
Khmer (Cambodian) 20,130 0.06% 19,440 0.06% 19,105 0.06%
Bulgarian 20,020 0.06% 19,050 0.06% 16,790 0.05%
Hebrew 19,530 0.06% 18,450 0.06% 17,635 0.06%
Amharic 22,465 0.06% 18,020 0.05% 14,555 0.05%
Ilocano 26,345 0.08% 17,915 0.05% 13,450 0.04%
Ojibway 17,885 0.05% 17,625 0.05% 24,190 0.08%
Slovak 17,585 0.05% 17,580 0.05% 18,820 0.06%
Finnish 15,295 0.04% 17,415 0.05% 21,030 0.07%
Macedonian 16,770 0.05% 17,245 0.05% 18,435 0.06%
Semitic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 2,155 0.01% 16,970 0.05% n/a n/a
Bisayan languages n/a n/a 16,240 0.05% 11,240 0.04%
Malayalam 28,570 0.08% 16,080 0.05% 11,925 0.04%
Yiddish 13,555 0.04% 15,205 0.05% 16,295 0.05%
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 16,335 0.05% 14,185 0.04% 10,180 0.03%
Danish 12,630 0.04% 14,145 0.04% 18,735 0.06%
Niger–Congo languages, n.i.e.[nb 1] 19,140 0.06% 14,075 0.04% n/a n/a
Lao 12,670 0.04% 12,970 0.04% 13,940 0.04%
Akan (Twi) 13,460 0.04% 12,680 0.04% 12,780 0.04%
Pashto 16,910 0.05% 12,465 0.04% 9,025 0.03%
Bosnian 12,210 0.04% 11,685 0.04% 12,790 0.04%
Sindhi 11,860 0.03% 11,330 0.03% 10,355 0.03%
Dene 10,700 0.03% 11,215 0.03% 9,745 0.03%
Oromo 4,960 0.01% 11,140 0.03% n/a n/a
Malay 12,275 0.04% 10,910 0.03% 9,490 0.03%
Montagnais (Innu) 10,230 0.03% 10,785 0.03% 10,975 0.04% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Montagnais-Naskapi'.
Slovenian 9,785 0.03% 10,775 0.03% 13,135 0.04%
Tigrigna 16,650 0.05% 10,220 0.03% 7,105 0.02%
Serbo-Croatian 9,555 0.03% 10,155 0.03% 12,510 0.04%
Swahili 13,375 0.04% 10,090 0.03% 7,935 0.03%
Oji-Cree 12,855 0.04% 9,835 0.03% 11,690 0.04%
Kurdish 11,705 0.03% 9,805 0.03% 7,660 0.02%
Taiwanese n/a n/a 9,635 0.03% 9,620 0.03%
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese) 31,795 0.09% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Telugu 15,655 0.05% 9,315 0.03% 6,625 0.02%
African languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 9,125 0.03% n/a n/a
Afrikaans 10,260 0.03% 8,770 0.03% n/a n/a
Nepali 18,275 0.05% 8,480 0.03% n/a n/a
Thai 9,255 0.03% 7,935 0.02% n/a n/a
Mi'kmaq 6,690 0.02% 7,635 0.02% 7,365 0.02%
Swedish 6,840 0.02% 7,350 0.02% 8,220 0.03%
Lithuanian 7,075 0.02% 7,245 0.02% 8,335 0.03%
Bantu languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 7,150 0.02% n/a n/a
Estonian 5,445 0.02% 6,385 0.02% 8,240 0.03%
Maltese 5,565 0.02% 6,220 0.02% 6,405 0.02%
Latvian 5,455 0.02% 6,200 0.02% 7,000 0.02%
Canadian Gaelic n/a n/a 6,015 0.02% 6,015 0.02%
Scottish Gaelic 1,095 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Welsh 1,075 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Celtic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 530 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Fukien (Fuzhou dialect) n/a n/a 5,925 0.02% n/a n/a
Marathi 8,295 0.02% 5,830 0.02% n/a n/a
Atikamekw 6,150 0.02% 5,820 0.02% 5,250 0.02%
Norwegian 4,615 0.01% 5,800 0.02% 7,225 0.02%
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 5,180 0.01% 5,255 0.02% n/a n/a
Hakka 10,910 0.03% 5,115 0.02% n/a n/a
Vlaams (Flemish) 3,895 0.01% 4,690 0.01% 5,660 0.02%
Tibetan languages n/a n/a 4,640 0.01% n/a n/a
Tibetan 6,165 0.02% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 4,360 0.01% n/a n/a
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 1,405 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Rundi (Kirundi) 5,845 0.02% 3,975 0.01% n/a n/a
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) 5,250 0.02% 3,895 0.01% n/a n/a
Sign languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 4,125 0.01% 3,815 0.01% n/a n/a
Slavic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 2,420 0.01% 3,630 0.01% n/a n/a
Lingala 3,810 0.01% 3,085 0.01% n/a n/a
Stoney 3,025 0.01% 3,050 0.01% n/a n/a
Burmese 3,585 0.01% 2,985 0.01% n/a n/a
Shanghainese n/a n/a 2,920 0.01% n/a n/a
Wu (Shanghainese) 12,920 0.04% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) 1,265 <0.01% n/a n/a 5,585 0.02%
Blackfoot 2,815 <0.01% n/a n/a 3,085 0.01%
Frisian 2,095 <0.01% n/a n/a 2,890 0.01%
Dogrib (Tlicho) 1,645 <0.01% n/a n/a 2,020 0.01%
Algonquin 1,260 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,920 0.01%
South Slavey 950 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,605 0.01%
Carrier 1,030 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,560 <0.01%
Gitxsan (Gitksan) 880 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,180 <0.01%
Chilcotin 655 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,070 <0.01%
North Slave (Hare) 765 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,065 <0.01%
Shuswap (Secwepemctsin) 445 <0.01% n/a n/a 935 <0.01%
Nisga'a 400 <0.01% n/a n/a 680 <0.01%
Malecite 300 <0.01% n/a n/a 535 <0.01%
Chipewyan n/a n/a n/a n/a 525 <0.01%
Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun) 1,020 <0.01% n/a n/a 365 <0.01%
Kutchin-Gwich’in (Loucheux) 260 <0.01% n/a n/a 360 <0.01%
Mohawk 985 <0.01% n/a n/a 290 <0.01%
Michif 465 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Tlingit 95 <0.01% n/a n/a 80 <0.01%
Other languages n/a n/a 77,890 0.2% 172,650 0.55%
Multiple language responses 818,640 2.35% 639,540 1.9% 392,760 1.26%
English and French 165,335 0.48% 144,685 0.4% 98,630 0.32%
English and a non-official language 533,260 1.53% 396,330 1.2% 240,005 0.77%
French and a non-official language 86,145 0.25% 74,430 0.2% 43,335 0.14%
English, French, and a non-official language 33,900 0.1% 24,095 0.07% 10,790 0.03%
Total[52][53][54] 34,767,250 100% 33,121,175 100% 31,241,030 100%
  1. ^ a b c n.o.s. – not otherwise specified
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j n.i.e. – not included elsewhere

Religion[edit]

Statistics Canada (StatCan) grouped responses to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) question on religion into nine core religious categories – Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality, other religions and no religious affiliation.[55] Among these, 67% of Canadians were self-identified as Christians in 2011.[56] The second, third, and fourth-largest categories were of Canadians with no religious affiliation at 24%, Canadian Muslims at 3%, and Canadian Hindus at 2%.[56]

Within the 2011 NHS results, StatCan further subcategorized Christianity in nine groups of its own – Anglican, Baptist, Catholic, Christian Orthodox, Lutheran, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, United Church and Other Christian.[55] Among these, 39% of Canadians were self-identified as Catholic in 2011.[56] The second and third-largest ungrouped subcategories of Christian Canadians were United at 6% and Anglican at 5%, while 9% of Christians were grouped into the Other Christian subcategory comprising numerous denominations.[56]

Of the 3,036,785 or 5% of Canadians identified as Other Christians:[56]

Religion status of the Canadian Population in 2011[56]
Religion Total Percent
Buddhist 366,830 1%
Christian 22,102,745 67%
   Anglican 1,631,845 5%
   Baptist 635,840 2%
   Roman Catholic 12,810,705 39%
   Christian Orthodox 550,690 2%
   Lutheran 478,185 1%
   Pentecostal 478,705 1%
   Presbyterian 472,385 1%
   United Church 2,007,610 6%
   Other Christian 3,036,785 9%
Hindu 497,960 1.5%
Jewish 329,500 1%
Muslim 1,053,945 3%
Sikh 454,965 1%
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 64,940 0%
Other religions 130,835 0%
No religious affiliation 7,850,605 24%

See also[edit]

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.
  2. ^ All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.
    Source 1: Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million 'Canadian'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Retrieved March 7, 2011. 
    Source 2: Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2. 
  3. ^ The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit and Métis).
    Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. March 20, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  2. ^ "CANSIM Table 051-0005, Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories, quarterly (persons)". Statistics Canada. December 18, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ "2011 Census Profile". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  4. ^ "Environment — Greenhouse Gases (Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Person)". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Statistics Canada (2011). "Population data 2011 Census". Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  6. ^ Statistics Canada (2005). "Land and freshwater area, by province and territory (2005)". Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  7. ^ "Census Profile". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  8. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 (pdf pages 83–85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved 2011-06-18. 
  9. ^ "Fertility: Fewer children, older moms", Statistics Canada, July 17, 2018 
  10. ^ a b Jacques Henripin (1972), Trends and Factors of Fertility in Canada (PDF), Ottawa: Statistics Canada, p. 30, 33 
  11. ^ a b c "Life expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2018-08-28. 
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15. 
  13. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: the Americas, 1750-2000.
  14. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  15. ^ Statistics Canada
  16. ^ a b "The World FactBook - Canada", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 
  17. ^ "Estimates of births, deaths and marriages, Canada, provinces and territories quarterly (number)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2018. 
  18. ^ "Population Projections for Canada - Components of population growth, high-growth scenario - 2009/2010 to 2060/2061" (PDF). Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 91-520. 2006. Retrieved September 8, 2013. 
  19. ^ "International Programs – U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-01-22. 
  20. ^ "Census Profile: Canada (Country)". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "Canada Population 2018", World Population Review 
  22. ^ Statistics Canada (2011). "Population by broad age groups and sex, including median age, 1921 to 2011 for both sex (2011 Census)". Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  23. ^ World Health Organization
  24. ^ https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/91-551-x/91-551-x2017001-eng.htm
  25. ^ https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/91-551-x/2017001/tbl/tbl_05-eng.htm
  26. ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca. 
  27. ^ Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Select a geography
  28. ^ a b Statistics Canada, Population by Aboriginal Groups and Sex, Showing Age Groups, for Canada, 1996 Census (20% Sample Data)
  29. ^ Statistics Canada, Total Population by Visible Minority Population, for Canada, 1996 Census (20% Sample Data)
  30. ^ a b Statistics Canada, Community Highlights for Canada
  31. ^ a b Statistics Canada, 2006 Community Profiles: Canada (Country)
  32. ^ a b Statistics Canada, NHS Profile, Canada, 2011
  33. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018. 
  34. ^ a b c d Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Census Program". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  35. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  36. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  37. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  38. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  39. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  40. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  41. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  42. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  43. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  44. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  45. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  46. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  47. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  48. ^ a b Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  49. ^ Data tables, 2016 Census Aboriginal Identity
  50. ^ Statistics Canada – Language used at work1 by frequency of language used at work and mother tongue, 2006 counts
  51. ^ The percentage figures cited are the top languages spoken as a home language in Canada, shown as a percentage of total single responses. Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship. Ottawa, 2007, pp. 6–10. Data available online at: "Detailed Language Spoken Most Often at Home". 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations. Statistics Canada. April 8, 2008. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada". Statistics Canada. August 2, 2017. 
  53. ^ Census Profile – Province/Territory, Note 20
  54. ^ Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages, 2006 Census of Canada Archived July 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ a b "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011". Statistics Canada. November 27, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f "Tabulation: Religion (108), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". Statistics Canada. January 7, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]