Demographics of Cleveland

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The city of Cleveland, in the U.S. state of Ohio, was estimated in 2011 by the U.S. Census Bureau to have 393,806 residents.


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 2011393,800[1][2]−0.8%

As of the 2010 Census, there were 396,815 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city of Cleveland (roughly a population comparable to that of Wellington and Zurich, while at the same time still on the high scale of cities such as Zurich, Helsinki, and Stuttgart).[5][6] The population density was 5,113/sq mi (1,974/km2). During the day, incoming commuters increase Cleveland's population by over 380,000 people. This makes the city's daytime population rise from about 396,000 to over 776,000.[7]

According to the 2010 census, Cleveland had a population of 396,815 and the racial and ethnic composition was as follows:[8]

Amongst the city's white population, 9.9% were of German, 8.1% Irish, 5.0% Italian, 4.3% Polish, 2.8% English, 1.6% Slovak, and 1.5% Hungarian ancestry according to Census 2010. 8,796 Clevelanders were born in Europe.[9]

88.3% spoke English, 6.5% Spanish, 0.5% Polish, and 0.5% French as their first language.[10] Cleveland, home to 480 Slovene speakers, is the largest of any city in the nation.[11]

According to 2010 Census, there were 167,490 households in Cleveland, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.2 people per square mile (2,380.9/km²). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km²). 53.6% were family households and 46.4% were non family households. A total of 25.2% of households had children under 18 years, and 10.7% had someone over the age of 65. The average household size was 2.29, while the average family size was 3.11 [12]

In the city the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.7 years. Females comprised 52.0% of the population and males accounted for 48.0%.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,349, and the median income for a family was $31,182. The per capita income for the city was $16,302. 31.0% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 13.1% held a bachelor's degree or higher, and 75.7% had a high school diploma or equivalent.[13]

Areas of Concentration[edit]

Over the years an increasing percentage of the city’s population has been non-white. In 1990 just over half of Cleveland’s residents were non-whites. During the 1990s that number grew to 61.2 percent with the proportion of African-Americans and Hispanics increasing the most. The segregation of African Americans from whites and of African-Americans from Hispanics exceeds the averages for many large cities. Cleveland’s African-American population is concentrated on the east side of the city and in the near eastern suburbs. Hispanics are concentrated in the city’s west side neighborhoods. At the neighborhood level, increases and decreases in net migration by race varied widely between 1990 and 2000. Some areas, like the Broadway and Collinwood neighborhoods, have seen a significant change in their racial makeup since 1990.

Cleveland also has one of the lowest foreign-born populations in the nation. Even within the Cleveland area, many neighboring communities boast of higher foreign-born population than the city of Cleveland. Many new immigrants, when they enter the country, bypass the central city and move directly to the suburbs. For example; as of 2011 estimate, Cleveland has a foreign born population of 4.7% while higher than nearby Akron (4.2%), and Lorain (3.0%), is lower than Cleveland Heights' (8.8%), Westlake (11.9%), and Solon (12.6%).[14] In Cleveland most of the foreign-born are of European or Asian descent.[15]

The city’s African-American population increased from 235,405 in 1990 to 246,242 in 2000, but has since declined to 211,672 (53.3%) in 2010 and further decrease estimate in 2011 to 203,289 (51.6%). While the White (including Non-Hispanic Whites) has gradually begun to increase in the city of Cleveland again, from 147,929 (132,710 Non-Hispanic), in 2010 to 162,831 (138,346). A percentage increase of from 37.3% (33.4%) to 41.3% (35.1%).[16]

Non-hispanic whites[edit]

Whites are about 33 percent of Cleveland's population. Most live in areas in the West side of Cleveland, with areas further away from downtown and close to Lakewood and Parma being near exclusively white. Downtown Cleveland and Little Italy on the East side also have large white populations. There is a large ethnic European population in Cleveland, most of which assimilated into mainstream white America.

African Americans[edit]

Blacks are about 52 percent of Cleveland. Most live in areas in the Eastside of Cleveland. Areas immediately south and west of downtown also have notable black populations. There is also a small West Indian population.

Hispanics/Puerto Ricans[edit]

Hispanics are about 10 percent of Cleveland. The Clark-Fulton neighborhood has the highest concentration of Hispanics in the city. Though, other neighborhoods immediately west and south of downtown, such as Tremont, Ohio City, and Broadway, also have significant Hispanic populations. The vast majority of Hispanics in Cleveland are of Puerto Rican descent.

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ United States Census Bureau (June 2012). "2011 Cuyahoga County Population Estimates". Cuyahoga County Planning Commission. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  3. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  4. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Census Summary File 2". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  5. ^ Global MetroMonitor | Brookings Institution Archived 2013-06-04 at WebCite
  6. ^ GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2010 Archived October 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-05. Retrieved 2012-02-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)[not in citation given]
  9. ^ Cities with the Most People Born in Europe
  10. ^ Data Center Results
  11. ^
  12. ^[not in citation given]
  13. ^ Cleveland (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau Archived 2014-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2012-11-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Population
  16. ^ American FactFinder - Results

External links[edit]