Demographics of Colombia
|Demographics of Colombia|
|Population||45,500,000 (2018 census)(28th)|
|Density||42.25 inhab/sq km (72nd)|
|Growth rate||1.27% (105th)|
|Birth rate||1234 births/1,000 population (111th)|
|Death rate||5.8/1,000 population (178th)|
|Life expectancy||79 (34th)|
|• male||76 (37th)|
|• female||83 (22nd)|
|Fertility rate||2.00 children/woman (122nd)|
|Net migration rate||-0.65 (2014)|
|65 and over||7.6%|
|Under 15||1.02 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||0.95 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.75 male(s)/female|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Colombia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. It is the second-most populous country in South America after Brazil.
The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Mexico and Brazil. Colombia experienced rapid population growth like most countries, but four decades of an armed conflict pushed millions of Colombians out of the country. However, a rebound economy in the 2000s in urban centres (perhaps the most urbanized Latin American nation) improved the situation of living standards for Colombians in a traditional class stratified economy.
- 1 Census
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Ethnicity
- 4 Languages
- 5 Religion
- 6 Migration
- 7 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|*First census after 35 years|
**First modern census
2018 population census final estimate
Note: Diverse sources Census respective year DANE
Source: DANEDANE Simple
According to the 2005 census, there are 46,219,699 Colombians in the world (42,888,592 living in the national territory and 3,331,107 living abroad). In 2005 there were 3,378,345 Colombians living permanently outside Colombia. More recently, according with MRE estimates this indicator may ascend to 4,700,000 in 2012.
|5||Bogotá, Distrito Capital||—||1,587||6,778,691 (not metropolitan)|
|15||Cundinamarca||Bogotá||24,210||2,228,478 (without Bogotá)|
|17||Guaviare||San José del Guaviare||53,460||81,411|
|23||Norte de Santander||Cúcuta||21,658||1,228,028|
|27||San Andrés and Providencia||San Andrés||52||59,573|
|31||Valle del Cauca||Cali||22,140||4,060,196|
20th and 21st centuries
Colombian census from 1912:
- On 1912 census estimated 5,472,604 inhabitants.
- On 1918 census estimated 5,855,077 inhabitants.
- On 1928 census estimated 7,851,110 inhabitants.
- On 1938 census estimated 8,697,041 inhabitants.
- On 1951 census estimated 12,739,910 inhabitants.
- On 1964 census estimated 18,337,973 inhabitants.
- On 1973 census estimated 23,881,851 inhabitants.
- On 1985 census estimated 31,593,587 inhabitants.
- On 1993 census estimated 37,422,791 inhabitants.
- On 2005 census estimated 42,888,592 inhabitants.
- On 2018 census will estimate inhabitants.
According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 48,653,419 in 2016, compared to only 12,342,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2015 was 24.3%, 68.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 7% was 65 years or older .
Age structure of the population
 Structure of the population (01.07.2013) (Estimates) (Data are revised projections taking into consideration also the results of 2005 census) :
Movement from rural to urban areas was very heavy in the middle of the twentieth century, but has since tapered off. The urban population increased from 31% of the total population in 1938, to 57% in 1951 and about 70% by 1990. Currently the figure is about 77%. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. The nine eastern lowlands departments, constituting about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two people per sq. mi.).
The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.
|Life expectancy |
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
Births and deaths
|Year||Population (x1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase||TFR|
|1998||39,184||720 984||175 363||545 621||18.4||4.5||13.9||2.48|
|1999||39,730||746 194||183 553||562 641||18.8||4.6||14.2||2.43|
|2000||40,295||752 834||187 432||565 402||18.7||4.6||14.1||2.39|
|2001||40,813||724 319||191 513||532 806||17.7||4.7||13.0||2.35|
|2002||41,328||700 455||192 262||508 193||16.9||4.7||12.2||2.31|
|2003||41,848||710 702||192 121||518 581||17.0||4.6||12.4||2.27|
|2004||42,368||723 099||188 933||534 166||17.1||4.5||12.6||2.24|
|2005||42,888||719 968||189 022||530 946||16.8||4.4||12.4||2.20|
|2006||43,405||714 450||192 814||521 636||16.5||4.4||12.1||2.16|
|2007||43,926||709 253||193 936||515 317||16.1||4.4||11.7||2.12|
|2008||44,451||715 453||196 394||519 059||16.1||4.4||11.7||2.08|
|2009||44,978||699 775||196 933||502 842||15.6||4.4||11.2||2.04|
|2010||45,509||654 627||200 524||454 103||14.4||4.4||10.0||2.01|
|2011||46,044||665 499||195 823||469 676||14.5||4.3||10.2||1.98|
|2012||46,581||676 815||199 756||477 059||14.5||4.3||10.2||1.95|
|2013||47,121||658 835||203 071||455 764||14.0||4.3||9.7||1.92|
|2014||47,661||669 137||210 051||459 086||14.0||4.4||9.6||1.90|
|2015||48,203||660 999||219 472||441 527||13.7||4.6||9.1||1.87|
|2016||48,747||647 521||223 078||424 443||13.3||4.6||8.7||1.85|
|2017||49,291||656 704||227 624||429 060||13.3||4.5||8.8|
|2018||45,500||637 669||228 156||409 513||14.0||5.0||9.0|
Current vital statistics
- Number of births from January-September 2017 = 479,343
- Number of births from January-September 2018 = 469,146
- Number of deaths from January-September 2017 = 146,388
- Number of deaths from January-September 2018 = 169,601
- Natural growth from January-September 2017 = 332,955
- Natural growth from January-September 2018 = 299,545
Fertility and births
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):
|Year||CBR (Total)||TFR (Total)||CBR (Urban)||TFR (Urban)||CBR (Rural)||TFR (Rural)|
|1986||3.34 (2.81)||2.76 (2.42)||4.88 (3.87)|
|1990||26.1||2.9 (2.2)||25.7||2.5 (2.1)||27.0||3.8 (2.7)|
|1995||26||3.0 (2.2)||25||2.5 (1.9)||30||4.3 (2.8)|
|2000||22.7||2.6 (1.8)||21.6||2.3 (1.7)||25.6||3.8 (2.3)|
|2005||20.4||2.4 (1.7)||19.0||2.1 (1.5)||24.3||3.4 (2.1)|
|2010||18||2.1 (1.6)||17||2.0 (1.5)||20||2.8 (1.9)|
|2015||16.4||2.0 (1.6)||15.7||1.8 (1.5)||18.5||2.6 (1.9)|
Total fertility rate by departments
|Departament||TFR 2010||TFR 2015 |
|Norte de Santander||2.4||2.2|
|San Andrés y Providencia||2.1||2.0|
|Valle del Cauca||1.7||1.6|
Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage. The demographic distribution reflects a pattern that is influenced by colonial history. Whites tend to live mainly in urban centers, like Bogotá, Medellín or Cali, and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos (people living in rural areas) also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms. Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades.
The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the national population. 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3.4% of the population. Less than 0.01% of the population is Roma. An extraofficial estimate considers that the 49% of the Colombian population is Mestizo or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry, and that approximately 37% is White, mainly of Spanish lineage, but there is also a large population of Middle East descent; among the upper class there is a considerable input of Italian and German ancestry.
Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty distinct cultures. Reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 30,571,640 hectares (305,716.4 km2) (27% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people. Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu, the Paez, the Pastos, the Emberá and the Zenú. The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre have the largest indigenous populations.
The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia. In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.
Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black. British and Jamaicans migrated mainly to the islands of San Andres and Providencia. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War.
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese, Palestinian, Phoenician and other Middle Easterners. There are also important communities of Chinese, Japanese, Romanis and Jews. There is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political crisis and economic collapse in Venezuela. 
Spanish (of which Colombia has the third-largest population of speakers in the world after Mexico and the United States) is the official language, and there are small communities in urban areas speaking other European languages such as German, French, English, Italian and Portuguese. There are 65 indigenous languages and two Creole languages, one creole in San Basilio de Palenque and one in San Andrés; and also San Andrés is the only place of Colombia where are three official languages: Spanish, English and a creole language.
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies and a survey, about 90% of the population adheres to Christianity, the majority of which (70.9%) are Roman Catholic, while a significant minority (16.7%) adhere to Protestantism (primarily Evangelicalism). Some 4.7% of the population is atheist or agnostic, while 3.5% claim to believe in God but do not follow a specific religion. 1.8% of Colombians adhere to Jehovah's Witnesses and Adventism and less than 1% adhere to other religions, such as Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Mormonism, Hinduism, Indigenous religions, Hare Krishna movement, Rastafari movement, Orthodox Catholic Church, and spiritual studies. The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. In addition to the above statistics, 35.9% of Colombians reported that they did not practice their faith actively.
While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law.
Historically, a sizable percentage of Colombian emigration has also been motivated by the need to escape from political persecution and bipartisan violence during the periods of "La Violencia" (1948–1958), and later due to the effects of the nation's current conflict (since 1964). This has resulted in numerous applications for political asylum abroad.
Colombians have emigrated in comparably high rates to the United States. Other Colombians migrated to Canada and Europe (most to Spain, but also to France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden). Among other locations.
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Today millions of Colombians have returned to their country due to improvements in security, Colombia is now a country on the road to recovery. Colombia is creating an economy that is today considered attractive and prosperous by many national and international investors. There are policies of the Colombian Government to help Colombians with housing loans. There is a support system for returning migrants. Certificates of competency are issued and there is a free employment service to help people find job.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
48,637,910 (May, 2016 est.)
total: 27.7 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 28.6 years (2010 est.)
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate
0.7% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS
170,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths
9,800 (2007 est.)
noun: Colombia adjective: Colombian(s)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.4%
female: 93.7% (2005 census)
- "Animated clock". Colombian State Department. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Rank Order – Net migration rate". CIA. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- "Colombianos en el Exterior" (PDF). Cancilleria.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- "La historia del censo en Colombia" Archived 5 December 2012 at Archive.today. Caracol. 28 September 2005. Consulted 16 April 2012.
- "Censo nacional: Prepárese para el censo de población y vivienda". Caracol Radio. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE)". Dane.gov.co. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Nacimientos y Defunciones". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística - DANE. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Ministerio de Salud y Profamilia entregan resultados de la ENDS 2015". Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud -ENDS- 2015" (PDF). Profamilia.org.co. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "South America :: COLOMBIA". CIA The World Factbook.
- "The ethnic and cultural diversity of Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). pedagogica.edu.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Bushnell & Hudson, pp. 87–88.
- Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: pp. 87, 92. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
- "Society and slavery" (in Spanish). colombia.com. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Resguardos indígenas – Concentra el 43% de los bosques naturales" (in Spanish). siac.gov.co. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Hostein, N. (2010). El pueblo wayuu de la Guajira colombo-venezolana: un panorama de su cultura. Cuadernos de Antropología, 20(1)". Revistas.ucr.ac.cr. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Los pueblos indígenas de Colombia en el umbral del nuevo milenio. Población, cultura y territorio: bases para el fortalecimiento social y económico de los pueblos indígenas". dnp.gov.co. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Ratifications for Colombia". ilo.org. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Ethnic groups in Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). dane.gov.co. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Luis Álvaro Gallo Martínez (2011). "Inmigrantes a Colombia: Personajes extranjeros llegados a Colombia" (PDF). rodriguezuribe.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015.
- Wabgou, M., Vargas, D. & Carabalí, J. A. (2012). "Las migraciones internacionales en Colombia. Investigación & Desarrollo, 20(1) 142–167". Rcientificas.ninorte.edu.co.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Vargas Arana, Pilar, and Luz Marina Suaza Vargas. "Los árabes en Colombia: Del rechazo a la integración." (2007).
- "The Arab immigration to Colombia" (in Spanish). nodo50.org. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Características de los migrantes de Venezuela a Colombia" (PDF). Labourosario.com (in Spanish). 14 August 2017.
- "Religion in Latin America, Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region". pewforum.org. Pew Research Center. 13 November 2014.
- Beltrán Cely; William Mauricio (2013). "Del monopolio católico a la explosión pentecostal'" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Centro de Estudios Sociales (CES), Maestría en Sociología. ISBN 978-958-761-465-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Beltrán Cely; William Mauricio. "Descripción cuantitativa de la pluralización religiosa en Colombia" (PDF). Universitas humanística 73 (2012): 201–238. – bdigital.unal.edu.co. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Concerning rights, guarantees, and duties – Chapter I – Concerning fundamental rights – Article 19)
- "Can Young People Rebuild Colombia's Social Capital?". theglobalist.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Opportunities for Colombians who are returning to the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Colombia provides opportunities for the development of its citizens in the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Entrepreneurship and employment programme for those who return to the country" (in Spanish). elempleo.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".