Demographics of Colombia

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Demographics of Colombia
Colombia
Tota Lake
Population 48,301,354 (at 2015)(28th) [1]
Density 42.25 inhab/sq km (72th)
Growth rate Increase 1.27% (105rd)
Birth rate 18.9 births/1,000 population (111th)
Death rate 5.8/1,000 population (178th)
Life expectancy 79 (34th)
 • male 76 (37th)
 • female 83 (22th)
Fertility rate 2.30 children/woman (103rd)
Net migration rate Decrease-0.65 (2014)[2]
Age structure
0–14 years 26.7%
15–64 years 65.6%
65 and over 7.6%
Sex ratio
Total 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.95 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.75 male(s)/female
Language
Spoken Spanish

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Colombia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Mexico and Brazil. Colombia experienced rapid population growth like most countries, but four decades of an armed conflict pushed millions of Colombians out of the country. However, a rebound economy in the 2000s in urban centres (perhaps the most urbanized Latin American nation) improved the situation of living standards for Colombians in a traditional class stratified economy. In the years following 2002 the safety has been improving throughout the country. Young citizens now invest in education so they can stay and contribute to the country's future. Today the country has lots of economic potential.[3]

Census[edit]

Population census
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1864 1,694,487 —    
1870 2,681,637 +7.95%
1905* 4,533,777 +1.51%
1912 5,472,604 +2.73%
1918 5,855,077 +1.13%
1928 7,851,110 +2.98%
1938** 8,701,816 +1.03%
1951 11,228,509 +1.98%
1964 17,848,508 +3.63%
1973 20,666,920 +1.64%
1985 27,867,326 +2.52%
1993 33,109,840 +2.18%
2005 41,489,253 +1.90%
2015 49,561,105 +1.79%
Note: Diverse sources Census respective year DANE *First census after 35 years **First modern census
Source: DANEDANE Simple
The population density of Colombia. Red showing concentration of population.
Demographics of Colombia, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

2005 Census[edit]

According to the 2005 census, there are 46,219,699 Colombians in the world (42,888,592 living in the national territory and 3,331,107 living abroad). On 2005 there was 3,378,345 colombians living permanently on exterior. More recently, according with MRE estimates this indicator may ascends to 4,700,000 on 2012.[4]

# Department Capital Area Population
1 Amazonas Leticia 109,665 km² 56,036
2 Antioquia Medellín 63,612 km² 5,671,689
3 Arauca Arauca 23,818 km² 208,605
4 Atlántico Barranquilla 3,388 km² 2,112,128
5 Bogotá, Distrito Capital Bogotá 1,587 km² 6,778,691 (not metropolitan)
6 Bolívar Cartagena 25,978 km² 1,860,445
7 Boyacá Tunja 23,189 km² 1,211,186
8 Caldas Manizales 7,888 km² 908,841
9 Caquetá Florencia 88,965 km² 404,896
10 Casanare Yopal 44,640 km² 282,452
11 Cauca Popayán 29,308 km² 1,244,886
12 Cesar Valledupar 22,905 km² 879,914
13 Chocó Quibdó 46,530 km² 441,395
14 Córdoba Montería 25,020 km² 1,472,699
15 Cundinamarca Bogotá 24,210 km² 2,228,478 (without Bogotá)
16 Guainía Inirida 72,238 km² 30,232
17 Guaviare San José del Guaviare 53,460 km² 81,411
18 Huila Neiva 19,890 km² 1,006,797
19 La Guajira Riohacha 20,848 km² 623,250
20 Magdalena Santa Marta 23,188 km² 1,136,901
21 Meta Villavicencio 85,635 km² 789,276
22 Nariño Pasto 33,268 km² 1,531,777
23 Norte de Santander Cúcuta 21,658 km² 1,228,028
24 Putumayo Mocoa 24,885 km² 299,286
25 Quindío Armenia 1,845 km² 518,691
26 Risaralda Pereira 4,140 km² 863,663
27 San Andrés and Providencia San Andrés 52 km² 59,573
28 Santander Bucaramanga 30,537 km² 1,916,336
29 Sucre Sincelejo 10,670 km² 765,285
30 Tolima Ibagué 23,562 km² 1,335,177
31 Valle del Cauca Cali 22,140 km² 4,060,196
32 Vaupés Mitú 54,135 km² 27,124
33 Vichada Puerto Carreño 100,242 km² 55,158
Total 1,141,748 km² 42,888,592

Siglos XX y XXI[edit]

Colombian census from 1912:[5]

  • On 1912 census estimated 5,472,604 inhabitants.
  • On 1918 census estimated 5,855,077 inhabitants.
  • On 1928 census estimated 7,851,110 inhabitants.
  • On 1938 census estimated 8,697,041 inhabitants.
  • On 1951 census estimated 12,739,910 inhabitants.
  • On 1964 census estimated 18,337,973 inhabitants.
  • On 1973 census estimated 23,881,851 inhabitants.
  • On 1985 census estimated 31,593,587 inhabitants.
  • On 1993 census estimated 37,422,791 inhabitants.
  • On 2005 census estimated 42,888,592 inhabitants.
  • On 2016 census will estimate inhabitants.[6]

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2015 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 48,229,000 in 2015, compared to only 12,342,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2015 was 24.3%, 68.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 7% was 65 years or older .[7]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 12 341 42.6 54.0 3.4
1955 14 225 44.8 52.0 3.2
1960 16 480 46.4 50.4 3.2
1965 19 144 46.9 49.9 3.2
1970 22 061 45.9 50.7 3.4
1975 24 757 43.4 53.0 3.6
1980 27 738 40.6 55.7 3.7
1985 31 012 37.9 58.2 3.9
1990 34 272 36.3 59.6 4.1
1995 37 442 34.3 61.3 4.4
2000 40 404 31.5 63.8 4.7
2005 43 286 28.9 65.9 5.2
2010 45 918 26.4 67.8 5.9
2015 48 229 24.3 68.7 7.0

Urbanization[edit]

Movement from rural to urban areas was very heavy in the middle of the twentieth century, but has since tapered off. The urban population increased from 31% of the total population in 1938, to 57% in 1951 and about 70% by 1990. Currently the figure is about 77%. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. The nine eastern lowlands departments, constituting about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two people per sq. mi.).

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[8]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 628 000 219 000 409 000 47.3 16.5 30.6 6.76 123 50.6 49.0 52.3
1955-1960 697 000 203 000 494 000 45.4 13.2 32.2 6.76 105 55.2 53.5 56.9
1960-1965 787 000 203 000 584 000 44.2 11.4 32.8 6.76 92 57.9 56.2 59.7
1965-1970 845 000 206 000 639 000 41.1 10.0 31.1 6.18 82 60.0 58.3 61.8
1970-1975 800 000 202 000 598 000 34.2 8.7 25.5 4.90 73 61.7 59.6 63.9
1975-1980 853 000 199 000 654 000 32.5 7.6 24.9 4.25 57 64.0 61.7 66.3
1980-1985 900 000 191 000 709 000 30.7 6.5 24.2 3.70 43 66.8 63.6 70.2
1985-1990 904 000 201 000 703 000 27.7 6.2 21.5 3.18 35 68.0 64.5 71.7
1990-1995 898 000 219 000 679 000 25.1 6.1 19.0 2.84 28 68.7 64.5 73.0
1995-2000 853 000 223 000 630 000 21.9 5.7 16.2 2.50 24 70.3 66.5 74.2
2000-2005 842 000 234 000 608 000 20.1 5.6 14.5 2.30 21 71.7 68.0 75.5
2005-2010 804 000 249 000 555 000 18.0 5.6 12.4 2.10 19 72.9 69.2 76.7
2010-2015 764 000 273 000 491 000 16.2 5.8 10.4 1.93 16 73.9 70.3 77.6
2015-2020 729 000 300 000 429 000 14.8 6.1 8.7 1.83 14 74.9 71.4 78.6
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [9]

Year Population (x1000) Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 699 775 196 933 502 842
2010 654 627 200 524 454 103
2012 665 499 195 823 469 676
2013 662 554 179 646 482 908 2,350

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[10]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-83 3,65
1986 3,34 (2,81) 2,76 (2,42) 4,88 (3,87)
1990 26,1 2,9 (2,2) 25,7 2,5 (2,1) 27,0 3,8 (2,7)
1995 26 3,0 (2,2) 25 2,5 (1,9) 30 4,3 (2,8)
2000 22,7 2,6 (1,8) 21,6 2,3 (1,7) 25,6 3,8 (2,3)
2005 20,4 2,4 (1,7) 19,0 2,1 (1,5) 24,3 3,4 (2,1)
2010 18 2,1 (1,6) 17 2,0 (1,5) 20 2,8 (1,9)

Total fertility rate by departments[edit]

Departament TFR 2010 [11]
Amazonas department 3.7
Antioquia 1.8
Arauca department 2.4
Atlántico 2.5
Bolívar department 2.4
Bogotá 1.9
Boyacá 2.3
Caldas 1.6
Caquetá 2.7
Casanare 2.2
Cauca department 2.3
Cesar department 2.8
Chocó 3.3
Córdoba department 2.3
Cundinamarca 2.2
Guainía 3.1
Guaviare 2.3
Huila 2.5
La Guajira 4.1
Magdalena department 3.1
Meta 2.3
Nariño 2.2
Norte de Santander 2.4
Putumayo 2.5
Quindío 1.7
Risaralda 1.7
San Andrés y Providencia 2.1
Santander department 2.1
Sucre department 2.5
Tolima 2.4
Valle del Cauca 1.7
Vaupés 3.8
Vichada 3.3

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Ethnic diversity[edit]

2015 estimate of ethnicity in Colombia

The country has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated here from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of three main groups are the basics of Colombia's current demographics: indigenous Amerindians, European immigrants, and African slaves, have intermingled without limitation in its history.[citation needed]

Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remaining 800,000 currently represent over 80 distinct cultures. Today, less than 3.5% of the population can be identified as fully indigenous on the basis of language and customs. Most of the indigenous population live in the country's flatlands in the south and east.[citation needed]

The European immigrants were Spanish colonists, but many other Europeans (i.e. the Italians, Germans and the French). In smaller numbers, Belgian, Lithuanian, Dutch, British, Portuguese, Swiss, Poles, Russians and Croatian communities. Most of the Europeans immigrated in the 20th century, during the First and the Second World War (1939–1945) and the Cold War (1945–1990) as well fleeing the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s.[citation needed]

Other immigrant populations include Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Arabs (esp. Lebanese and Syrians but also Palestinians), Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Southeast Asians (esp. Vietnam after the end of the Vietnam War), Armenians arrived in large numbers after World War I, and East Indians or Pakistanis settled in Colombia. The Venezuelan population is increasing in Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cúcuta, Medellín, Santa Marta and Cartagena de Indias.[citation needed]

In the 1990s and 2000s, about half a million immigrants from Europe and North America (mainly the United States) usually are retired came to settle in urban areas and coasts of Colombia. It is not a new phenomenon, when about 5,000 Americans settled the Caribbean region in the late 19th century.[citation needed]

Human biological diversity and ethnicity[12][13]
Percentage
Mestizo and White
  
86%
Black (includes Mulatto)
  
10.6%
Amerindian
  
3.4%
Roma
  
0.01%

The Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century, and continuing into the nineteenth century. After abolition, a national ideology of mestizaje encouraged the mixing of the indigenous and white people into a single mestizo ethnic identity [1].

Colombian culture, cuisine, music and social life are from the polyglot ethnic and racial balance. One famous Colombian emigrant, pop music singer Shakira of Barranquilla is herself of Italian, French and Lebanese ancestry.[citation needed]

The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the national population.[12] An extraofficial estimate considers that the population of Colombia was composed of these racial groups:[13][14]

Other ethnic groups include Arabs counted with the Whites (Lebanese, Palestinians and Syrians), Chinese, Romani from Eastern Europe, and South Asians (East Indians). However a number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War.[citation needed] Today there is significant ongoing immigration of Venezuelans due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela.[15][16]

Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Palestinian, Lebanese, and other Arabs, Sephardi Jews and Romanies. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese.[citation needed]

Languages[edit]

Spanish (of which Colombia has the second-largest population of speakers after Mexico) is the official language, and there are small communities in urban areas speaking other European languages such as German, French, English, Italian and Portuguese. There are 65 indigenous languages and two Creole languages: one in San Basilio de Palenque and one in San Andrés; and also San Andrés is the only place of Colombia where are two official lenguages: Spanish and English. There are 5,000 speakers of Romani in Colombia.[2]

Migration[edit]

Main article: Colombian diaspora

Historically, a sizable percentage of Colombian emigration has also been motivated by the need to escape from political persecution and bipartisan violence during the periods of "La Violencia" (1948–1958), and later due to the effects of the nation's current conflict (since 1964). This has resulted in numerous applications for political asylum abroad.

Colombians have emigrated in comparably high rates to the United States. Other Colombians migrated to Canada and Europe (most to Spain, but also to France and Italy, and the United Kingdom). Among other locations.[citation needed]

Today millions of Colombians have returned to their country due to improvements in security, Colombia is now a country on the road to recovery. Colombia is creating an economy that is today considered attractive and prosperous by many national and international investors. There are policies of the Colombian Government to help Colombians with housing loans. There is a support system for returning migrants. Certificates of competency are issued and there is a free employment service to help people find job.[17][18][19][3]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[20]

Population[edit]

44,725,543 (July 2011 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 27.7 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28.6 years (2010 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate[edit]

0.7% (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS[edit]

170,000 (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths[edit]

9,800 (2007 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Colombia adjective: Colombian(s)

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 90%, Other 10% (Atheist, Evangelist, Christians, Agnostic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Mormon, Jewish and Muslim).

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.4%

male: 93.1%

female: 93.7% (2005 census)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Animated clock". Colombian State Department. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - Net migration rate". CIA. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Can Young People Rebuild Colombia's Social Capital?". theglobalist.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  4. ^ https://www.cancilleria.gov.co/sites/default/files/informe-ejecutivo-2013-vinculacion-colombianos-exterior.pdf
  5. ^ "La historia del censo en Colombia". Caracol. 28 September 2005. Consulted 16 April 2012.
  6. ^ http://www.eltiempo.com/economia/indicadores/censo-de-2016-en-colombia/15192103
  7. ^ http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
  8. ^ http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
  9. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  10. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=4&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  11. ^ http://www.profamilia.org.co/encuestas/Profamilia/Profamilia/images/stories/documentos/Principales_indicadores.pdf
  12. ^ a b "visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: pp. 87, 92. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  14. ^ "White Colombians" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  15. ^ Análisis de la migración venezolana a Colombia durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1999–2011). Identificación de capital social y compensación económica | Echeverry Hernández | Revista Análisis Internacional. Revistas.utadeo.edu.co (10 February 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
  16. ^ Llegaron los venezolanos, Articulo Impreso Archivado. Semana.com (11 March 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Opportunities for Colombians who are returning to the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  18. ^ "Colombia provides opportunities for the development of its citizens in the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  19. ^ "Entrepreneurship and employment programme for those who return to the country" (in Spanish). elempleo.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  20. ^ The World Factbook - Colombia

External links[edit]