Demographics of Djibouti

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Demographics of Djibouti
Population884,017 (2018)
Growth rate2.23% (2014)
Birth rate25.27 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate8.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Life expectancy62.4 years (2014)
 • male59.93 years
 • female64.94 years
Fertility rate2.79 children born/woman (2010)
Infant mortality rate53.31 deaths/1,000 infants (2012 est.)[1]
Age structure
0–14 years35% (male 132,592/female 132,114)
15–64 years61.7% (male 206,323/female 260,772)
65 and over3.3% (male 11,349/female 13,924)
Sex ratio
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Under 151 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.8 male(s)/female
65 and over0.81 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityDjiboutian
Major ethnicSomali 60%
Afar 35%
Minor ethnicFrench
Arab
Ethiopian Total 5%
Language
SpokenArabic (official), French(official), Somali(official), Afar

This article is about the demographics of Djibouti, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Main ethnic groups in Djibouti.

Djibouti is a multiethnic country. As of 2018, it has a population of around 884,017 inhabitants[2]. Djibouti's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 69,589 in 1955 to around 869,099 by 2015.[3]

The two largest ethnic groups are the Somali (60%) and the Afar (35%). The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, a sub-clan of the larger Dir. The remaining 5% of Djibouti's population primarily consists of Arabs, Ethiopians and Europeans (French and Italians). Approximately 76% of local residents are urban dwellers; the remainder are pastoralists.[4]

Languages[edit]

A Somali man in a traditional taqiyah.
An Afar man in nomadic attire.

Djibouti is a multilingual nation.[4] The majority of local residents speak Somali (524,000 speakers) and Afar (306,000 speakers) as a first language. These idioms are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger Afroasiatic family. There are three official languages in Djibouti: Somali, Arabic and French.[5]

Arabic is of religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 59,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Djibouti Arabic. French serves as a statutory national language. It was inherited from the colonial period, and is the primary language of instruction. Around 17,000 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic (38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), Greek (1,000 speakers) and Hindi (600 speakers).[5]

Population[edit]

1960–2012
YearPop.±% p.a.
196083,636—    
1969149,887+6.70%
1977277,750+8.02%
1980359,247+8.95%
1994652,793+4.36%
2000722,887+1.71%
2012859,652+1.45%
Source: World Bank[6]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2], the total population was 942,333 in 2016 compared to 62,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 35.8%, 60.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% was 65 years or older.[3]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 62 000 46.8 51.2 2.0
1955 70 000 46.0 52.0 2.0
1960 85 000 45.4 52.5 2.0
1965 117 000 44.9 53.0 2.0
1970 162 000 45.8 52.2 2.1
1975 224 000 45.9 52.0 2.1
1980 340 000 45.3 52.5 2.2
1985 403 000 44.6 53.1 2.3
1990 562 000 44.2 53.4 2.4
1995 627 000 43.4 54.1 2.5
2000 732 000 41.3 55.9 2.7
2005 808 000 38.5 58.5 3.0
2010 889 000 35.8 60.9 3.3

Projections[edit]

The following are UN medium variant projections; numbers are in thousands:[3]

  • 2015 975
  • 2020 1,065
  • 2025 1,166
  • 2030 1,262
  • 2035 1,356
  • 2040 1,447
  • 2045 1,535
  • 2050 1,619

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Djibouti is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 3 000 2 000 1 000 50.0 28.3 21.7 7.80 222
1955-1960 4 000 2 000 2 000 50.7 25.7 25.0 7.80 203
1960-1965 5 000 2 000 3 000 51.2 23.8 27.4 7.80 185
1965-1970 7 000 3 000 4 000 50.3 21.6 28.6 7.60 169
1970-1975 9 000 4 000 5 000 47.8 19.4 28.4 7.20 154
1975-1980 13 000 5 000 8 000 45.2 17.4 27.8 6.80 141
1980-1985 16 000 6 000 11 000 44.0 15.5 28.6 6.60 125
1985-1990 21 000 7 000 14 000 43.1 14.5 28.6 6.40 117
1990-1995 24 000 8 000 16 000 40.1 13.4 26.7 5.85 109
1995-2000 23 000 8 000 15 000 34.4 12.2 22.2 5.11 100
2000-2005 24 000 9 000 15 000 31.2 11.3 19.9 4.52 91
2005-2010 25 000 9 000 16 000 29.4 10.5 18.9 3.95 82
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [7]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 9 853 1 082 8 771
2010 10 538 1 051 9 487
2011 10 871 1 011 9 860

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[8]
1950–1955 41.04
1955–1960 Increase 42.95
1960–1965 Increase 45.18
1965–1970 Increase 47.35
1970–1975 Increase 50.90
1975–1980 Increase 52.55
1980–1985 Increase 54.67
1985–1990 Increase 56.12
1990–1995 Increase 57.02
1995–2000 Steady 57.02
2000–2005 Increase 57.29
2005–2010 Increase 59.05
2010–2015 Increase 61.62

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[9]

  • One birth every 24 minutes
  • One death every 65 minutes
  • One net migrant every 720 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 37 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[10]

Population[edit]

884,017 (July 2018 est.)
828,324 (July 2015 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Djibouti in 2017
0-14 years: 30.71% (male 136,191 /female 135,263)
15-24 years: 21.01% (male 87,520 /female 98,239)
25-54 years: 39.63% (male 145,427 /female 204,927)
55-64 years: 4.82% (male 18,967 /female 23,639)
65 years and over: 3.83% (male 15,136 /female 18,708) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 24.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 165th
male: 22.4 years
female: 25.7 years (2018 est.)
Total: 22.8 years
Male: 21.1 years
Female: 24.1 years (2014 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

23.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th

Death rate[edit]

7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 109th

Net migration rate[edit]

5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 19th

Population growth rate[edit]

2.13% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 42nd
2.18% (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

2.27 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 90th

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

19% (2012)

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 56.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 50.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 77.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.67% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major cities - population[edit]

DJIBOUTI (capital) 562,000 (2018)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 64 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 191st
male: 61.4 years (2018 est.)
female: 66.6 years (2018 est.)
Total population: 62.4 years
Male: 59.93 years
Female: 64.94 years (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2012 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,700 (2012 est.)
deaths: 800 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Nationality[edit]

Djiboutien or Djiboutian

Ethnic groups[edit]

Afar 35%, Somali 60% and Arab 2%[4]

Religions[edit]

The religious adherents of Djibouti are:[4]

Muslim 94%
Christian 6%

Languages[edit]

The languages of Djibouti are:[4]

French (official)
Arabic (official)
Somali
Afar

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 60%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 6 years (2011)
male: 7 years (2011)
female: 6 years (2011)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook: Infant Mortality Rate". Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  2. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  4. ^ a b c d e "Africa :: Djibouti". CIA The World Factbook.
  5. ^ a b "Djibouti - Languages". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  6. ^ "World Bank". Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Demographic Yearbook". United Nations Statistics Division.
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  9. ^ "Djibouti Population 2019", World Population Review
  10. ^ "The World FactBook - Djibouti", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.