Demography of England

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Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. (Due to the small size of the City of London density is displayed as part of the overall Greater London area)

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources, estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably.

Population[edit]

The population at the time of the 2011 census was 53,012,456

  • Male: 26,069,148
  • Female: 26,943,308
  • Total: 53,012,456[1]
  • Total Fertility Rate: 1.97[2] (higher than Germany – 1.42 & Italy – 1.40, lower than France – 2.02)

Historical population[edit]

Population 5000–100BC
Year Pop. ±%
50000BC below 6000 —    
30000BC 100,000 —    
18000BC 300,000 +200.0%
01000BC 1,500,000 +400.0%
Source: [3]
Population 1100–1700
Year Pop. ±%
1086 1,710,000 —    
1190 3,100,000 +81.3%
1220 3,970,000 +28.1%
1250 4,230,000 +6.5%
1279 4,430,000 +4.7%
1290 4,750,000 +7.2%
1315 4,690,000 −1.3%
1325 4,120,000 −12.2%
1348 4,810,000 +16.7%
1351 2,600,000 −45.9%
1377 2,500,000 −3.8%
1400 2,080,000 −16.8%
1430 2,020,000 −2.9%
1450 1,900,000 −5.9%
1490 2,140,000 +12.6%
1522 2,350,000 +9.8%
1541 2,830,000 +20.4%
1560 3,200,000 +13.1%
1600 4,110,000 +28.4%
1650 5,310,000 +29.2%
1700 5,200,000 −2.1%
Source: [4] [5]
Population 1801–2011
Year Pop. ±%
1801 7,754,875 —    
1811 8,762,178 +13.0%
1821 10,402,143 +18.7%
1831 12,011,830 +15.5%
1841 13,654,914 +13.7%
1851 15,288,885 +12.0%
1861 18,325,052 +19.9%
1871 21,361,235 +16.6%
1881 24,397,385 +14.2%
1891 27,231,229 +11.6%
1901 30,072,180 +10.4%
1911 33,561,235 +11.6%
1921 35,230,225 +5.0%
1931 37,359,045 +6.0%
1941 38,084,321 +1.9%
1951 38,668,830 +1.5%
1961 41,159,213 +6.4%
1971 43,460,525 +5.6%
1981 45,978,080 +5.8%
1991 48,197,672 +4.8%
2001 49,138,831 +2.0%
2011 53,012,456 +7.9%
Source: Year(s) 1801–2011[5][6][7][8]

Vital statistics[edit]

[9]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1940 567 710 545 952 21 758
1941 539 205 499 343 39 862
1942 608 373 448 777 159 596
1943 641 064 469 916 171 148
1944 704 748 461 189 243 559
1945 638 422 456 216 182 206
1946 773 153 460 543 312 610
1947 829 863 484 324 345 539
1948 728 131 439 803 288 328
1949 686 181 478 627 207 554
1950 654 321 477 006 177 315
1951 636 259 513 375 122 884
1952 632 347 466 479 165 858
1953 642 844 472 137 170 707
1954 633 395 469 074 164 321
1955 628 935 484 926 144 009
1956 659 420 488 893 170 527
1957 681 736 482 174 199 562
1958 698 255 494 201 204 054
1959 706 239 495 517 210 722
1960 740 858 493 553 247 305
1961 766 358 518 047 248 311
1962 793 354 523 855 269 499
1963 807 017 538 105 268 912
1964 828 470 501 991 326 479
1965 816 433 516 317 300 116
1966 804 957 528 981 275 976
1967 788 458 509 356 279 102
1968 775 065 541 862 233 203
1969 754 456 543 425 211 031
1970 741 999 540 196 201 803 16.0 11.6 4.4
1971 46 411 740 099 532 445 207 654 15.9 11.5 4.4
1972 46 572 685 485 554 251 131 234 14.7 11.9 2.8
1973 46 686 638 356 549 876 88 480 13.7 11.8 1.9
1974 46 682 603 153 547 980 55 173 12.9 11.7 1.2
1975 46 674 568 900 545 444 23 456 12.2 11.7 0.5
1976 46 659 550 383 560 317 -9 934 11.8 12.0 -0.2
1977 46 639 536 953 538 652 -1 699 11.5 11.5 -0.0
1978 46 638 562 589 547 685 14 904 12.1 11.7 0.4
1979 46 698 601 316 554 840 46 476 12.9 11.9 1.0
1980 46 787 618 371 544 349 74 022 13.2 11.6 1.6
1981 46 820 598 163 541 018 57 145 12.8 11.6 1.2
1982 46 777 589 711 544 984 44 727 12.6 11.7 0.9 1.76
1983 46 813 593 255 542 509 50 746 12.7 11.6 1.1 1.75
1984 46 912 600 573 531 314 69 259 12.8 11.3 1.5 1.75
1985 47 057 619 301 553 153 66 148 13.2 11.8 1.4 1.78
1986 47 187 623 609 544 545 79 064 13.2 11.5 1.7 1.76
1987 47 300 643 330 531 150 112 180 13.6 11.2 2.4 1.80
1988 47 412 654 353 535 553 118 800 13.8 11.3 2.5 1.82
1989 47 552 649 357 539 804 109 553 13.7 11.4 2.3 1.79
1990 47 699 666 920 528 920 138 000 14.0 11.1 3.9 1.83
1991 47 875 660 806 533 980 126 826 13.8 11.2 2.6 1.81
1992 47 998 651 784 522 660 129 124 13.6 10.9 2.7 1.79
1993 48 102 636 473 540 904 95 569 13.2 11.2 2.0 1.76
1994 48 228 628 956 516 297 112 659 13.0 10.7 2.3 1.75
1995 48 383 613 257 529 038 84 219 12.7 10.9 1.8 1.71
1996 48 519 614 184 526 650 87 534 12.7 10.9 1.8 1.73
1997 48 664 608 202 521 598 86 604 12.5 10.7 1.8 1.73
1998 48 820 602 111 518 089 84 022 12.3 10.6 1.7 1.72
1999 49 032 589 468 517 119 72 349 12.0 10.5 1.5 1.69
2000 49 233 572 826 503 026 69 800 11.6 10.2 1.4 1.65
2001 49 449 563 744 497 878 65 866 11.4 10.1 1.3 1.63
2002 49 679 565 709 500 792 64 917 11.4 10.1 1.3 1.64
2003 49 925 589 851 504 127 85 724 11.8 10.1 1.7 1.72
2004 50 194 607 184 480 717 126 467 12.1 9.6 2.5 1.77
2005 50 606 613 028 479 678 133 350 12.1 9.5 2.6 1.77
2006 50 965 635 748 470 326 165 422 12.5 9.2 3.3 1.83
2007 51 381 655 357 470 721 184 636 12.8 9.2 3.6 1.88
2008 51 815 672 809 475 763 197 046 13.0 9.2 3.8 1.92
2009 52 196 671 058 459 241 211 817 12.9 8.8 4.1 1.91
2010 52 642 687 007 461 017 225 990 13.1 8.8 4.3 1.94
2011 53 107 688 120 452 862 235 258 13.0 8.5 4.5 1.93
2012 53 493 694 241 466 779 227 462 13.0 8.7 4.3 1.94
2013 53 865 664 517 473 552 190 965 12.3 8.8 3.5 1.85
2014 54 316 661 496 468 875 192 621 12.2 8.6 3.6 1.83
2015 54 786 664 399 495 309 169 090 12.1 9.0 3.1 1.82
2016 55 268 663 157 490 454 172 703 12.0 8.9 3.1 1.81

Place of birth[edit]

Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows:

Map showing the percentage of the population born outside England according to the 2011 census.
Country of birth 2001[10] 2011[11]
Number % Number %
 England 42,968,596 87.44% 44,246,592 83.46%
 Scotland 794,577 1.62% 708,872 1.34%
 Wales 609,711 1.24% 506,619 0.96%
 Northern Ireland 215,124 0.44% 206,735 0.39%
 United Kingdom UK not otherwise specified 6,499 0.01%
 Ireland 459,662 0.94% 395,182 0.75%
 EU EU Member Countries 695,045 1.41% 1,980,259 3.73%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined pre 2001) 894,908 1.69%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined post 2001) 1,085,351 2.04%
 UN Other Countries 3,396,116 6.91% 4,961,698 9.36%
Total 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

Below are the 5 largest foreign-born groups in England according to 2014 ONS estimates.[12]

Country of birth Estimated population, 2013 Estimated population, 2014 Estimated population, 2015
 India 698,000 748,000 751,000
 Poland 561,000 677,000 713,000
 Pakistan 479,000 499,000 478,000
 Republic of Ireland 315,000 317,000 318,000
 Germany 263,000 267,000 253,000

Age[edit]

The data below is based on the 2011 census.[13] In 2001, the mean age of England's population was 38.60, and the median age was 37.00.

Population pyramid for England as at the 2011 census.
Ages attained
(years)
Population  % of total
population
 % per year
of age band
0–4 3,318,449 6.26 1.25
5–9 2,972,632 5.61 1.12
10–14 3,080,929 5.81 1.16
15–19 3,340,265 6.30 1.26
20–24 3,595,321 6.78 1.36
25–29 3,650,881 6.89 1.38
30–34 3,509,221 6.62 1.32
35–39 3,549,116 6.69 1.34
40–44 3,885,934 7.33 1.47
45–49 3,879,815 7.32 1.46
50–54 3,400,095 6.41 1.28
55–59 2,996,992 5.65 1.13
60–64 3,172,277 5.98 1.20
65–69 2,508,154 4.73 0.95
70–74 2,044,129 3.86 0.77
75–79 1,669,345 3.15 0.63
80–84 1,258,773 2.37 0.47
85–89 776,311 1.46 0.29
90+ 403,817 0.76

Life expectancy at birth[14]

  • January 2001 – December 2003
    • Males: 76.24 years
    • Females: 80.72 years
  • January 2002 – December 2004
    • Males: 76.55 years
    • Females: 80.91 years
  • January 2003 – December 2005
    • Males: 76.92 years
    • Females: 81.14 years

Ethnicity[edit]

The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups:

Ethnic group 2001
population
2001
%
2011
population
2011
%
White: British 42,747,136 87.0 42,279,236 79.8
White: Irish 624,115 1.3 517,001 1.0
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy[note 1] 54,895 0.1
White: Other 1,308,110 2.7 2,430,010 4.6
White: Total 44,679,361 91.0 45,281,142

85.4

Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,028,546 2.1 1,395,702 2.6
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 706,539 1.4 1,112,282 2.1
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 275,394 0.6 436,514 0.8
Asian or Asian British: Chinese[note 2] 220,681 0.5 379,502 0.7
Asian or Asian British: Asian Other 237,810 0.5 819,403 1.6
Asian or Asian British: Total 2,468,970 5.1 4,143,403

7.8

Black or Black British: Caribbean 561,246 1.1 591,016 1.1
Black or Black British: African 475,938 1.0 977,741 1.8
Black or Black British: Other 95,324 0.2 277,857 0.5
Black or Black British: Total 1,132,508 2.3 1,846,614

3.5

Mixed: White and Caribbean 231,424 0.5 415,616 0.8
Mixed: White and African 76,498 0.2 161,550 0.3
Mixed: White and Asian Other 184,014 0.4 332,708 0.6
Mixed: Other Mixed 151,437 0.3 283,005 0.3
British Mixed: Total 643,373 1.4 1,192,879

2.3

Other: Arab[note 3] 220,985 0.4
Other: Any other ethnic group 214,619 0.4 327,433 0.6
Other: Total 214,619 0.4 548,418

1.0

Total 49,138,831 100 53,012,456

100

Notes for table above

  1. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
  2. ^ In 2001, listed under the 'Chinese or other ethnic group' heading.
  3. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
Source: 2001 Census KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for local Authorities and 2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales.

Languages[edit]

The most common main languages spoken in England according to the 2011 census are shown below.[15]

Rank Language Usual residents aged 3+ Proportion
1 English 46,936,780 92.02%
2 Polish 529,173 1.04%
3 Punjabi 271,580 0.53%
4 Urdu 266,330 0.52%
5 Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya) 216,196 0.42%
6 Gujarati 212,217 0.42%
7 Arabic 152,490 0.30%
8 French 145,026 0.28%
9 Portuguese 131,002 0.26%
10 Spanish 118,554 0.23%
11 Tamil 99,773 0.20%
12 Turkish 98,083 0.19%
13 Italian 90,547 0.18%
14 Somali 84,387 0.17%
15 Lithuanian 84,327 0.17%
16 German 75,190 0.15%
17 Persian/Farsi 75,179 0.15%
18 Tagalog/Filipino 67,593 0.13%
19 Romanian 66,496 0.13%
20 Russian 66,271 0.13%
Welsh 8,248 0.02%
Cornish 554 0.00%
Other 1,209,614 2.37%
Population 51,005,610 100.00%

Religion[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Religious structure, according to the 2011 census

  Christianity (59.38%)
  Islam (5.02%)
  Hinduism (1.52%)
  Sikhism (0.79%)
  Judaism (0.49%)
  Buddhism (0.45%)
  Other religion (0.43%)
  No religion (24.74%)
  Not declared (7.18%)

Respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses gave their religions as follows:

Religion 2001[16] 2011[17]
Number % Number %
Christian 35,251,244 71.74% 31,479,876 59.38%
Muslim 1,524,887 3.10% 2,660,116 5.02%
Hindu 546,982 1.11% 806,199 1.52%
Sikh 327,343 0.67% 420,196 0.79%
Jewish 257,671 0.52% 261,282 0.49%
Buddhist 139,046 0.28% 238,626 0.45%
Other religion 143,811 0.29% 227,825 0.43%
No religion 7,171,332 14.59% 13,114,232 24.74%
Religion not stated 3,776,515 7.69% 3,804,104 7.18%
Total population 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "National Statistics Online – Live births". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Prior, Francis (2004). BC Life in Britain and Ireland Before the Romans. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0007126934. 
  4. ^ S. Broadberry et al (2010), "English Medieval Population: Reconciling Time Series and Cross Sectional Evidence", Table 7 (Preprint, p.22); S. Broadberry et al (2010), "British Economic Growth 1270–1870", Table 18 (Preprint, p. 54); see also S. Broadberry et al (2015), British Economic Growth 1270–1870, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1107070783, Chapter 1, and Table 5.06, pg 205
    See also B. Campbell (1990), "People and Land in the Middle Ages, 1066–1500", in Robert A. Dodgshon and Robin A. Butlin (eds), Historical Geography of England and Wales, 2nd edition. Elsevier. ISBN 1483288412, pp. 69–122 for discussion of drivers and trends underlying the numbers.
  5. ^ a b Wrigley and Schofield, "The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A reconstruction.", Harvard University Press, 1981, Table 7.8, pgs. 208-9, [1]
  6. ^ At the time of the first census. Census officials estimated that there had been an increase of 77% in the preceding 100 years. In each county women were in the majority. Notes for 1801 taken from Kent 1800–1899 – A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century Bob Ogley (Froglets Publications 2003) ISBN 1-872337-51-1. Wrigley and Schofield estimate 8,664,000 based on birth and death records.]
  7. ^ Vision of Britain a population through time England, Retrieved 9 August 2013
  8. ^ 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011 (PDF), ONS, 12 December 2011, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2016, retrieved 9 August 2013 
  9. ^ "Vital Statistics: Population and Health Reference Tables". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  10. ^ Census 2001 Key Statistics – Local Authorities KS05 Country of birth, Accessed 6 September 2014
  11. ^ 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012
  12. ^ "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth, January 2014 to December 2014". Office for National Statistics. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  Figures given are the central estimates. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  13. ^ UK Statistics (27 March 2011). "2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries". UK Statistics. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Life Expectancy at Birth for City of London, London, England". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "View:England". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  17. ^ "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

External links[edit]