Demographics of Estonia

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Demographics of Estonia
Estonia Population Pyramid.svg
Population1,357,739 (2023)
Growth rate+1,9% (2022)
Birth rate9,97 births/1,000 population (2021)
Death rate13.96 deaths/1,000 population (2021)
Life expectancy78.8 years
 • male74.4 years
 • female82.8 years (2020)
Fertility rate1.61 children born/woman (2021)
Infant mortality rate2.20 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate+5.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021)
Age structure
0–14 years16.35%
15–64 years63.22%
65 and over20.43%
Sex ratio
Total0.91 male(s)/female (2021 census)
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
65 and over0.54 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityEstonian
Major ethnicEstonians (69.1%)
Minor ethnicRussians (23.7%)
Language
OfficialEstonian
SpokenEstonian, Russian, English
Estonia animated population pyramid

The demographics of Estonia in the 21st century result from historical trends over more than a thousand years, as with most European countries, but have been disproportionately influenced by events in the second half of the 20th century. The Soviet occupation (1944–1991), extensive immigration from Russia and other parts of the former USSR, and the eventual restoration of independence of Estonia, have all had a major effect on Estonia's current ethnic makeup.

Languages spoken in Estonia largely reflect the composition of the indigenous and immigrant ethnic groups residing in Estonia, and thus have changed with historical trends affecting the ethnic makeup of the country. Similarly to other northern European peoples, religion plays a rather small part in the lives of most Estonians.[1][2][3]

Overall, the quality-of-life indices for Estonia indicate a modern industrial state. The population declined annually from 1991 until 2016, except for a brief pause in 2010.[4] Since 2016 immigration has exceeded emigration, making the overall population grow.[5]

Census population and growth rate
YearPop.±%
1881881,455—    
1897958,351+8.7%
19221,107,059+15.5%
19341,126,413+1.7%
19411,017,475−9.7%
19591,196,791+17.6%
19701,356,079+13.3%
19791,464,476+8.0%
19891,565,662+6.9%
20001,370,052−12.5%
20111,294,455−5.5%
20211,331,824+2.9%
20231,357,739+1.9%
Source:[6][7]

Population[edit]

Population decline in Estonia
Population of Estonia (1970–2010). Data by Statistics Estonia (2010).[4]
Natural population increase of Estonia from 1945–2008. Data is taken from Statistics Estonia.[8]
  •   Number of births
  •   Number of deaths
  •   Natural population increase
External migration of Estonia from 2000–2009. Data is taken from Statistics Estonia.[9]
  •   Number of immigrants
  •   Number of emigrants
  •   Total external migration
  • According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, on 1 January 2023, the population of Estonia was 1,357,739 persons.[10]

    The population increased from 1,351,640 in January 1970 to 1,570,599 in January 1990. After 1990, Estonia lost about 15% of its population (230,000 people). The population decreased to 1,294,455 by December 2011, a figure lower than that recorded in 1970.

    Decreasing population pressures are explained by a higher death than birth rate and periods of an excess of emigrants over immigrants.

    Since 2015 the country has experienced population growth.[14] The population mainly increased as a result of net immigration of European Union citizens.[15] Citizens of Russia and Ukraine made up the bulk of non-EU immigration.[16] The increase was detected through methodological changes in data collection. Initially a population decrease had been reported.[17]

    Age structure[edit]

    Age structure of Estonia from 1970 to 2010. Data is taken from Statistics Estonia.[4]
      Age: 0–14
      Age: 15–64
      Age: 65+

    Between 1970 and 1990 the age structure of Estonia was rather stable with around 22% of the population in the age group 0–14 years, 66% between 15 and 65, while 12% were 65 years or older.[4] Due to the low birth rates after 1990, the proportion of the population 0–14 years of age dropped to 15% in 2009, while the proportion of 65 years or older gradually increased to 17% in 2009. The proportion of the age group 15–64 also slightly increased to 68% in 2009.

    Births and deaths[edit]

    From 1947 to 1989 the number of births was higher than the number of deaths, but from 1990 onwards the number of deaths outnumbered the number of births. The crude birth rate of 2011 was 10.96 (14,679 births) and the crude death rate of 2011 was 11.38 (15,244 deaths), making the rate of natural increase −0.42 (−565).[8] For more detailed historic data, see the table of birth and death rates below.

    Total fertility rate[edit]

    Between 1970 and 1990, the total fertility rate (TFR) was little over 2 children born per woman.[18] A fast decrease of the TFR occurred after independence. In 1998 the lowest rate was recorded: 1.28 children born per woman. The TFR slightly recovered in the subsequent years. The TFR was 1.66 in 2008 and 1.52 in 2011.

    Infant mortality rate[edit]

    The infant mortality rate in Estonia has decreased considerably during the past decades. In 1970 the rate was 17.7 per 1,000 live births.[18] The rate decreased to 17.1 in 1980, 12.3 in 1990 and 8.4 in 2000. The lowest infant mortality rate was recorded in 2011: 2.6.

    Life expectancy at birth[edit]

    Development of life expectancy in Estonia

    Life expectancy in Estonia is lower than in most Western European countries. During the Soviet era life expectancy in males was between 64 and 66 years and in females between 73 and 75 years.[18] After the independence, life expectancy decreased for a number of years. In 1994, the lowest life expectancy was recorded: 60.5 years in males and 72.8 in females. After 1994, life expectancy gradually increased to reach 68.3 years in males and 79.2 in females in 2012.[19]

    Period Life expectancy in
    Years[20]
    1950–1955 61.77
    1955–1960 Increase 66.92
    1960–1965 Increase 69.38
    1965–1970 Increase 70.31
    1970–1975 Decrease 70.27
    1975–1980 Decrease 69.43
    1980–1985 Decrease 69.32
    1985–1990 Increase 70.34
    1990–1995 Decrease 68.50
    1995–2000 Increase 69.42
    2000–2005 Increase 71.59
    2005–2010 Increase 73.77
    2010–2015 Increase 76.76
    2020 Increase 78.80

    By data from Statistics Estonia life expectancy at birth in both 2019 and 2020 was 74.4 years for males and 82.8 years for females, on average for all 78,8 years.[21] Life expectancy has increased during last years for both sexes, men are expected to live disability-free for 54.1 years and women for 57.6 years. Males live 72.7 percent of their life in good health and females 70 percent.[22]

    For comparison, in 2018 the average life expectancy for men in Europe was 78.3 years and for women 83.6 years.[23]

    Immigration[edit]

    As the cumulative negative natural growth was about 82,000 during 1991–2010, the remainder of the population decline of Estonia since 1990 (230,000 people in total) was caused by emigration (150,000 people or about 10% of the population of Estonia in 1990). Mainly ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians emigrated. Consequently, the proportion of these ethnic groups decreased as can be seen in the results of the 2000 census (see below). Data from 2000 to 2009 also shows that the number of emigrants is larger than the number of immigrants, but on a much lower lever than in the 1990s.[9]

    Foreign-born population by census in 2000, 2011 and 2021:

    Country of birth 2000[24] 2011[24] 2021[24]
    Number % Number % Number %
     Russia 184,795 13.49 134,948 10.43 110,161 8.27
     Ukraine 25,185 1.84 21,156 1.63 28,621 2.15
     Belarus 14,883 1.09 11,593 0.90 10,326 0.77
     Latvia 4,326 0.32 3,859 0.30 6,375 0.48
     Finland 1,381 0.10 2,173 0.17 6,130 0.46
     Kazakhstan 3,841 0.28 3,710 0.29 3,802 0.29
     Germany 978 0.07 1,240 0.09 2,536 0.19
     Lithuania 2,101 0.15 1,816 0.14 2,014 0.15
     Azerbaijan 1,449 0.10 1,450 0.11 1,828 0.14
     Georgia 1,586 0.12 1,449 0.11 1,794 0.13
    Other countries 16,497 1.20 8,969 0.69 27,678 2.08
    Foreign-born total 257,022 18.76 192,363 14.86 201,265 15.11
     Estonia 1,113,030 81.24 1,102,092 85.14 1,130,559 84.89
    Population total 1,370,052 100.00 1,294,455 100.00 1,331,824 100.00

    There were a total of 201,265 foreign-born people in Estonia at 31 December 2021, representing 15% of the population. 55% of them were born in Russia, and a total of 82% in a Post-Soviet countries.

    In 2022, according to the data on registered migration (from the Population Register), 42,022 persons immigrated to Estonia and 10,422 persons emigrated from Estonia. Net migration was positive, 31,600 persons more staying than leaving Estonia. Both registered immigration and net migration were several times bigger than the average of recent years, due to the arrival of war refugees from Ukraine. There were 1,820 emigrants more than in 2021. Based on citizenship, the largest number of immigrants settling in Estonia had Ukrainian citizenship (31,594).[10]

    In 2021, the population of Estonia decreased by 5,315 persons due to negative natural increase and increased by 7,043 persons as a result of positive net migration – 19,524 persons immigrated to Estonia and 12,481 persons emigrated from Estonia (In 2020: 16,209 persons immigrated and 12,427 persons emigrated). The destination countries for migration were Finland, Ukraine and Russia in both directions.[7]

    Ethnic groups[edit]

    Share of ethnic Estonians by Estonian locality

    Today, Estonia is an ethnically fairly diverse country, ranking 97th out of 239 countries and territories in 2001 study by Kok Kheng Yeoh.[25] In 2008, thirteen of Estonia's fifteen counties were over 80% ethnic Estonian. The counties with the highest percentage Estonians are Hiiu County (98.4%) and Saare County (98.3%). However, in Harju County (which includes the national capital, Tallinn) and Ida-Viru County, ethnic Estonians make up only 59.6% (55.0% in Tallinn) and 19.7% of the population, respectively. In those two counties, Russians account for 32.4% (36.4% in Tallinn) and 71.2% of the population, respectively. In the nation as a whole, Russians make up 23% of the total population.[26]

    After gaining independence following World War I a population census was held in 1922 and 1934. At that time Estonians were still the predominant ethnic group, while all others constituted 12% of the population of Estonia.

    Major Jewish communities were present in Estonia between 1918 and 1940 in Tallinn, Pärnu, Kilingi-Nõmme, Narva, Tartu, Valga, and Võru.[27]


    Population of Estonia by ethnic group 1897–2021

    Ethnic
    group
    census 1897[28] census 19221 census 19341 census 19592 census 19703 census 19794 census 19895 census 20006 census 2011[29] census 2021[30]
    Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
    Estonians 867,794 90.6 969,976 87.6 992,520 88.1 892,653 74.6 925,157 68.2 947,812 64.7 963,281 61.5 930,219 67.9 902,547 69.7 919,711 69.1
    Russians 37,599 3.9 91,109 8.2 92,656 8.2 240,227 20.1 334,620 24.7 408,778 27.9 474,834 30.3 351,178 25.6 326,235 25.2 315,252 23.6
    Ukrainians 504 0.1 92 0.0 15,769 1.3 28,086 2.1 36,044 2.5 48,271 3.1 29,012 2.1 22,573 1.7 27,828 2.1
    Belarusians 272 0.0 10,930 0.9 18,732 1.4 23,461 1.6 27,711 1.8 17,241 1.3 12,579 1.0 11,606 0.9
    Finns 362 0.0 401 0.0 1,088 0.1 16,699 1.4 18,537 1.4 17,753 1.2 16,622 1.1 11,837 0.9 7,589 0.6 8,543 0.6
    Latvians 5,470 0.6 1,966 0.2 5,435 0.5 2,888 0.2 3,286 0.2 3,963 0.3 3,135 0.2 2,330 0.2 1,764 0.1 3,827 0.3
    Germans 33,362 3.5 18,319 1.7 16,346 1.5 670 0.1 7,850 0.6 3,944 0.3 3,466 0.2 1,870 0.1 1,544 0.1 2,701 0.2
    Lithuanians 44 0.0 436 0.0 253 0.0 1,616 0.1 2,356 0.2 2,379 0.2 2,568 0.2 2,116 0.2 1,727 0.1 2,097 0.2
    Tatars 36 0.0 166 0.0 1,534 0.1 2,204 0.2 3,195 0.2 4,058 0.3 2,582 0.2 1,993 0.2 1,938 0.1
    Jews 3,837 0.4 4,566 0.4 4,434 0.4 5,433 0.5 5,282 0.4 4,954 0.3 4,613 0.3 2,145 0.2 1,973 0.2 1,852 0.1
    Poles 1,941 0.2 969 0.1 1,608 0.1 2,256 0.2 2,651 0.2 2,897 0.2 3,008 0.2 2,193 0.2 1,664 0.1 1,845 0.1
    Swedes 6,083 0.6 7,850 0.7 7,641 0.7 435 0.0 254 0.0 297 0.0 300 0.0 380 0.0 811
    Armenians 1,428 0.1 1,666 0.1
    Azerbaijanis 940 0.0 1,546 0.1
    French people 117 0.0 1,275 0.0
    Italians 230 0.0 1,181 0.0
    Hindus 90 0.0 1,165 0.0
    Englishmen 270 0.0 999 0.0
    Georgians 490 0.0 946 0.0
    Spaniards 100 0.0 767 0.0
    Turkish people 86 0.0 763 0.0
    Moldavians 511 0.0 730 0.0
    Romani people 482 0.0 676 0.0
    Americans 245 0.0 645 0.0
    Pakistanis 27 0.0 560 0.0
    Romanians 91 0.0 517 0.0
    Arabs 80 0.0 489 0.0
    Brazilians 29 0.0 460 0.0
    Chinese 90 0.0 427 0.0
    Persians 23 0.0 426 0.0
    Other 1,047 0.1 11,467 1.0 4,266 0.4 6,116 0.5 6,883 0.5 9,042 0.6 13,798 0.9 19,174 1.4 7,538 0.6 24,336 1.8
    Total 958,351 1,107,059 1,126,413 1,196,791 1,356,079 1,464,476 1,565,662 1,370,052 1,294,455 1,331,824

    As a result of the Soviet occupation from 1944 to 1991 and Soviet policies, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population resident within currently defined boundaries of Estonia dropped to 61.5% in 1989, compared to 88% in 1934.[31] But in the decade following the restoration of independence, large scale emigration by ethnic Russians, as well as ethnic groups of other former Soviet countries, and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused the proportion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61.5% in 1989 to 68.7% in 2008. In the same period the proportion of ethnic Russians decreased from 30.0% to 25.6%, the proportion of ethnic Ukrainians decreased from 3.1% to 2.1%, and the proportion of ethnic Belarusians decreased from 1.8% to 1.2%.[26][31]

    1897–2011 Estonia ethnic makeup
    Citizenship of the population of Estonia in 2010. Data is taken from Statistics Estonia.[32]
      Estonian: 1,148,895
      Russian: 95,939
      Others: 21,517
      Undetermined: 99,173

    In 2008, the largest ethnic groups in Estonia were Estonians 68.7%, Russians 25.6%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.2%, and Finns 0.8%. These five groups made up 98.4% of Estonia's population.[26]

    The numbers had changed a little by the time of the 2021 census, when they were reported as Estonians 69.1%, Russians 23.6%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 0.9%, and Finns 0.6%.[30]

    Languages[edit]

    Total knowledge (native + foreign) of different languages in Estonia, by age group, 2011
    Population of Estonia and share of Estonians (years 1–2020)

    Many languages are spoken in Estonia, including Estonian (official), Võro, Russian, Ukrainian, English, Finnish, German and others. According to the census of 2000, 109 languages were spoken natively in Estonia. By 2011, the number of languages spoken natively had increased to 157, mainly due to new immigrants. However, most of these languages were used only between relatives or compatriots, while only 30 languages were spoken on a daily basis in families.[33]

    Estonian and Finnish are closely related, belonging to the same Finnic branch of the Uralic language family. The two languages are only partially mutually intelligible, although learning to comprehend and speak each other's languages is fairly easy for native speakers. Estonian and Finnish are only distantly related to the Hungarian language.

    Written with the Latin script, Estonian is the language of the Estonian people and the official language of the country. One-third of the standard vocabulary is derived from adding suffixes to root words. The oldest known examples of written Estonian originate in 13th century chronicles. During the Soviet era, the Russian language was imposed in parallel to, and often instead of, Estonian in official use.

    Population of Estonia by first language
    Language 2000 census[34] 2011 census[29] 2021 census [35]
    Number % Number % Number %
    Estonian 921,817 67.28 887,216 68.54 895,493 67.23
    Russian 406,755 29.69 383,118 29.60 379,210 28.47
    Ukrainian 12,299 0.90 8,016 0.62 12,431 0.93
    Finnish 4,932 0.36 2,621 0.20 4,276 0.32
    Belarusian 5,197 0.38 1,664 0.13 1,650 0.12
    Latvian 1,389 0.10 999 0.08 2,510 0.19
    Lithuanian 1,198 0.09 905 0.07 1,110 0.08
    English 248 0.02 878 0.07 3,879 0.29
    Tatar 1,251 0.09 806 0.06 645 0.05
    Armenian 719 0.05 717 0.06 842 0.06
    Azerbaijani 592 0.04 656 0.05 1,118 0.08
    German 557 0.04 522 0.04 1,834 0.14
    Polish 674 0.05 435 0.03 693 0.05
    Other 3,235 0.24 2,891 0.22 17,957 1.35
    Unknown 9,189 0.67 1,723 0.13 8,176 0.61
    Total 1,370,052 1,294,455 1,331,824

    Population of Estonia by command of foreign languages (as not the first language)

    Language 2000 census[34] 2011 census[29] 2021 census[29]
    Number % Number % Number %
    English 345,854 25.2 495,420 37.8 622,560 46.7
    Russian 578,004 42.1 545,537 41.5 508,060 38.1
    Estonian 167,804 12.2 177,286 13.7 223,950 16.8
    Finnish 138,354 10 167,315 12.7 138,300 10.4
    German 140,004 10.2 130,191 10.0 89,650 6.7
    French 9,912 0.7 18,677 1.4 18,540 1.4
    Swedish 9,345 0.6 13,990 1.1 14,540 1.1
    Other 20,385 1.5 39,761 2.8 33,150 2.5

    Census data show that in 2021 an estimated 76% of Estonia’s population speak a foreign language. While 10 years ago the most widely spoken foreign language in Estonia was Russian, today it is English. Estonian is spoken by 84% of the population: 67% speak it as a mother tongue and 17% as a foreign language.[36]

    Religion[edit]

    Religion in Estonia (2011)[37] [38]

      Eastern Orthodoxy (16.15%)
      Lutheranism (9.91%)
      Other religions (3.25%)
      Undeclared (16.55%)
      Non-religious (54.14%)
    Religious people in Estonia
    Biggest religion in Estonia. Notice the plurality of Orthodoxy in many traditionally Lutheran areas due to the trend towards irreligion among ethnic Estonians.

    According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[39] 18% of Estonian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 50% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 29% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". This, according to the survey, would have made Estonians the most non-religious people in the then 27-member European Union. A survey conducted in 2006–2008 by Gallup showed that 14% of Estonians answered positively to the question: "Is religion an important part of your daily life?", which was the lowest among 143 countries polled.[40]

    In 2000, according to the census, 29.2% of the population considered themselves to be related to any religion, thereof:[41]

    In 2011, according to the census, 29.31% of the population considered themselves to be related to any religion:

    There are also a number of smaller Jewish, and Buddhist groups. The organisation Maavalla Koda (Taaraism) unites adherents of animist traditional religions.[42][43] The Russian neopagan organisation "Vene Rahvausu Kogudus Eestis" is registered in Tartu.[44]

    The irrereligiousity of Estonians is a relic of Soviet occupation time, but culturally Estonia still belongs to the Lutheran culture sphere, like most of Northern Europe.

    Vital statistics[edit]

    Vital statistics for the Governorate of Estonia[edit]

    The Governorate of Estonia comprised the northern part of present-day Estonia. The southern part was part of the Governorate of Livonia.[45]

    Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
    1900 428,000 12,487 8,227 4,260 29.2 19.2 10.0
    1901 430,000 12,703 8,428 4,275 29.5 19.6 9.9
    1902 434,000 13,101 7,724 5,377 30.2 17.8 12.4
    1903 440,000 12,704 8,004 4,700 28.9 18.2 10.7
    1904 446,000 12,753 8,279 4,474 28.6 18.6 10.0
    1905 449,000 11,991 9,694 2,297 26.7 21.6 5.1
    1906 452,000 12,417 8,842 3,575 27.4 19.5 7.9
    1907 455,000 12,304 8,730 3,574 27.0 19.2 7.9
    1908 459,000 11,861 8,495 3,366 25.8 18.5 7.3
    1909 464,000 11,970 8,297 3,673 25.8 17.9 7.9
    1910 466,000 12,193 8,204 3,989 26.2 17.6 8.6
    1911 472,000 11,749 8,976 2,773 24.9 19.0 5.9
    1912 480,000 11,900 8,431 3,469 24.8 17.6 7.2
    1913 491,000 11,653 9,089 2,564 23.7 18.5 5.2
    1914 506,000 11,854 9,212 2,642 23.4 18.2 5.2

    Present Estonia[edit]

    Source: Statistics Estonia[46]

    Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate
    1914 1,197,000 26,865 20,882 5,983 22.4 17.4 5.0
    1915 1,188,000 24,680 21,841 2,839 20.8 18.4 2.4
    1916 1,154,000 21,282 25,429 -4,147 18.4 22.0 -3.6
    1917 1,120,000 18,333 27,336 -9,003 16.4 24.4 -8.0
    1918 1,086,000 21,659 32,488 -10,829 19.9 29.9 -10.0
    1919 1,064,000 18,456 28,800 -10,344 17.3 27.1 -9.7
    1920 1,068,000 19,625 21,363 -1,738 18.4 20.0 -1.6
    1921 1,087,000 22,067 17,143 4,924 20.3 15.8 4.5
    1922 1,102,000 22,255 18,401 3,854 20.2 16.7 3.5
    1923 1,111,000 22,347 16,630 5,717 20.1 15.0 5.1
    1924 1,116,000 21,441 16,918 4,523 19.2 15.2 4.1 99.9
    1925 1,117,000 20,445 16,680 3,765 18.3 14.9 3.4 95.7
    1926 1,117,000 19,977 18,047 1,900 17.9 16.2 1.7 101.8
    1927 1,116,000 19,705 19,356 500 17.7 17.3 0.4 114.6
    1928 1,116,000 20,064 17,785 2,279 18.0 15.9 2.0 103.6
    1929 1,116,000 19,110 20,178 -1,068 17.1 18.1 -1.0 110.5
    1930 1,116,000 19,471 16,610 2,861 17.4 14.9 2.6 100.1
    1931 1,118,000 19,509 18,077 1,432 17.4 16.2 1.3 102.8
    1932 1,122,000 19,742 16,641 3,101 17.6 14.8 2.8 96.8
    1933 1,124,000 18,208 16,472 1,736 16.2 14.7 1.5 94.0
    1934 1,126,000 17,305 15,853 1,452 15.4 14.1 1.3 91.1
    1935 1,129,000 17,891 16,864 1,027 15.8 14.9 0.9 89.3
    1936 1,130,000 18,222 17,594 628 16.1 15.6 0.6 89.2
    1937 1,131,000 18,190 16,614 1,576 16.1 14.7 1.4 90.7
    1938 1,133,000 18,453 16,496 1,957 16.3 14.6 1.7 77.5
    1939 1,128,000 18,475 17,101 1,374 16.4 15.2 1.2 78.8
    1940 1,096,000 18,407 19,024 -617 16.8 17.4 -0.6 83.7
    1941 1,044,000 19,574 23,702 -4,128 18.8 22.7 -4.0
    1942 1,017,000 19,242 20,276 -1,034 18.9 19.9 -1.0 91.8
    1943 1,006,000 16,001 18,120 -2,119 15.9 18.0 -2.1
    1944 990,000 15,180 24,700 -9,520 15.3 24.9 -9.6
    1945 879,000 14,968 20,708 -5,740 17.0 23.6 -6.5 124.8
    1946 928,000 19,408 19,969 -561 20.9 21.5 -0.6 96.8
    1947 977,000 22,721 21,492 1,229 23.3 22.0 1.3 121.4
    1948 1,026,000 21,777 17,549 4,228 21.2 17.1 4.1 84.2
    1949 1,074,000 21,770 16,730 5,040 20.3 15.6 4.7 82.4
    1950 1,101,000 20,279 15,817 4,462 18.4 14.4 4.1 81.2
    1951 1,114,000 20,730 15,354 5,376 18.6 13.7 4.8 76.2
    1952 1,126,000 21,111 15,817 5,294 18.7 14.0 4.7 64.9
    1953 1,138,000 20,146 14,420 5,726 17.7 12.7 5.0 52.2
    1954 1,149,000 20,909 13,981 6,928 18.2 12.2 6.0 49.5
    1955 1,160,000 20,786 13,638 7,148 17.9 11.8 6.2 51.6
    1956 1,171,000 19,660 12,748 6,912 16.8 10.9 5.9 41.2
    1957 1,181,000 19,509 13,026 6,483 16.5 11.0 5.5 40.1
    1958 1,192,000 19,598 12,971 6,627 16.4 10.9 5.6 39.9
    1959 1,203,000 19,938 13,130 6,808 16.5 10.9 5.7 31.7
    1960 1,216,000 20,187 12,738 7,449 16.6 10.5 6.1 1.95 31.1
    1961 1,229,000 20,230 13,036 7,194 16.5 10.6 5.9 1.97 28.0
    1962 1,243,000 19,959 13,495 6,464 16.1 10.9 5.2 1.95 25.2
    1963 1,258,000 19,275 13,251 6,024 15.3 10.5 4.8 1.91 26.0
    1964 1,276,000 19,629 12,754 6,875 15.4 10.0 5.4 1.94 25.4
    1965 1,291,000 18,909 13,520 5,389 14.6 10.5 4.2 1.90 20.3
    1966 1,303,000 18,629 13,800 4,829 14.3 10.6 3.7 1.85 20.0
    1967 1,314,000 18,671 13,699 4,972 14.2 10.4 3.8 1.86 19.2
    1968 1,327,000 19,782 14,225 5,557 14.9 10.7 4.2 2.03 18.0
    1969 1,345,000 20,781 15,150 5,631 15.5 11.3 4.2 2.11 16.7
    1970 1,360,000 21,552 15,186 6,366 15.8 11.2 4.7 2.16 17.7
    1971 1,377,000 22,118 15,038 7,080 16.1 10.9 5.1 2.19 17.5
    1972 1,393,000 21,757 15,520 6,237 15.6 11.1 4.5 2.14 15.9
    1973 1,406,000 21,239 15,573 5,666 15.1 11.1 4.0 2.07 15.9
    1974 1,418,000 21,461 15,393 6,068 15.1 10.9 4.3 2.07 17.6
    1975 1,429,000 21,360 16,572 4,788 14.9 11.6 3.4 2.04 18.2
    1976 1,440,000 21,801 17,351 4,450 15.1 12.0 3.1 2.06 17.5
    1977 1,450,000 21,977 17,094 4,883 15.2 11.8 3.4 2.06 17.5
    1978 1,460,000 21,842 17,812 4,030 15.0 12.2 2.8 2.02 16.5
    1979 1,468,000 21,879 18,062 3,817 14.9 12.3 2.6 2.01 18.3
    1980 1,477,000 22,204 18,199 4,005 15.0 12.3 2.7 2.02 17.1
    1981 1,488,000 22,937 18,349 4,588 15.4 12.3 3.1 2.07 17.0
    1982 1,498,000 23,128 17,893 5,235 15.4 11.9 3.5 2.08 17.2
    1983 1,509,000 24,155 18,190 5,965 16.0 12.1 4.0 2.16 16.1
    1984 1,519,000 24,234 19,086 5,148 16.0 12.6 3.4 2.17 13.6
    1985 1,529,000 23,630 19,343 4,287 15.5 12.7 2.8 2.12 14.1
    1986 1,540,000 24,106 17,986 6,120 15.7 11.7 4.0 2.17 15.9
    1987 1,552,000 25,086 18,279 6,807 16.2 11.8 4.4 2.26 16.0
    1988 1,562,000 25,060 18,551 6,509 16.0 11.9 4.2 2.26 12.4
    1989 1,568,000 24,318 18,536 5,762 15.5 11.8 3.7 2.22 14.8
    1990 1,569,000 22,304 19,531 2,778 14.2 12.4 1.8 2.05 12.3
    1991 1,561,000 19,413 19,715 -302 12.4 12.6 -0.2 1.80 13.3
    1992 1,533,000 18,038 20,126 -2,088 11.8 13.1 -1.4 1.71 15.7
    1993 1,494,000 15,253 21,286 -6,033 10.2 14.2 -4.0 1.49 15.6
    1994 1,463,000 14,176 22,212 -8,036 9.7 15.2 -5.5 1.42 14.4
    1995 1,437,000 13,509 20,828 -7,319 9.4 14.5 -5.1 1.38 14.9
    1996 1,416,000 13,242 19,020 -5,778 9.4 13.4 -4.1 1.37 10.5
    1997 1,400,000 12,577 18,572 -5,995 9.0 13.3 -4.3 1.32 10.0
    1998 1,386,000 12,167 19,445 -7,278 8.8 14.0 -5.3 1.28 9.4
    1999 1,376,000 12,425 18,447 -6,022 9.0 13.4 -4.4 1.32 9.6
    20001 1,397,000 13,067 18,403 -5,336 9.4 13.2 -3.8 1.35 8.4
    2001 1,388,000 12,632 18,516 -5,884 9.1 13.2 -4.2 1.31 8.8
    2002 1,379,000 13,001 18,355 -5,354 9.4 13.3 -3.9 1.36 5.7
    2003 1,371,000 13,036 18,152 -5,116 9.5 13.2 -3.7 1.36 7.0
    2004 1,363,000 13,992 17,685 -3,693 10.3 13.0 -2.7 1.47 6.4
    2005 1,355,000 14,350 17,316 -2,966 10.6 12.8 -2.2 1.52 5.4
    2006 1,347,000 14,877 17,316 -2,439 11.0 12.9 -1.8 1.58 4.4
    2007 1,341,000 15,775 17,409 -1,634 11.8 13.0 -1.2 1.69 5.0
    2008 1,337,000 16,028 16,675 -647 12.0 12.5 -0.5 1.72 5.0
    2009 1,335,000 15,763 16,081 -318 11.8 12.1 -0.2 1.70 3.6
    2010 1,332,000 15,825 15,790 35 11.9 11.9 0.0 1.72 3.3
    2011 1,327,000 14,679 15,244 -565 11.0 11.4 -0.4 1.61 2.5
    2012 1,323,000 14,056 15,450 -1,394 10.6 11.7 -1.1 1.56 3.6
    2013 1,318,000 13,531 15,244 -1,713 10.3 11.6 -1.3 1.52 2.1
    2014 1,314,000 13,551 15,484 -1,933 10.3 11.8 -1.5 1.54 2.7
    2015 1,314,000 13,907 15,243 -1,336 10.6 11.6 -1.0 1.58 2.5
    2016 1,316,000 14,053 15,392 -1,339 10.7 11.7 -1.0 1.60 2.3
    2017 1,317,000 13,784 15,543 -1,759 10.5 11.8 -1.3 1.59 2.3
    2018 1,322,000 14,367 15,751 -1,384 10.9 11.9 -1.0 1.67 1.6
    2019 1,327,000 14,099 15,401 -1,302 10.6 11.6 -1.0 1.66 1.6
    2020 1,329,000 13,209 15,811 -2,602 9.9 11.9 -2.0 1.58 1.4
    2021 1,331,000 13,272 18,587 -5,315 10.0 14.0 -4.0 1.61 2.2
    2022 1,345,000 11,588 17,245 -5,657 8.6 12.8 -4.2
    2023 1,357,739

    1 Population figures from 2000 on were revised based on the 2011 Estonian census and various registers.[47]

    According to the preliminary data of Statistics Estonia, 1,357,739 persons lived in Estonia on 1 January 2023.[10] At 1 January 2022 lived in Estonia 1,331,796 persons, increase in 2022 25,943 persons. (1,330,068 at 1 January 2021, increase in 2021 1,728 persons).[7]


    Current vital statistics[edit]

    [48][49][50]

    Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
    January – December 2021 13,138 18,445 -5,307
    January – December 2022 11,588 17,245 -5,657
    Difference Decrease -1,550 (-11.80%) Positive decrease -1,200 (-6.51%) Decrease -350

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

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    31. ^ a b Eesti rahvastik rahvaloenduste andmetel (Population of Estonia by population censuses) (in Estonian and English). Vol. 2. Eesti Statistikaamet (Statistical Office of Estonia). 1996. ISBN 9985-826-44-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-15. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
    32. ^ "Citizenship". Estonia.eu. 2010-07-02. Archived from the original on 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
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    External links[edit]