Demographics of Ethiopia

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Demographics of Ethiopia
Population100,613,986 (2017 est.)(14th)[1]
Growth rate2.9% (2013 est.) (12th)
Birth rate33.5 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)[2]
Death rate7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Life expectancy60 years (2013 est.)
 • male57.73 years (2013 est.)
 • female62.35 years (2013 est.)
Fertility rate4.6 children born/woman (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate68 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Under 151.00 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
15–64 years0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
65 and over0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Nationality
Major ethnicSee Ethnic Groups of Ethiopia
Language
OfficialSee Languages of Ethiopia

The demographics of Ethiopia encompass the demographic features of Ethiopia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Ethiopia (2007 estimates)[3]
Ethnic group percent
Oromo
34.4%
Amhara
27%
Somali
6.2%
Tigray
6.1%
Sidama
4%
Gurage
2.5%
Welayta
2.3%
Hadiya
1.7%
Afar
1.7%
Gamo
1.5%
Gedeo
1.3%
Silte
1.3%
Kefficho
1.2%
others
8.8%

The country's population is highly diverse, comprising over 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afroasiatic languages, mainly of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans, who together constitute around three-quarters of the population.

Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities also inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas bordering South Sudan. Among these are the Mursi and Anuak.

Languages[edit]

Ethiopia, like most countries in Africa, is a multi-ethnic state. Although the original physical differences between the major ethnic groups have been blurred by centuries, if not millennia, of intermarriage, there remain many who are distinct and unique.

Ethnic differences may also be observed from the great variety of languages spoken in the country, of which there are an astonishing eighty-three, with 200 dialects. These can be broken into four main groups: Semitic, Cushitic, Omotic, and Nilo-Saharan.

The Semitic languages of Ethiopia are related to both Hebrew and Arabic. The Ethiopian languages of this family are derived from Ge'ez, the language of the ancient Axumite kingdom, which was also the language of the country's literature prior to the mid-nineteenth century, as well as parts of most present-day church services.

Ethiopia's Semitic languages are today spoken mainly in the north and centre of the country. The most important of them in the north is Tigrinya, which is used throughout Tigray.

The principal Semitic language of the north-western and centre of the country is Amharic, which is the language of Gondar and Gojjam, as well as much of Wollo and Shewa. Moreover, Amharic is also the official language of administration, and the language of much modern Ethiopian literature.

Two other Semitic languages are spoken to the south and east of Addis Ababa: Guraginya, used by the Gurage in a cluster of areas to the south of the capital, and Adarinya, a tongue current only within the old walled city of Harar and used by the Adare, also known as Harrari, people.

The Cushitic languages, which are less closely related than the Semitic, are found mainly in the south of the country. The most important tongue in this group is Afan Oromo. It is used in a wide stretch of country, including Welega and parts of Ilubabor in the west, Wollo in the north, Shewa and Arsi in the centre, Bale and Sidamo in the south, and Harerge in the east.

Other Cushitic language in the area comprise Somalinya, which is spoken by the Somali in the Ogaden to the east, as well as in the neighboring Somali Republic and part of Djibouti, and the Sidaminya language, used in part of the Sidama region. Cushitic languages, however, are also used in the north of the country, namely Afarinya, spoken by the Afar of eastern Wollo and the northern half of the Djibouti Republic; Saho, in parts of Tigray; and Agawinya, in small pockets in different parts of western Ethiopia.

The Omotic group of languages, which comprise considerably fewer speakers than either the Semitic or the Cushitic, are spoken the south-west of the country, mainly in Gamo Gofa. They have been given the name in recent years because they are spoken in the general area of the Omo River.

The Nilo-Saharan languages, largely peripheral to Ethiopian civilization, are spoken in a wide arc of the country towards the Sudan frontier. They include, from north to south, Gumuz in Gondar and Gojjam, Berta in Welega, and Anuak in Ilubabor

Religion[edit]

Various religions are adhered to in Ethiopia. Most Christians live in the highlands, whereas Muslims mainly inhabit the lowlands. Adherents of traditional faiths are primarily concentrated in the southern regions.

According to the Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (2007 census), the national religious composition is Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Protestantism 18.6%, Roman Catholicism 0.7%, Islam 33.9%, traditional 2.6%, and others 0.6%.[4]

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2011 85,555,555—    
2012 84,320,987−1.44%
2013 86,613,986+2.72%

Source: Central Statistical Agency (CSA)[5]

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[6], the total population was 102,403,196 in 2016, compared to 18,434,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.5%, 55.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% was 65 years or older.The average age is 25.1. [7]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 18 434 44.1 52.9 3
1955 20 298 43.9 53.3 2.8
1960 22 553 43.5 53.8 2.6
1965 25 480 43.5 53.9 2.6
1970 28 959 44.1 53.3 2.7
1975 32 959 44.5 52.7 2.8
1980 35 426 44.5 52.6 2.9
1985 41 078 44.6 52.6 2.9
1990 48 333 45.4 52.1 2.9
1995 57 042 45.9 51.2 2.9
2000 65 578 45.9 51.1 3.0
2005 74 264 44.5 52.4 3.1
2010 82 950 41.5 55.2 3.3

UN projections[edit]

Below are the UN's medium variant projections; numbers are in thousands:[7]

  • 2015 91,999
  • 2020 101,046
  • 2025 109,969
  • 2030 118,514
  • 2035 126,392
  • 2040 133,466
  • 2045 139,729
  • 2050 145,187

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Ethiopia is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates: [7]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR CDR NC TFR IMR
1950-1955 956 000 580 000 377 000 49.4 29.9 19.5 7.17 199
1955-1960 1 027 000 572 000 455 000 47.9 26.7 21.2 6.90 181
1960-1965 1 155 000 565 000 589 000 48.1 23.5 24.5 6.90 160
1965-1970 1 298 000 594 000 704 000 47.7 21.8 25.9 6.87 148
1970-1975 1 450 000 638 000 812 000 46.8 20.6 26.2 6.81 140
1975-1980 1 579 000 676 000 902 000 46.2 19.8 26.4 6.76 135
1980-1985 1 804 000 794 000 1 011 000 47.2 20.8 26.4 6.94 140
1985-1990 2 145 000 850 000 1 295 000 48.0 19.0 29.0 7.06 127
1990-1995 2 501 000 913 000 1 588 000 47.5 17.3 30.1 7.00 115
1995-2000 2 694 000 932 000 1 763 000 43.9 15.2 28.7 6.48 101
2000-2005 2 713 000 908 000 1 805 000 38.8 13.0 25.8 5.60 87
2005-2010 2 619 000 822 000 1 797 000 33.3 10.5 22.9 4.60 72
2010-2015 3 108 000 730 000 2 378 000 4.59

CBR = crude birth rate (per 1,000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1,000); NC = natural change (per 1,000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1,000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths[8]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2007* 73 750 932 2 218 457 839 038 1 379 419 28,8 10,9 17,9 4,16
  • Data refer to the 12 months preceding the census in May.

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 34.1 1985–1990 46.2
1955–1960 36.7 1990–1995 48.1
1960–1965 40.1 1995–2000 50.7
1965–1970 42.1 2000–2005 53.6
1970–1975 43.5 2005–2010 59.1
1975–1980 44.3 2010–2015 63.7
1980–1985 43.5

Source: UN World Population Prospects[9]

Total Fertility rate in Ethiopia (Census 2007)[edit]

As per 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia [10]

Region Urban TFR Rural TFR Total TFR (U+R)
Ethiopia (Country Total) 2,220 4,650 4.35
Tigray Region 2.91 4.90 4.44
Afar Region 2.44 2.00 2.07
Amhara Region 2.13 4.54 4,17
Oromia Region 2,635 5,235 4.84
Somali Region 2,175 1,985 2.010
Benishangul - Gumuz Region 3.00 4.80 4.52
S.N.N.P Region 2.75 4.715 4.49
Gambella Region 2.725 2,930 2,885
Harari Region 1,725 4,725 2,885
Addis Ababa City Administration 1.485 - 1.485
Dira Dawa City Administration 2,155 5,455 2,985
Region 17 3,210 2,585 2,845

Ethiopia regions english.png

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[11]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2000 41.3 5.9 (4.9) 30.7 3.3 (2.7) 42.9 6.4 (5.4)
2005 35.7 5.4 (4.0) 23.4 2.4 (1.8) 37.3 6.0 (4.5)
2011 34.5 4.8 (3.8) 26.4 2.6 36.2 5.5
2016 31.8 4.6 (3.6) 23.9 2.3 (2.1) 33.2 5.2 (4.0)

Fertility data as of 2011 (DHS Program):[12]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Tigray 4.6 7.2 6.4
Afar 5.0 9.9 7.3
Amhara 4.2 4.7 6.9
Oromiya 5.6 8.3 7.1
Somali 7.1 12.4 7.9
Benishangul-Gumuz 5.2 10.2 6.6
SNNP 4.9 9.3 7.3
Gambela 4.0 5.7 5.6
Harari 3.8 6.7 5.5
Addis Ababa 1.5 3.6 3.3
Dire Dawa 3.4 7.2 4.8

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

99,465,819

Age structure

0-14 years: 43.94% (male 21,900,571/female 21,809,643)
15-24 years: 19.98% (male 9,865,976/female 10,009,596)
25-54 years: 29.31% (male 14,487,280/female 14,667,179)
55-64 years: 3.88% (male 1,882,315/female 1,981,762)
65 years and over: 2.88% (male 1,289,336/female 1,572,161) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years
female: 17.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

2.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate

37.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate

8.19 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Urbanization

urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 61.48 years
male: 59.11 years
female: 63.93 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.15 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS

adult prevalence rate: 1.15%
people living with HIV/AIDS: 730,300
deaths: 23,400 (2014 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Statistics". Unicef.org. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  3. ^ "Africa - Ethiopia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  6. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  8. ^ "3. Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  10. ^ "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  11. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  12. ^ "Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".