Demographics of Europe

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Population density in the European Union and the EFTA countries, along with candidate countries (2017)
Population growth and decline as of 2009 in Europe and the Middle East

Figures for the population of Europe vary according to the particular definition of Europe's boundaries. In 2018, Europe had a total population of over 751 million people.[1][2] Russia is the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 146 million.

Europe's population growth is low, and its median age high. Most of Europe is in a mode of sub-replacement fertility, which means that each new(-born) generation is becoming less populous than the older.[3] Nonetheless most West-European countries still have growing populations mainly due to immigration within Europe and from outside Europe and some due to increases in life expectancy and population momentum. Some current and past factors in European demography have included emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population.

History[edit]

Estimates for historical population sizes of Europe (including Central Asia, listed under "former USSR") based on Maddison (2007),[4] in millions, with estimated percentage of world population:

Population of Europe, in millions, by year
Year Population
(% of world total)
AD 1 34 (15%)
1000 40 (15%)
1500 78 (18%)
1600 112 (20%)
1700 127 (21%)
1820 224 (21%)
1913 498 (28%)
2000 742 (13%)

Historical population of Europe and former USSR, AD 1–2020[edit]

Source: Maddison and others (University of Groningen)[5]

Population by year (in thousands)
Country/region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998[5] 2020
Austria 500 700 2000 2500 2500 3369 4520 6767 6935 7586 8078 8901
Belgium 300 400 1400 1600 2000 3424 5096 7666 8640 9738 10197 11493
Denmark 180 360 600 650 700 1155 1888 2983 4269 5022 5303 5823
Finland 20 40 300 400 400 1169 1754 3027 4009 4666 5153 5536
France 5000 6500 15000 18500 21471 31246 38440 41463 41836 52118 58805 67287
Germany 3000 3500 12000 16000 15000 24905 39231 65058 68371 78956 82029 83191
Italy 7000 5000 10500 13100 13300 20176 27888 37248 47105 54751 57592 59258
the Netherlands 200 300 950 1500 1900 2355 3615 6164 10114 13438 15700 17425
Norway 100 200 300 400 500 970 1735 2447 3265 3961 4432 5368
Sweden 200 400 550 760 1260 2585 4164 5621 7015 8137 8851 10379
Switzerland 300 300 650 1000 1200 1829 2664 3864 4694 6441 7130 8667
United Kingdom 800 2000 3942 6170 8565 21226 31393 45649 50363 56223 59237 67886
Portugal 500 600 1000 1100 2000 3297 4353 6004 8512 8634 9968 10305
Spain 4500 4000 6800 8240 8770 12203 16201 20263 27868 34810 39371 47431
Greece 2000 1000 1000 1500 1500 2312 7554 8929 10835 10689
13 small countries 100 113 276 358 394 657
Total Western Europe 24700 25413 57268 73778 81460 132888 187532 261007 305060 358390 388399
Albania 200 200 200 200 300 437 1215 2296 3108 2878
Bulgaria 500 800 800 1250 1250 2187 4200 7251 8621 8257 6917
Czechoslovakia 1000 1250 3000 4500 4500 7190 12393 14563 15686 16366
− Czech Rep. 10221 8930 10295 10702
- Slovakia 3463 4642 5391 5460
Hungary 300 500 1250 1250 1500 4571 9338 10432 10237 9770
Poland 450 1200 4000 5000 6000 10426 25753 33363 38666 38268
Romania 800 800 2000 2000 2500 6389 7360 16311 20828 22503 19266
Yugoslavia 1500 1750 2250 2750 2750 5215 16578 21088
Eastern Europe 4750 6500 13500 16950 18800 36415 52182 79604 87289 110490 121006
Former USSR 3900 7100 16950 20700 26550 54765 88672 156192 180050 249748 290866
- Russia 102833 132434 147671 146171
- Ukraine 31142 36905 48274 50370 41902
World 230820 268273 437818 555828 603410 1041092 1270014 1791020 2524531 3913482 5907680 7800000
Percentages of world population, by year
Country/region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998 2018
Austria 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
Belgium 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2
Denmark 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Finland 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
France 2.2 2.4 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.0 3.0 2.3 1.7 1.3 1.0
Germany 1.3 1.3 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.4 3.1 3.6 2.7 2.0 1.4
Italy 3.0 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.0
Netherlands 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
Norway 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Sweden 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1
Switzerland 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
United Kingdom 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.4 1.0
Portugal 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2
Spain 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.7
Other 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3
Total Western Europe 10.7 9.5 13.1 13.3 13.5 12.8 14.8 14.6 12.1 9.2 6.6
Eastern Europe 2.1 2.4 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.5 4.1 4.4 3.5 2.8 2.0
Former USSR 1.7 2.6 3.9 3.7 4.4 5.3 7.0 8.7 7.1 6.4 4.9
Sum 14.5 14.5 20.1 20.0 21.0 21.6 25.9 27.7 22.7 18.4 13.5 9.8[6]
World 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Note: These numbers do not include the population of European countries' colonies. Only population within Europe.

Total population[edit]

330,000,000 people lived in Europe in 1916.[7] In 1950 there were 549,000,000.[8] The population of Europe in 2015 was estimated to be 741 million according to the United Nations,[8] which was slightly less than 11% of the world population. The precise figure depends on the exact definition of the geographic extent of Europe. The population of the European Union (EU) was 509 million as of 2015.[9] Non-EU countries situated in Europe in their entirety[10] account for another 94 million. Five transcontinental countries[11] have a total of 247 million people, of which about half reside in Europe proper.

As it stands now, around 10% of the world's people live in Europe. If demographic trends keep their pace, its share may fall to around 7% in 2050, but still amounting to 716 million people in absolute numbers, according to the United Nations estimate.[8] (The decline in the percentage is partly due to high fertility rates in other parts of the world.) The sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy in most European states mean a declining and aging population. High immigration and emigration levels within and from outside the continent are taking place and quickly changing countries, specifically in Western Europe, from a single ethnic group to a multicultural society. These trends change societies' economies as well as their political and social institutions.[how?][citation needed]

Vital statistics[edit]

Birth and death rates, by year
Year Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural
change
Crude rates (per 1000)
Births Deaths Natural change Fertility
1950 552,650,637 12,279,631 6,077,294 6,202,337 22.2 11.0 11.2
1951 558,223,197 12,169,682 6,325,019 5,844,663 21.8 11.3 10.5
1952 563,493,475 12,177,623 6,001,839 6,175,784 21.6 10.7 11.0
1953 569,038,338 11,941,894 6,019,718 5,922,176 21.0 10.6 10.4
1954 574,789,670 12,324,941 5,898,046 6,426,895 21.4 10.3 11.2
1955 580,851,705 12,212,326 5,799,677 6,412,649 21.0 10.0 11.0
1956 586,901,634 12,146,266 5,829,471 6,316,795 20.7 9.9 10.8
1957 592,961,193 12,266,984 5,933,392 6,333,592 20.7 10.0 10.7
1958 599,136,267 12,252,182 5,600,008 6,652,174 20.4 9.3 11.1
1959 605,348,897 12,265,796 5,761,645 6,504,151 20.3 9.5 10.7
1960 611,080,345 12,250,496 5,714,998 6,535,498 20.0 9.4 10.7
1961 617,765,543 12,128,282 5,686,453 6,441,829 19.6 9.2 10.4
1962 624,539,799 11,878,305 6,011,184 5,867,121 19.0 9.6 9.4
1963 631,178,748 11,815,819 5,990,339 5,825,480 18.7 9.5 9.2
1964 636,849,204 11,635,983 5,802,060 5,833,923 18.3 9.1 9.2
1965 642,428,289 11,263,795 6,035,103 5,228,692 17.5 9.4 8.1
1966 647,361,672 11,159,800 6,028,414 5,131,386 17.2 9.3 7.9
1967 651,746,129 11,143,819 6,178,007 4,965,812 17.1 9.5 7.6
1968 656,477,459 10,974,458 6,386,235 4,588,223 16.7 9.7 7.0
1969 660,989,825 10,837,646 6,633,586 4,204,060 16.4 10.0 6.4
1970 664,048,777 10,710,341 6,579,972 4,130,369 16.1 9.9 6.2
1971 668,951,352 10,813,587 6,644,557 4,169,030 16.2 9.9 6.2
1972 673,335,593 10,640,832 6,691,455 3,949,377 15.8 9.9 5.9
1973 677,566,692 10,404,644 6,806,797 3,597,847 15.4 10.0 5.3
1974 681,644,899 10,539,214 6,787,766 3,751,448 15.5 10.0 5.5
1975 685,723,151 10,386,253 7,034,405 3,351,848 15.1 10.3 4.9
1976 688,988,353 10,380,332 7,108,368 3,271,964 15.1 10.3 4.7
1977 692,598,706 10,273,774 7,071,683 3,202,091 14.8 10.2 4.6
1978 695,805,436 10,240,284 7,207,328 3,032,956 14.7 10.4 4.4
1979 699,351,916 10,250,780 7,294,794 2,955,986 14.7 10.4 4.2
1980 702,641,860 10,299,362 7,452,692 2,846,670 14.7 10.6 4.1
1981 705,680,147 10,173,633 7,419,189 2,754,444 14.4 10.5 3.9
1982 708,358,982 10,217,922 7,352,220 2,865,702 14.4 10.4 4.0
1983 711,003,288 10,281,966 7,568,702 2,713,264 14.5 10.6 3.8
1984 713,601,049 10,180,601 7,613,126 2,567,475 14.3 10.7 3.6
1985 716,205,711 10,074,137 7,730,412 2,343,725 14.1 10.8 3.3
1986 719,150,440 10,207,884 7,481,632 2,726,252 14.2 10.4 3.8
1987 722,244,373 10,148,938 7,469,132 2,679,806 14.1 10.3 3.7
1988 725,546,176 10,017,572 7,560,826 2,456,746 13.8 10.4 3.4
1989 728,372,277 9,638,871 7,585,513 2,053,358 13.2 10.4 2.8
1990 730,830,065 9,422,327 7,745,752 1,676,575 12.9 10.6 2.3
1991 733,009,781 9,023,724 7,873,774 1,149,950 12.3 10.7 1.6
1992 730,096,476 8,545,246 7,936,689 608,557 11.7 10.9 0.8
1993 731,078,271 8,080,313 8,416,692 -336,379 11.1 11.5 -0.5
1994 731,823,499 7,917,773 8,518,141 -600,368 10.8 11.6 -0.8
1995 732,194,921 7,706,917 8,514,506 -807,589 10.5 11.6 -1.1
1996 735,716,936 7,645,955 8,403,761 -757,806 10.4 11.4 -1.0
1997 735,626,680 7,532,303 8,270,485 -738,182 10.2 11.2 -1.0
1998 735,357,189 7,448,190 8,211,210 -763,020 10.1 11.2 -1.0
1999 735,220,223 7,306,598 8,399,803 -1,093,205 9.9 11.4 -1.5
2000 735,281,836 7,391,238 8,404,825 -1,013,587 10.1 11.4 -1.4
2001 734,479,099 7,311,788 8,376,261 -1,064,473 10.0 11.4 -1.4
2002 734,113,675 7,363,664 8,537,143 -1,173,479 10.0 11.6 -1.6
2003 734,835,737 7,510,105 8,676,316 -1,166,211 10.2 11.8 -1.6
2004 735,580,756 7,630,690 8,384,784 -754,094 10.4 11.4 -1.0
2005 736,717,375 7,595,806 8,521,892 -926,086 10.3 11.6 -1.3
2006 737,678,808 7,742,855 8,277,039 -534,184 10.5 11.2 -0.7
2007 738,915,057 7,953,156 8,245,072 -291,916 10.8 11.2 -0.4
2008 740,211,536 8,261,791 8,274,493 -12,702 11.2 11.2 0.0
2009 741,816,205 8,272,129 8,175,408 96,721 11.2 11.0 0.1
2010 743,090,810 8,276,170 8,192,169 84,001 11.1 11.0 0.1
2011 742,829,600 8,125,121 8,011,717 113,404 10.9 10.8 0.2
2012 744,057,815 8,225,815 8,126,630 99,185 11.1 10.9 0.1
2013 745,572,312 8,057,803 8,069,336 -11,533 10.8 10.8 0.0
2014 746,962,843 8,112,733 8,016,661 96,072 10.9 10.7 0.1
2015 749,227,345 8,006,695 8,263,948 -257,253 10.7 11.0 -0.3
2016 750,610,036 7,978,910 8,138,734 -159,824 10.6 10.8 -0.2
2017 751,412,637 7,641,610 8,200,819 -559,209 10.2 10.9 -0.7
2018 751,612,093 7,401,572 8,252,295 -850,723 9.8 11.0 -1.1
2019
Year Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural
change
Crude rates (per 1000)
Births Deaths Natural change Fertility

Population by country[edit]

Modern political map
Council of Europe members, with the ten founding states in yellow

According to different definitions, such as consideration of the concept of Central Europe, the following territories and regions may be subject to various other categorisations aside from geographic conventions.


* indicates "Demographics of COUNTRY or TERRITORY" links.

Population and area of European countries/territories
Country (or territory) Population
[1][2]
Area
(km2)[12]
Density
(per km2)
Capital
 Albania * 2,882,740 28,748 100 Tirana
 Andorra * 77,006 468 165 Andorra la Vella
 Armenia * 2,951,745 29,743 99 Yerevan
 Austria * 8,891,388 83,871 106 Vienna
 Azerbaijan * 9,949,537 86,600 115 Baku
 Belarus * 9,452,617 207,600 46 Minsk
 Belgium * 11,482,178 30,528 376 Brussels
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * 3,323,925 51,209 65 Sarajevo
 Bulgaria * 7,051,608 110,900 64 Sofia
 Croatia * 4,156,405 56,594 73 Zagreb
 Cyprus * 1,189,265 9,251 129 Nicosia
 Czech Republic * 10,665,677 78,866 135 Prague
 Denmark * 5,752,126 43,094 133 Copenhagen
 Estonia * 1,322,920 45,227 29 Tallinn
 Faroe Islands * (Denmark) 49,709 1,399 35.6 Tórshavn
 Finland * 5,522,576 336,852 16 Helsinki
 France * 64,990,511 551,500 118 Paris
 Georgia * 4,002,942 69,700 57 Tbilisi
 Germany * 83,124,418 357,137 233 Berlin
 Gibraltar * (UK) 33,718 6 5,620 Gibraltar
 Greece * 10,522,246 131,957 80 Athens
 Guernsey *[d] 65,345 63 1,037 St. Peter Port
 Hungary * 9,707,499 93,026 104 Budapest
 Iceland * 336,713 103,000 3 Reykjavík
 Ireland * 4,818,690 69,825 69 Dublin
 Isle of Man *[d] 84,077 572 147 Douglas
 Italy * 60,627,291 301,339 201 Rome
 Jersey *[d] 97,857 116 844 Saint Helier
 Kosovo **[p] 1,859,203 10,887 171 Pristina
 Latvia * 1,928,459 64,562 30 Riga
 Liechtenstein * 37,910 160 237 Vaduz
 Lithuania * 2,801,264 65,300 43 Vilnius
 Luxembourg * 604,245 2,586 234 Luxembourg
 Malta * 439,248 316 1,390 Valletta
 Moldova * 4,051,944 33,846 120 Chişinău
 Monaco * 38,682 2 19,341 Monaco
 Montenegro * 627,809 13,812 45 Podgorica
 Netherlands * 17,059,560 37,354 457 Amsterdam
 North Macedonia * 2,082,957 25,713 81 Skopje
 Norway * 5,337,962 323,787 16 Oslo
 Poland * 37,921,592 311,888 122 Warsaw
 Portugal *[f] 10,256,193 92,212 111 Lisbon
 Romania * 19,506,114 238,391 82 Bucharest
 Russia * 145,734,038 17,098,246 9 Moscow
 San Marino * 33,785 61 554 San Marino
 Serbia *[g] 8,802,754 88,361 100 Belgrade
 Slovakia * 5,453,014 49,036 111 Bratislava
 Slovenia * 2,077,837 20,273 102 Ljubljana
 Spain * 46,692,858 505,992 92 Madrid
 Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway) 2,868 62,422 0 Longyearbyen
 Sweden * 9,971,638 450,295 22 Stockholm
 Switzerland * 8,525,611 41,285 207 Bern
 Transnistria * 505,000 4,163 121.3 Tiraspol
 Turkey * 82,340,088 783,562 105 Ankara
 Ukraine * 44,246,156 603,500 73 Kyiv
 United Kingdom * 67,141,684 242,495 277 London
 Vatican City * 842 0.4 1,913.6 Vatican City
 Åland Islands * (Finland) 28,666 1,580 18 Mariehamn

Age[edit]

Mirroring their mostly sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy, European countries tend to have older populations overall. They had nine of the top ten highest median ages in national populations in 2005. Only Japan had an older population.[13]

Religion[edit]

Over the last several centuries, religious practice has been on the decline in a process of secularization. Several European countries have experienced a decline in church attendance as well as a decline in the number of people professing a religious belief. The 2010 Eurobarometer survey found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of the European Union that they believe there is a God, 26% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force and 20% don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force. 3% declined to answer.[14] The Eurobarometer survey must be taken with caution, however, as there are discrepancies between it and national census results. For example, in the United Kingdom, the 2001 census revealed that over 70% of the population regarded themselves as "Christians" with only 15% professing to have no religion, though the wording of the question has been criticized as "misleading" by the British Humanist Association.[15] The 2011 census showed a dramatic reduction to less than 60% of the population regarding themselves as "Christians".[16]

Despite its decline, Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe. According to a survey published in 2010, 76.2% of Europeans identified themselves as Christians.[17][18] Catholics were the largest Christian group in Europe, accounting for more than 48% of European Christians.[19] The second-largest Christian group in Europe was the Orthodox, who made up 32% of European Christians.[19] And about 19% of European Christians were part of the Protestant tradition. Europe constitutes in absolute terms the world's largest Christian population.[20]

According to a 2003 study,[21] 47% of French people declared themselves as agnostics in 2003. This situation is often called "Post-Christian Europe". A decrease in religiousness and church attendance in western Europe (especially in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden) has been noted. According to a survey published in 2012, atheists and agnostics make up about 18.2% of the European population.[22] According to the same survey the religiously unaffiliated make up the majority of the population only in two European countries: Czech Republic (75%) and Estonia (60%).[22]

According to another survey about Religiosity in the European Union from 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity was the largest religion in the Union (accounting for 72% of the total population), Catholics were with 48% the largest Christian group in the Union, Protestants made up 12%, Eastern Orthodox made up 8% and other Christians accounted for 4% of the total population.[23] non-believers/agnostics accounted for 16%, atheists accounted for 7% and Muslims accounted for 2%.[24]

Muslims are younger and have more children than non-Muslims in Europe overall.[25]

Age and fertility rate for women in Europe
Religion Median age, 2016 Total fertility rate, 2015–2020[fn 1][25]
Muslims 30 yo 2.6 children/woman
Non-Muslims 44 yo 1.6 children/woman

Fertility and migration drove Muslim population growth in Europe between 2010 and 2016.[26]

Estimated population change between 2010 and 2016 due to three factors (millions)
Religion Natural increase Net migration Religious switching[26]
Muslims +2.92 +3.48 −0.16
Non-Muslims −1.67 +1.29 +0.16

Ethnic groups[edit]

Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. (including Europeans in Siberia)[27]

The largest ethnic groups are the Russians, with 117 million, and the Germans, with 72 million. In some countries such as the United Kingdom, France and Spain, the designation of nationality may controversially take on ethnic aspects, subsuming smaller ethnic groups such as Scots, Welsh, Bretons and Basques, making it difficult to quantify a "British" or "French" ethnicity, for example.

Approximately 20 million non-Europeans live in the EU, 4% of the overall population.[28] There are an estimated 10 million Romani people in Europe.[29]

Language[edit]

Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. This family is divided into a number of branches, including Romance, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic and Greek. The Uralic languages, which include Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, also have a significant presence in Europe. The Turkic family also has several European members, while the North Caucasian and Kartvelian families are important in the southeastern extremity of geographical Europe. The Basque language of the western Pyrenees is an isolate unrelated to any other group, while Maltese is the only Semitic language in Europe with national language status. The most spoken language of Europe is Russian, which belongs to the group of Slavic languages.

The European Union, which excludes many European countries (e.g. Norway, Russia, Switzerland, United Kingdom), recognised 23 official languages as of 2007.[31] According to the same source, the eight most natively spoken languages in the EU were (percentage of total EU population[31]):

  1. 19% German
  2. 13% French
  3. 12% English
  4. 11% Italian
  5. 9% Spanish
  6. 9% Polish
  7. 7% Romanian
  8. 5% Dutch

These figures change when foreign language skills are taken into account. The list below shows the top eight European languages ordered by total number of speakers in the EU:[31]

  1. 49% English
  2. 35% German
  3. 26% French
  4. 16% Italian
  5. 15% Spanish
  6. 10% Polish
  7. 7% Russian
  8. 6% Dutch

This makes German the most frequently spoken native language and English the most frequently spoken non-native language overall in the European Union, with German the second-most common language overall.

Languages that are not official state languages are protected in many European countries by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. These can include languages spoken by relatively many people, such as Catalan and Basque in Spain, as well as languages spoken by relatively few such as Cornish and Scottish Gaelic in the United Kingdom.

Genetic origins[edit]

Homo sapiens appeared in Europe roughly 40,000 years ago, with the settlement of the Cro-Magnons. Over the prehistoric period there was continuous settlement in Europe, notably by the immediate descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans who migrated west after the advent of the Neolithic revolution.[32]

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA[edit]

Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have suggested substantial genetic homogeneity of European populations,[33] with only a few geographic or linguistic isolates appearing to be genetic isolates as well.[34] On the other hand, analyses of the Y chromosome[35][36] and of autosomal diversity[37] have shown a general gradient of genetic similarity running from the southeast to the northwest of the continent.

Population structure[edit]

A study in May 2009[38] that examined 19 populations from Europe using 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) highlighted the genetic diversity of European populations corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and distinguished "several distinct regions" within Europe:

In this study, Fst (Fixation index) was found to correlate considerably with geographic distances ranging from ≤0.0010 for neighbouring populations to 0.0230 for Southern Italy and Finland. For comparisons, pair-wise Fst of non-European samples were as follows: Europeans – Yoruba (West Africans) 0.1530; Europeans – Chinese 0.1100; Yoruba (West Africans) – Chinese 0.1900.[39]

A recent genetic study published in the "European Journal of Human Genetics" in Nature (2019) showed that populations of Europe, South Asia (India), Western Asia, Northern Africa, and parts of Central Asia are closely related to each other. These mentioned groups are distinguishable from selected control populations in East Asia, Western Africa and Eastern Africa (Somali & Ethiopian Jews, selected as outlier clusters).[40]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ a: Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, or Africa.
^ b: Includes Transnistria, a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
^ c: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. However, the population and area figures include the entire state.
^ d: Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom. Other Channel Islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey include Alderney and Sark.
^ e: Cyprus is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus.
^ f: Figures for Portugal include the Azores and Madeira archipelagos, both in Northern Atlantic.
^ g: Area figure for Serbia includes Kosovo, a province that unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and whose sovereign status is unclear. Population and density figures are 2010 estimates and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo.
^ h: Figures for France include metropolitan France but not overseas departments and territories as they are not part of the European continent.
^ j: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers. However, area and population figures refer to the entire country.
^ k: Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
^ m: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the population and area figures include the entire state. This also includes Georgian estimates for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared and de facto achieved independence. The International recognition, however, is limited.
^ o: The total figures for area and population includes the whole of the transcontinental countries. The precision of these figure is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extend of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.
^ p: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is a 2007 estimate.
^ r: Abkhazia and South Ossetia unilaterally declared their independence from Georgia on 25 August 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their sovereign status is unclear. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.

  1. ^ The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]