Demographics of Europe

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Population density in the European Union and the EFTA countries, along with candidate countries (2017)
Population growth and decline as of 2009 in Europe and the Middle East

Figures for the population of Europe vary according to the particular definition of Europe's boundaries. In 2018, Europe had a total population of over 751 million people.[1][2] Russia is the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 146 million.

Europe's population growth is low, and its median age high. Most of Europe is in a mode of sub-replacement fertility, which means that each new(-born) generation is less populous than the older.[3] Nonetheless, most West-European countries still have growing populations mainly due to immigration within Europe and from outside Europe and some due to increases in life expectancy and population momentum. Some current and past factors in European demography have included emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population.

History[edit]

According to Volker Heyd, an archaeologist at the University of Helsinki, up to 7 million people lived in Europe in 3000 BC.[4]

Estimates for historical population sizes of Europe (including Central Asia, listed under "former USSR") based on Maddison (2007),[5] in millions, with estimated percentage of world population:

Population of Europe, in millions, by year[citation needed]
Year Population
(% of world total)
CE 1 34 (15%)
1000 40 (15%)
1500 78 (18%)
1600 112 (20%)
1700 127 (21%)
1820 224 (21%)
1913 498 (28%)
2000 742 (13%)

Historical population of Europe and former USSR, CE 1–2020[edit]

Source: Maddison and others (University of Groningen)[6]

Population by year (in thousands)
Country/region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998[6] 2020
Austria 500 700 2000 2500 2500 3369 4520 6767 6935 7586 8078 8901
Belgium 300 400 1400 1600 2000 3424 5096 7666 8640 9738 10197 11493
Denmark 180 360 600 650 700 1155 1888 2983 4269 5022 5303 5823
Finland 20 40 300 400 400 1169 1754 3027 4009 4666 5153 5536
France 5000 6500 15000 18500 21471 31246 38440 41463 41836 52118 58805 67287
Germany 3000 3500 12000 16000 15000 24905 39231 65058 68371 78956 82029 83191
Italy 7000 5000 10500 13100 13300 20176 27888 37248 47105 54751 57592 59258
the Netherlands 200 300 950 1500 1900 2355 3615 6164 10114 13438 15700 17425
Norway 100 200 300 400 500 970 1735 2447 3265 3961 4432 5368
Sweden 200 400 550 760 1260 2585 4164 5621 7015 8137 8851 10379
Switzerland 300 300 650 1000 1200 1829 2664 3864 4694 6441 7130 8667
United Kingdom 800 2000 3942 6170 8565 21226 31393 45649 50363 56223 59237 67886
Portugal 500 600 1000 1100 2000 3297 4353 6004 8512 8634 9968 10305
Spain 4500 4000 6800 8240 8770 12203 16201 20263 27868 34810 39371 47431
Greece 2000 1000 1000 1500 1500 2312 7554 8929 10835 10689
13 small countries 100 113 276 358 394 657
Total Western Europe 24700 25413 57268 73778 81460 132888 187532 261007 305060 358390 388399 419639
Albania 200 200 200 200 300 437 1215 2296 3108 2878
Bulgaria 500 800 800 1250 1250 2187 4200 7251 8621 8257 6917
Czechoslovakia 1000 1250 3000 4500 4500 7190 12393 14563 15686 16366
− Czech Rep. 10221 8930 10295 10702
- Slovakia 3463 4642 5391 5460
Hungary 300 500 1250 1250 1500 4571 9338 10432 10237 9770
Poland 450 1200 4000 5000 6000 10426 25753 33363 38666 38268
Romania 800 800 2000 2000 2500 6389 7360 16311 20828 22503 19266
Yugoslavia 1500 1750 2250 2750 2750 5215 16578 21088
Eastern Europe 4750 6500 13500 16950 18800 36415 52182 79604 87289 110490 121006 109627
Former USSR 3900 7100 16950 20700 26550 54765 88672 156192 180050 249748 290866
- Russia 102833 132434 147671 146171
- Ukraine 31142 36905 48274 50370 41902
World 230820 268273 437818 555828 603410 1041092 1270014 1791020 2524531 3913482 5907680 7800000
(%) Percentages of world population, by year
Country/region 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998 2018
Austria 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
Belgium 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2
Denmark 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Finland 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
France 2.2 2.4 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.0 3.0 2.3 1.7 1.3 1.0
Germany 1.3 1.3 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.4 3.1 3.6 2.7 2.0 1.4
Italy 3.0 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.0
Netherlands 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
Norway 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Sweden 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1
Switzerland 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
United Kingdom 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.4 1.0
Portugal 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2
Spain 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.7
Other 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3
Total Western Europe 10.7 9.5 13.1 13.3 13.5 12.8 14.8 14.6 12.1 9.2 6.6
Eastern Europe 2.1 2.4 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.5 4.1 4.4 3.5 2.8 2.0
Former USSR 1.7 2.6 3.9 3.7 4.4 5.3 7.0 8.7 7.1 6.4 4.9
Sum 14.5 14.5 20.1 20.0 21.0 21.6 25.9 27.7 22.7 18.4 13.5 9.8[7]
World 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Note: These numbers do not include the population of European countries' colonies. Only population within Europe.

Total population[edit]

330,000,000 people lived in Europe in 1916.[8] In 1950 there were 549,000,000.[9] The population of Europe in 2015 was estimated to be 741 million according to the United Nations,[9] which was slightly less than 11% of the world population. The precise figure depends on the exact definition of the geographic extent of Europe. The population of the European Union (EU) was 509 million as of 2015.[10] Non-EU countries situated in Europe in their entirety[11] account for another 94 million. Five transcontinental countries[12] have a total of 247 million people, of which about half reside in Europe proper.

As it stands now, around 10% of the world's people live in Europe. If demographic trends keep their pace, its share may fall to around 7% in 2050, but still amounting to 716 million people in absolute numbers, according to the United Nations estimate.[9] (The decline in the percentage is partly due to high fertility rates in Africa and South America.) The sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy in most European states mean a declining and aging population. High immigration and emigration levels within and from outside the continent are taking place and quickly changing countries, specifically in Western Europe, from a single ethnic group to a multicultural society. These trends change societies' economies as well as their political and social institutions.[how?][citation needed]

Vital statistics[edit]

Birth and death rates, by year[13]
Year Average
population
Natural
Population
change
Live births Deaths Crude rates (per 1000) Fertility Life expectancy
Births Deaths
1950        549,721,718   4,834,879          12,202,220          6,473,233 22.2 11.8 2.70 62.8
1951        554,559,502    4,840,688          12,112,425          6,609,794 21.8 11.9 2.66 62.8
1952        559,609,904    5,260,115          12,142,368          6,265,135 21.7 11.2 2.66 64.0
1953        565,058,633    5,637,345          12,120,826          6,220,937 21.4 11.0 2.64 64.7
1954        570,670,994    5,587,376          12,151,779          6,072,645 21.3 10.6 2.64 65.5
1955        576,304,974    5,680,584          12,134,270          5,987,151 21.0 10.4 2.63 66.0
1956        581,975,516    5,660,500          12,133,583          5,899,594 20.8 10.1 2.62 66.9
1957        587,711,635    5,811,737          12,194,100          5,963,269 20.7 10.1 2.62 66.9
1958        593,669,297    6,103,587          12,177,600          5,647,571 20.5 9.5 2.60 68.2
1959        599,684,870    5,927,559          12,178,245          5,816,056 20.3 9.7 2.60 68.1
1960        605,629,870    5,962,441          12,098,378          5,783,828 20.0 9.5 2.58 68.8
1961        611,711,020    6,199,861          11,990,399          5,749,292 19.6 9.4 2.56 69.1
1962        617,672,206    5,722,509          11,784,056          6,023,706 19.1 9.8 2.53 68.9
1963        623,335,994    5,605,068          11,654,646          6,031,219 18.7 9.7 2.52 69.2
1964        628,944,878    5,612,700          11,467,618          5,843,514 18.2 9.3 2.50 69.9
1965        634,267,606    5,032,756          11,141,596          6,058,752 17.6 9.6 2.45 69.8
1966        639,264,461    4,960,955          10,950,076          6,074,808 17.1 9.5 2.42 70.0
1967        644,114,436    4,738,995          10,969,039          6,204,646 17.0 9.6 2.42 70.0
1968        648,610,191    4,252,515          10,821,004          6,427,622 16.7 9.9 2.38 69.9
1969        652,740,596    4,008,293          10,685,498          6,652,543 16.4 10.2 2.33 69.6
1970        656,521,426    3,553,368          10,568,071          6,602,177 16.1 10.1 2.28 70.0
1971        660,476,010    4,355,799          10,662,541          6,675,051 16.1 10.1 2.27 70.1
1972        664,799,679    4,291,540          10,499,844          6,699,913 15.8 10.1 2.21 70.3
1973        668,909,022    3,927,145          10,322,172          6,814,598 15.4 10.2 2.14 70.4
1974        672,912,941    4,080,695          10,406,013          6,818,259 15.5 10.1 2.13 70.6
1975        676,770,845    3,635,112          10,285,047          7,009,188 15.2 10.4 2.07 70.5
1976        680,361,150    3,545,498          10,242,399          7,085,837 15.1 10.4 2.03 70.6
1977        683,848,710    3,429,622          10,171,264          7,039,667 14.9 10.3 1.99 70.9
1978        687,149,553    3,172,064          10,143,418          7,183,531 14.8 10.5 1.96 70.9
1979        690,287,705    3,104,240          10,159,933          7,268,744 14.7 10.5 1.95 71.0
1980        693,437,228    3,194,807          10,156,371          7,422,720 14.7 10.7 1.93 70.9
1981        696,429,190    2,789,116          10,053,030          7,404,116 14.4 10.6 1.89 71.2
1982        699,220,370    2,793,244          10,102,647          7,373,734 14.4 10.5 1.89 71.5
1983        702,014,774    2,795,564          10,078,184          7,562,097 14.4 10.8 1.87 71.5
1984        704,798,623    2,772,133          10,050,688          7,584,914 14.3 10.8 1.86 71.6
1985        707,516,287    2,663,196            9,969,920          7,702,883 14.1 10.9 1.84 71.7
1986        710,385,076    3,074,383            9,987,274          7,423,641 14.1 10.5 1.84 72.5
1987        713,465,338    3,086,141            9,966,304          7,407,417 14.0 10.4 1.84 72.7
1988        716,444,431    2,872,045            9,840,567          7,475,880 13.7 10.4 1.82 72.8
1989        719,107,883    2,454,858            9,495,117          7,527,904 13.2 10.5 1.76 72.9
1990        721,497,282    2,323,939            9,235,425          7,681,197 12.8 10.7 1.72 72.9
1991        723,602,898    1,887,294            8,888,909          7,796,555 12.3 10.8 1.66 72.9
1992        725,259,493    1,425,895            8,523,515          7,935,829 11.8 11.0 1.60 72.7
1993        726,441,892       938,905            8,138,793          8,412,609 11.2 11.6 1.53 72.1
1994        727,063,162       303,634            7,913,453          8,492,472 10.9 11.7 1.50 72.1
1995        727,300,408       170,858            7,663,831          8,553,348 10.5 11.8 1.46 72.2
1996        727,453,566       135,459            7,581,575          8,394,631 10.4 11.5 1.45 72.7
1997        727,566,480         90,368            7,476,674          8,240,385 10.3 11.3 1.43 73.2
1998        727,445,606 -32,116            7,369,527          8,193,143 10.1 11.3 1.42 73.6
1999        727,100,016 -359,064            7,264,382          8,402,774 10.0 11.6 1.40 73.4
2000        726,968,473         95,978            7,325,763          8,401,888 10.1 11.6 1.42 73.5
2001        726,878,371 -276,182            7,277,594          8,364,598 10.0 11.5 1.41 73.8
2002        726,939,358       398.155            7,330,526          8,520,890 10.1 11.7 1.42 73.8
2003        727,424.988       573.107            7,442.475          8,655.471 10.2 11.9 1.45 73.8
2004        728,163.243       903.401            7,558.652          8,381.363 10.4 11.5 1.47 74.4
2005        728,950,486       671,087            7,568,637          8,494,391 10.4 11.7 1.47 74.5
2006        729,857,708    1,143,355            7,703,029          8,237,212 10.6 11.3 1.50 75.2
2007        731,393,136    1,927,502            7,886,129          8,187,820 10.8 11.2 1.54 75.6
2008        733,256,182    1,798,590            8,169,398          8,195,293 11.2 11.2 1.59 75.8
2009        734,902,805    1,494,656            8,208,268          8,099,043 11.2 11.0 1.60 76.3
2010        736,276,813    1,253,359            8,227,484          8,128,387 11.2 11.0 1.61 76.5
2011        737,589,666    1,372,347            8,132,980          7,958,960 11.0 10.8 1.60 77.1
2012        738,907,594    1,263,510            8,178,804          8,078,292 11.1 10.9 1.62 77.3
2013        740,013,806       948,915            8,039,791          8,033,963 10.9 10.9 1.60 77.6
2014        741,014,147    1,051,766            8,067,454          7,955,740 10.9 10.7 1.62 77.9
2015        742,107,449    1,134,838            8,004,465          8,177,599 10.8 11.0 1.62 78.0
2016        743,318.582    1,287,428            7,950,684          8,009,194 10.7 10.8 1.62 78.4
2017        744,449,361       974,130            7,617,755          8,076,159 10.2 10.9 1.56 78.7
2018        745,359,130       845,407            7,375,157          8,112,356 9.9 10.9 1.53 78.8
2019        746,189,645 -911,854            7,108,392          8,020,246 9.5 10.8 1.49 79.1
2020 746,225,356 -2,180,542            6,938,739          9,119,281 9.3 12.2 1.47 77.7
2021        745,173,774 -2,776,580            6,879,818          9,656,398 9.2 13.0 1.48 77.0
Year Average
population
Natural
Population
change
Live births Deaths Crude rates (per 1000) Fertility Life expectancy
Births Deaths

Population by country[edit]

Modern political map
Council of Europe members, with the ten founding states in yellow

According to different definitions, such as consideration of the concept of Central Europe, the following territories and regions may be subject to various other categorisations aside from geographic conventions.

Population and area of European countries/territories
Country (or territory) Population
[1][2]
Area
(km2)[14]
Density
(per km2)
Capital
 Albania * 2,854,710 28,748 99 Tirana
 Andorra * 79,034 468 169 Andorra la Vella
 Armenia * 2,790,974 29,743 94 Yerevan
 Austria * 8,922,082 83,871 106 Vienna
 Azerbaijan * 10,312,992 86,600 119 Baku
 Belarus * 9,578,167 207,600 46 Minsk
 Belgium * 11,611,419 30,528 380 Brussels
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * 3,270,943 51,209 64 Sarajevo
 Bulgaria * 6,520,314 110,900 59 Sofia
 Croatia * 4,060,135 56,594 72 Zagreb
 Cyprus * 1,244,188 9,251 134 Nicosia
 Czech Republic * 10,510,751 78,866 133 Prague
 Denmark * 5,854,240 43,094 136 Copenhagen
 Estonia * 1,328,701 45,227 29 Tallinn
 Faroe Islands * (Denmark) 49,709 1,399 35.6 Tórshavn
 Finland * 5,535,992 336,852 16 Helsinki
 France * 64,531,444 551,500 117 Paris
 Georgia * 3,757,980 69,700 54 Tbilisi
 Germany * 83,408,554 357,137 234 Berlin
 Gibraltar * (UK) 32,669 6 5,445 Gibraltar
 Greece * 10,445,365 131,957 79 Athens
 Guernsey *[d] 65,345 63 1,037 St. Peter Port
 Hungary * 9,709,786 93,026 104 Budapest
 Iceland * 370,335 103,000 4 Reykjavík
 Ireland * 4,986,526 69,825 71 Dublin
 Isle of Man *[d] 84,263 572 147 Douglas
 Italy * 59,240,329 301,339 197 Rome
 Jersey *[d] 97,857 116 844 Saint Helier
 Kosovo **[p] 1,859,203 10,887 171 Pristina
 Latvia * 1,873,919 64,562 29 Riga
 Liechtenstein * 39,039 160 244 Vaduz
 Lithuania * 2,786,651 65,300 43 Vilnius
 Luxembourg * 639,321 2,586 247 Luxembourg
 Malta * 526,748 316 1,667 Valletta
 Moldova * 3,061,506 33,846 90 Chişinău
 Monaco * 36,686 2 18,343 Monaco
 Montenegro * 627,859 13,812 45 Podgorica
 Netherlands * 17,501,696 37,354 469 Amsterdam
 North Macedonia * 2,103,330 25,713 82 Skopje
 Norway * 5,403,021 323,787 17 Oslo
 Poland * 38,307,726 311,888 123 Warsaw
 Portugal *[f] 10,290,103 92,212 112 Lisbon
 Romania * 19,328,560 238,391 81 Bucharest
 Russia * 145,102,755 17,098,246 8 Moscow
 San Marino * 33,745 61 553 San Marino
 Serbia *[g] 7,296,769 88,361 83 Belgrade
 Slovakia * 5,447,622 49,036 111 Bratislava
 Slovenia * 2,119,410 20,273 105 Ljubljana
 Spain * 47,486,935 505,992 94 Madrid
 Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway) 2,868 62,422 0 Longyearbyen
 Sweden * 10,467,097 450,295 23 Stockholm
 Switzerland * 8,691,406 41,285 211 Bern
 Transnistria * 505,000 4,163 121.3 Tiraspol
 Turkey * 84,775,404 783,562 108 Ankara
 Ukraine * 43,531,422 603,500 72 Kyiv
 United Kingdom * 67,281,039 242,495 277 London
 Vatican City * 842 0.4 1,913.6 Vatican City
 Åland (Finland) 28,666 1,580 18 Mariehamn

* indicates link goes to article on demographics of the country (or territory), not just the country itself.

Age[edit]

Mirroring their mostly sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy, European countries tend to have older populations overall. They had nine of the top ten highest median ages in national populations in 2005. Only Japan had an older population.[15]

Religion[edit]

Predominant religions in Europe

Over the last several centuries, religious practice has been on the decline in a process of secularization. Several European countries have experienced a decline in church attendance as well as a decline in the number of people professing a religious belief. The 2010 Eurobarometer survey found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of the European Union that they believe there is a God, 26% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force and 20% don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force. 3% declined to answer.[16] The Eurobarometer survey must be taken with caution, however, as there are discrepancies between it and national census results. For example, in the United Kingdom, the 2001 census revealed that over 70% of the population regarded themselves as "Christians" with only 15% professing to have no religion, though the wording of the question has been criticized as "misleading" by the British Humanist Association.[17] The 2011 census showed a dramatic reduction to less than 60% of the population regarding themselves as "Christians".[18]

Despite its decline, Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe. According to a survey published in 2010, 76.2% of Europeans identified themselves as Christians.[19][20] Catholics were the largest Christian group in Europe, accounting for more than 48% of European Christians.[21] The second-largest Christian group in Europe was the Orthodox, who made up 32% of European Christians.[21] And about 19% of European Christians were part of the Protestant tradition. Europe constitutes in absolute terms the world's largest Christian population.[22]

According to a 2003 study,[23] 47% of French people declared themselves as agnostics in 2003. This situation is often called "Post-Christian Europe". A decrease in religiousness and church attendance in western Europe (especially in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden) has been noted. According to a survey published in 2012, atheists and agnostics make up about 18.2% of the European population.[24] According to the same survey the religiously unaffiliated make up the majority of the population only in two European countries: Czech Republic (75%) and Estonia (60%).[24]

According to another survey about Religiosity in the European Union from 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity was the largest religion in the Union (accounting for 72% of the total population), Catholics were with 48% the largest Christian group in the Union, Protestants made up 12%, Eastern Orthodox made up 8% and other Christians accounted for 4% of the total population.[25] non-believers/agnostics accounted for 16%, atheists accounted for 7% and Muslims accounted for 2%.[26]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. (including Europeans in Siberia)[27]

The largest ethnic groups are the Russians, with 117 million, and the Germans, with 72 million. In some countries such as the United Kingdom, France and Spain, the designation of nationality may controversially take on ethnic aspects, subsuming smaller ethnic groups such as Scots, Welsh, Bretons and Basques, making it difficult to quantify a "British" or "French" ethnicity, for example.

Approximately 20 million non-Europeans live in the EU, 4% of the overall population.[28] There are an estimated 10 million Romani people in Europe.[29]

Language[edit]

Map of Europe showing the major languages

Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. This family is divided into a number of branches, including Romance, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic and Greek. The Uralic languages, which include Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, also have a significant presence in Europe. The Turkic family also has several European members, while the North Caucasian and Kartvelian families are important in the southeastern extremity of geographical Europe. The Basque language of the western Pyrenees is an isolate unrelated to any other group, while Maltese is the only Semitic language in Europe with national language status. The Kalmyk language, is an Mongolic language, spoken in Kalmykia, located directly north of the North Caucasus in Eastern Europe. The most spoken language of Europe is Russian, which belongs to the group of Slavic languages.

Languages that are not official state languages are protected in many European countries by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. These can include languages spoken by relatively many people, such as Catalan and Basque in Spain, as well as languages spoken by relatively few such as Cornish and Scottish Gaelic in the United Kingdom.

Genetic origins[edit]

Bronze Age spread of Yamnaya Steppe pastoralist ancestry. The Yamnaya culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans.

Homo sapiens appeared in Europe roughly 40,000 years ago, with the settlement of the Cro-Magnons, followed by European hunter-gatherers and Early European Farmers (EEF). Over the prehistoric period there was continuous settlement in Europe, notably by the immediate descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans who migrated west after the advent of the Neolithic revolution.[31]

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA[edit]

Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have suggested substantial genetic homogeneity of European populations,[32] with only a few geographic or linguistic isolates appearing to be genetic isolates as well.[33] On the other hand, analyses of the Y chromosome[34][35] and of autosomal diversity[36] have shown a general gradient of genetic similarity running from the southeast to the northwest of the continent.

Autosomal DNA[edit]

Population genomic PCA map, showing Europeans (CEU) among other sampled Eurasian populations.[37]

According to geneticist David Reich, based on ancient human genomes that his laboratory sequenced in 2016, Europeans formed from four West-Eurasian ancestral components in varying degrees: Western Hunter-gatherers (WHG), Eastern Hunter Gatherers (EHG), Neolithic Levant farmers and Neolithic Iranian farmers respectively.[38]

Population structure[edit]

A study in May 2009[39] that examined 19 populations from Europe using 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) highlighted the genetic diversity of European populations corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and distinguished "several distinct regions" within Europe:

In this study, Fst (Fixation index) was found to correlate considerably with geographic distances ranging from ≤0.0010 for neighbouring populations to 0.0230 for Southern Italy and Finland. For comparisons, pair-wise Fst of non-European samples were as follows: Europeans – Yoruba (West Africans) 0.1530; Europeans – Chinese 0.1100; Yoruba (West Africans) – Chinese 0.1900.[40]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ a: Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, or Africa.
^ b: Includes Transnistria, a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
^ c: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. However, the population and area figures include the entire state.
^ d: Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are Crown Dependencies of the United Kingdom. Other Channel Islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey include Alderney and Sark.
^ e: Cyprus is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus.
^ f: Figures for Portugal include the Azores and Madeira archipelagos, both in Northern Atlantic.
^ g: Area figure for Serbia includes Kosovo, a province that unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and whose sovereign status is unclear. Population and density figures are 2010 estimates and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo.
^ h: Figures for France include metropolitan France but not overseas departments and territories as they are not part of the European continent.
^ j: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers. However, area and population figures refer to the entire country.
^ k: Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
^ m: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the population and area figures include the entire state. This also includes Georgian estimates for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared and de facto achieved independence. The International recognition, however, is limited.
^ o: The total figures for area and population includes the whole of the transcontinental countries. The precision of these figure is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extend of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.
^ p: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is a 2007 estimate.
^ r: Abkhazia and South Ossetia unilaterally declared their independence from Georgia on 25 August 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their sovereign status is unclear. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  2. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Figure 8: Population by Total Fertility (millions)" in World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011)
  4. ^ "The first Europeans weren't who you might think". National Geographic. August 2019.
  5. ^ Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Statistical Appendix (2007, ggdc.net). Estimates cited are for the beginning of the 1st millennium ("year 0"), the beginning of the 2nd millennium ("year 1000"), and for the beginning each century since the 16th (years 1820 and 1913 are given for the 19th and 20th century, respectively, as Maddison presents detailed estimates for these years), and a projection for the year 2030.
  6. ^ a b Maddison (27 July 2016). "Growth of World Population, GDP and GDP Per Capita before 1820" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Europe Population (LIVE)". worldometers.info.
  8. ^ Charles Morris, ed. (1916). Winston's Cumulative ...: Encyclopedia; a Comprehensive Reference Book, Volume 4. Winston's Cumulative ...: Encyclopedia; a Comprehensive Reference Book. John C. Winston Company. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  9. ^ a b c "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". UN – Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  10. ^ "Eurostat: Population on 1 January". European Commission. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  11. ^ Population in million: Albania 2.9, Belarus 9.5, Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.5, Croatia 4.2, Iceland 0.3, Moldova 4.1, North Macedonia 2.1, Norway 5.2, Serbia and Kosovo 8.9, Switzerland 8.3, Ukraine 44.7.
  12. ^ Population in million: Armenia 2.9, Georgia 4.0, Kazakhstan 17.8, Russia 144, Turkey 78.3.
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  14. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". United Nations. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  15. ^ United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision Highlights. 2005
  16. ^ "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2010.
  17. ^ "Census 2011". Humanism.org.uk. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  18. ^ "BBC News – At-a-glance: Census 2011 findings". BBC. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  19. ^ "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  20. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape: Christians". Pewforum.org. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  21. ^ a b Christianity in Europe, excluding the Asian part of Russia, including the European part of Turkey
  22. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  23. ^ Dogan, Mattei, Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline, 2003
  24. ^ a b "Religiously Unaffiliated". Pewforum.org. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  25. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF). Special Eurobarometer. 383. European Union: European Commission: 233. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  26. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  27. ^ Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil,Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen (2002). Living-diversity.eu, English translation 2004.
  28. ^ "Migration and migrant population statistics". Ec.europa.eu. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  29. ^ "Roma integration in the EU". European Commission.
  30. ^ Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate S. (2003). "The Peoples of Europe by Demographic Size, Table 1". National Minorities in Europe: Handbook. Wien: Braumueller. p. 11f. ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1. (a breakdown by country of these 87 groups is given in Table 5, pp. 17–31.)
  31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, s.v. "Europe : The people".
  32. ^ Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ (2006): "Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree". Trends in Genetics 22: 339–345.
  33. ^ Simoni L, Calafell F, Pettener D, Bertranpetit J, Barbujani G (2000): "Geographic patterns of mtDNA diversity in Europe". American Journal of Human Genetics 66: 262–278.
  34. ^ Chikhi L, Nichols RA, Barbujani G, Beaumont MA (2002): "Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 11008–11013.
  35. ^ Roewer L, Croucher PJ, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, et al. (2005): "Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution". Human Genetics 116: 279–291.
  36. ^ Barbujani G, Goldstein DB (2004): "Africans and Asians abroad: genetic diversity in Europe". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 5: 119–150.
  37. ^ The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Bhak, Jong; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Calacal, Gayvelline C.; Chaurasia, Amit; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Jieming; Chen, Yuan-Tsong (11 December 2009). "Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia". Science. 326 (5959): 1541–1545. doi:10.1126/science.1177074. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 20007900. S2CID 34341816.
  38. ^ Iosif Lazaridis; et al. (2016). "Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East" (PDF). Nature. 536 (7617): 419–424. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. doi:10.1038/nature19310. PMC 5003663. PMID 27459054. Retrieved 18 April 2018. bottom-left: Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG), top-left: Eastern Hunter Gatherers (EHG), bottom-right: Neolithic Levant and Natufians, top-right: Neolithic Iran. This suggests the hypothesis that diverse ancient West Eurasians can be modelled as mixtures of as few as four streams of ancestry related to these population
  39. ^ Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East, Nelis et al. 2009
  40. ^ "Pair-wise Fst between European samples". doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005472.s003. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External links[edit]