Demographics of Ghana

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Demographics of Ghana
Ghana single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Ghana in 2020
Population33,107,275 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.23% (2022 est.)
Birth rate28.55 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy69.37 years
 • male67.7 years
 • female71.09 years
Fertility rate3.66 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate32.59 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years37.44%
65 and over4.44%
Sex ratio
Total0.95 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Under 151.02 male(s)/female
65 and over0.72 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityGhanaian
Major ethnicAkan (45.7%)
Language
OfficialEnglish

The Demography of Ghana describes the condition and overview of Ghana's population. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Ghana, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

Ghana's population is 30,832,019 (2021 census).[1]

Languages[edit]

A map of Ghana's ethno-linguistic areas.

Ghana is a multilingual country in which about 80 languages are spoken.[2] English is the official language and lingua franca.[3][4] Of the languages indigenous to Ghana, Akan is the most widely spoken.[5]

Ghana has more than seventy ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language.[6] Languages that belong to the same ethnic group are usually mutually intelligible.

Eleven languages have the status of government-sponsored languages: four Akan ethnic languages (Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, Fante and Nzema) and two Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages (Dagaare and Dagbanli). The rest are Ewe, Dangme, Ga, Gonja, and Kasem, Hausa.[7]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ghana has more than seventy ethnic groups.[6] Major ethnic groups in Ghana include the Akan at 47.5% of the population, the Mole-Dagbon at 16.6%, the Ewe at 13.9%, the Ga-Dangme at 7.4%, the Gurma at 5.7%, the Guan at 3.7%, the Grusi at 2.5%, the Kusaasi at 1.2%, and the Bikpakpaam a.k.a. Konkomba people at 3.5%. According to Victor Mochere, 0.064% of the population is White. 0.03% of the population is Indian, 0.01% of the population is Arab, 0.011% is African American, 0.017% is Tabom, and 2.4% of the population is Chinese.[8][failed verification]

Education[edit]

Primary and junior secondary school education is tuition-free and mandatory. Since 1987, the Government of Ghana has increased its education budget by 700%. Basic education's share has grown from 45% to 60% of that total.

Students begin their six-year primary education at the age of six. They pass into a junior secondary school system for 3 years of academic training combined with technical and vocational training. Those continuing move into the three-year senior secondary school program. Entrance to one of the best Ghanaian universities is by examination following completion of senior secondary school with a pass mark.

Demographic trends[edit]

Ghana's first post independence population census in 1961 counted about 6.7 million inhabitants.[9] Between 1965 and 1989, a constant 45 percent of Ghana total female population was of childbearing age.[9]

The crude death rate of 18 per 1,000 population in 1965 fell to 13 per 1,000 population in 1992. Life expectancy rose from a 1992 average of 42 years for men and 45 years for women to 52 and 56 years in 2002. The fertility rate averaged two children per adult female in 2013.[9]

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2015):[10]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 13 562 093 14 108 081 27 670 174 100
0–4 2 020 776 1 978 634 3 999 410 14.45
5–9 1 688 452 1 624 426 3 312 878 11.97
10–14 1 567 043 1 530 309 3 097 352 11.19
15–19 1 414 987 1 410 591 2 825 578 10.21
20–24 1 251 759 1 286 040 2 537 799 9.17
25–29 1 083 877 1 168 616 2 252 493 8.14
30–34 935 947 1 031 219 1 967 166 7.11
35–39 785 200 880 037 1 665 237 6.02
40–44 661 789 742 520 1 404 309 5.08
45–49 546 030 599 902 1 145 932 4.14
50–54 445 531 487 737 933 268 3.37
55–59 348 118 379 884 728 002 2.63
60–64 270 642 299 974 570 616 2.06
65–69 196 219 223 282 419 501 1.52
70–74 142 378 170 878 313 256 1.13
75–79 96 514 126 573 223 087 0.81
80+ 106 831 167 459 274 290 0.99
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 5 276 271 5 133 369 10 409 640 37.62
15–64 7 743 880 8 286 520 16 030 400 57.93
65+ 541 942 688 192 1 230 134 4.45

Births and deaths based on UNDESA[edit]

In July 2022, the United Nations published its 2022 World Population Prospects, a biennially-updated database where key demographic indicators are estimated and projected worldwide down to the country level. They prepared the following estimates of demographic indicators in Ghana for every year from 1950 to 2021, as well as projections for future decades.[11]

Mid-year population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) Life expectancy (in years)
1950 5 078 000   237 000   114 000   123 000 46.8 22.6 24.2 6.59 149.2 43.11
1951   5 220 000   250 000   116 000   135 000 48.0 22.2 25.8 6.64 145.5 43.65
1952   5 373 000   263 000   117 000   145 000 49.0 21.9 27.1 6.68 142.2 44.07
1953   5 535 000   276 000   119 000   157 000 49.8 21.5 28.3 6.73 139.0 44.59
1954   5 706 000   287 000   121 000   167 000 50.3 21.1 29.2 6.75 136.1 45.08
1955   5 887 000   298 000   122 000   176 000 50.7 20.8 29.9 6.77 133.2 45.50
1956   6 077 000   309 000   124 000   185 000 50.9 20.4 30.5 6.80 130.6 45.90
1957   6 276 000   319 000   126 000   193 000 50.8 20.0 30.8 6.81 128.3 46.26
1958   6 479 000   328 000   128 000   201 000 50.7 19.7 31.0 6.82 126.2 46.50
1959   6 690 000   337 000   129 000   207 000 50.4 19.3 31.0 6.83 124.6 46.87
1960   6 912 000   344 000   131 000   213 000 49.8 19.0 30.8 6.85 123.1 47.10
1961   7 109 000   352 000   133 000   219 000 49.3 18.7 30.7 6.89 122.0 47.33
1962   7 281 000   359 000   137 000   222 000 49.2 18.7 30.4 6.95 121.2 47.41
1963   7 458 000   367 000   140 000   226 000 49.0 18.7 30.3 6.98 120.6 47.58
1964   7 640 000   371 000   143 000   228 000 48.4 18.7 29.7 6.93 120.1 47.72
1965   7 828 000   376 000   146 000   230 000 47.9 18.6 29.3 6.89 120.0 47.78
1966   8 020 000   381 000   150 000   231 000 47.4 18.6 28.7 6.88 120.0 47.73
1967   8 216 000   389 000   153 000   236 000 47.2 18.6 28.6 6.91 120.2 47.68
1968   8 418 000   398 000   157 000   241 000 47.2 18.7 28.5 6.91 120.3 47.57
1969   8 630 000   409 000   161 000   248 000 47.3 18.6 28.7 6.96 120.3 47.57
1970   8 862 000   418 000   163 000   255 000 47.2 18.4 28.8 6.95 120.1 47.81
1971   9 109 000   428 000   166 000   261 000 46.9 18.3 28.7 6.94 119.7 47.80
1972   9 366 000   436 000   166 000   270 000 46.5 17.8 28.8 6.91 118.4 48.03
1973   9 637 000   446 000   167 000   279 000 46.2 17.3 28.9 6.87 116.7 48.40
1974   9 919 000   455 000   168 000   287 000 45.8 16.9 29.0 6.83 114.5 48.78
1975   10 210 000   464 000   168 000   296 000 45.4 16.4 29.0 6.77 112.0 49.25
1976   10 509 000   473 000   168 000   305 000 45.0 15.9 29.0 6.72 109.1 49.76
1977   10 825 000   484 000   169 000   315 000 44.7 15.6 29.1 6.68 106.6 50.09
1978   11 163 000   498 000   171 000   327 000 44.7 15.3 29.3 6.61 104.4 50.57
1979   11 516 000   514 000   175 000   339 000 44.7 15.2 29.5 6.56 102.8 50.93
1980   11 865 000   532 000   179 000   353 000 44.8 15.1 29.7 6.52 101.6 51.12
1981   12 213 000   549 000   181 000   368 000 45.0 14.8 30.1 6.47 100.8 51.27
1982   12 585 000   563 000   183 000   380 000 44.8 14.6 30.2 6.38 100.2 51.38
1983   12 984 000   582 000   187 000   395 000 44.8 14.4 30.4 6.31 98.9 51.62
1984   13 342 000   602 000   190 000   412 000 44.9 14.2 30.8 6.24 97.1 52.05
1985   13 651 000   608 000   189 000   418 000 44.3 13.8 30.5 6.19 94.9 52.42
1986   13 972 000   613 000   186 000   427 000 43.8 13.3 30.5 6.15 92.2 53.13
1987   14 311 000   618 000   184 000   434 000 43.0 12.8 30.2 6.09 89.1 53.82
1988   14 672 000   618 000   181 000   437 000 42.0 12.3 29.7 5.96 85.8 54.51
1989   15 052 000   620 000   178 000   441 000 41.1 11.8 29.3 5.83 82.7 55.19
1990   15 447 000   625 000   178 000   447 000 40.4 11.5 28.9 5.71 79.8 55.62
1991   15 843 000   629 000   178 000   451 000 39.6 11.2 28.4 5.59 77.6 56.01
1992   16 242 000   630 000   179 000   451 000 38.7 11.0 27.7 5.47 75.7 56.23
1993   16 644 000   632 000   181 000   451 000 37.9 10.9 27.0 5.36 74.3 56.42
1994   17 041 000   627 000   187 000   441 000 36.8 10.9 25.8 5.19 73.7 56.11
1995   17 439 000   632 000   186 000   445 000 36.2 10.7 25.5 5.07 72.6 56.57
1996   17 844 000   633 000   188 000   445 000 35.4 10.5 24.9 4.93 71.4 56.82
1997   18 268 000   644 000   189 000   456 000 35.3 10.3 24.9 4.87 70.2 57.20
1998   18 715 000   660 000   190 000   471 000 35.3 10.1 25.1 4.84 68.6 57.60
1999   19 177 000   680 000   191 000   489 000 35.4 10.0 25.5 4.84 66.6 58.03
2000   19 666 000   706 000   195 000   510 000 35.9 9.9 25.9 4.85 64.3 58.20
2001   20 196 000   719 000   201 000   518 000 35.6 10.0 25.7 4.79 62.1 58.11
2002   20 758 000   733 000   202 000   531 000 35.3 9.7 25.6 4.72 59.9 58.61
2003   21 330 000   745 000   203 000   542 000 34.9 9.5 25.4 4.63 58.0 59.11
2004   21 906 000   756 000   207 000   549 000 34.5 9.5 25.1 4.53 56.3 59.19
2005   22 497 000   785 000   208 000   577 000 34.9 9.2 25.6 4.54 54.9 59.76
2006   23 099 000   788 000   211 000   577 000 34.1 9.1 25.0 4.41 53.5 59.99
2007   23 708 000   795 000   214 000   581 000 33.6 9.0 24.5 4.31 52.0 60.22
2008   24 326 000   807 000   217 000   591 000 33.2 8.9 24.3 4.25 50.5 60.49
2009   24 951 000   823 000   217 000   606 000 33.0 8.7 24.3 4.21 48.8 60.95
2010   25 575 000   844 000   221 000   624 000 33.0 8.6 24.4 4.21 47.0 61.16
2011   26 206 000   864 000   221 000   643 000 33.0 8.4 24.5 4.19 45.2 61.65
2012   26 859 000   883 000   221 000   662 000 32.9 8.2 24.6 4.18 43.4 62.08
2013   27 526 000   896 000   223 000   673 000 32.5 8.1 24.4 4.14 41.7 62.42
2014   28 196 000   898 000   220 000   677 000 31.8 7.8 24.0 4.05 40.2 63.05
2015   28 871 000   916 000   225 000   691 000 31.7 7.8 23.9 4.05 38.7 63.18
2016   29 554 000   902 000   220 000   682 000 30.5 7.5 23.1 3.91 37.4 63.89
2017   30 222 000   876 000   223 000   652 000 29.0 7.4 21.6 3.71 36.2 64.01
2018   30 871 000   897 000   228 000   669 000 29.0 7.4 21.7 3.73 35.1 64.12
2019   31 522 000   901 000   225 000   676 000 28.6 7.1 21.4 3.68 34.0 64.74
2020   32 180 000   902 000   240 000   663 000 28.0 7.4 20.6 3.62 33.0 64.11
2021   32 833 000   905 000   250 000   654 000 27.5 7.6 19.9 3.56 32.1 63.80

Fertility and births based on Demographics Health Survey[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Demographics Health Survey:[12]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (WFR) (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (WFR) (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (WFR) (Rural)
1993 38.0 5.5 (4.2) 32.9 3.99 (2.9) 40.2 6.36 (4.9)
1998 32.7 4.55 (3.7) 25.4 2.96 (2.4) 36.0 5.41 (4.3)
2003 32.6 4.4 (3.7) 26.6 3.1 (2.6) 36.7 5.6 (4.6)
2007 33.3 4.6 28.4 3.4 36.3 5.5
2008 30.8 4.0 (3.5) 27.1 3.1 (2.7) 33.6 4.9 (4.2)
2014 30.6 4.2 (3.6) 27.9 3.4 (3.1) 33.5 5.2 (4.3)
2016 4,2
2017 3.9 3.3 4.7
2019 3.8

Fertility and births (Census 2000 and 2010)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[13]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2000 31.1 3.99 26.7 3.0 33.8 4.9
2010 25.3 3.28 23.0 2.78 26.9 3.94

Births and deaths[14]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2010 24,200,000 623,700 163,534 460,166 25.3 6.6 18.7 3.28

Fertility data as of 2014 (DHS Program):[15]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women aged 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women aged 40–49
Western 3.6 6.9 4.8
Central 4.7 7.8 5.2
Greater Accra 2.8 6.9 3.4
Volta 4.3 6.1 4.8
Eastern 4.2 7.9 4.9
Ashanti 4.2 5.8 4.8
Brong Ahafo 4.8 7.6 5.1
Northern 6.6 8.9 6.4
Upper East 4.9 7.9 5.7
Upper West 5.2 6.8 6.4

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[16]

  • One birth every 35 seconds
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 53 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 48 seconds

The following demographics are from the independent Ghana Statistical Service[17] and from the CIA World Factbook[18] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

33,107,275 (2022 est.)
30,802,793 (Feb 2020 )
25,009,153 (December 2013 est.[19][20]) Females- 50.5% Male- 49.5%

Religions[edit]

Christian 71.3% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 31.6%, Protestant 17.4%, Catholic 10%, other 12.3%), Muslim 19.9%, traditionalist 3.2%, 2.1% Hindu, other 1.3%, none 1.1% (2021 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Ghana in 2020
0-14 years: 37.44% (male 5,524,932/female 5,460,943)
15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,717,481/female 2,752,601)
25-54 years: 34.27% (male 4,875,985/female 5,177,959)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 743,757/female 784,517)
65 years and over: 4.44% (male 598,387/female 703,686) (2020 est.)
0–14 years: 37.83% (male 5,344,146 /female 5,286,383)
15–24 years: 18.61% (male 2,600,390 /female 2,629,660)
25–54 years: 34.21% (male 4,663,234 /female 4,950,888)
55–64 years: 5.05% (male 690,327 /female 727,957)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 557,155 /female 652,331) (2018 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.23% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 35th
2.16% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 40th

Birth rate[edit]

28.55 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 34th
30.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 35th
16.03 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Death rate[edit]

6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 150th
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 134th
7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.66 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd
3.96 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 34th
Fertility rate declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in Urban region and 3.94 in rural region.[13]

Median age[edit]

total: 21.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 184th
male: 21 years
female: 21.9 years (2020 est.)
total: 21.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 185th
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.7 years (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

22.3 years (2017 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25–29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

27.2% (2017/18)

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 107th
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 154th
-1.85 migrant(s)/1,020 population (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

39.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 73 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 67.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 58.6% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 3.06% annual rate of change (2020–25 est.)
urban population: 56.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.34% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 69.37 years. Country comparison to the world: 178th
male: 67.7 years
female: 71.09 years (2022 est.)
total population: 67.4 years (2018 est.)
male: 64.9 years (2018 est.)
female: 70 years (2018 est.)
total population: 65.46 years (2013 est.); 66 years
male: 64.48 years (2013 est.); 66 years
female: 66.48 years (2013 est.); 67 years (2013 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Ghanaian
adjective: Ghanaian

Citizenship[edit]

  • Ghanaian citizens (20,000,000 million)[19][20]
Ghanaian people

Languages[edit]

Asante[8] 16%, Ewe[8] 14%, Fante[8] 11.6%, Bono[8] (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba[8] 4.4%, Dangme[8] 4.2%, Dagarte[8] (Dagaba) 3.9%, Likpakpaanl[8] a.k.a. Konkomba language 3.5%, Akyem[8] 3.2%, Ga[8] 3.1%, Other[8] 31.2%

Literacy[edit]

Definition: aged 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79%
male: 83.5%
female: 74.5% (2018)
total population: 76.6% (2015 est.)
male: 82% (2015 est.)
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2020)
total population: 71.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 65.3% (2010 census)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
note: since October 2021, there has been a yellow fever outbreak in Ghana with numerous cases, including some deaths, in the following regions: Savannah, Upper West, Bono, and Oti; the CDC recommends travelers going to Ghana should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak; there are no medications to treat or cure yellow fever

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24[edit]

total: 9.1%
male: 9.4%
female: 8.7% (2017 est.)

Demographic history[edit]

Historical population[edit]

Ghana's Population in Census Years
Year[21] Total recorded population
Pre-independence
1891 764,613
1901 1,549,661
1911 1,503,911
1921 2,296,400
1931 3,160,386
1948 4,118,459
Post-independence
1960 6,726,815
1970 8,559,313
1984 12,296,081
2000 18,912,079
2010 24,658,823
2021 30,832,019

Population distribution[edit]

Population density in Western Africa

Population density increased steadily from 36 per square kilometer in 1970 to 52 per square kilometer in 1984. In 1990 63 persons per square kilometer was the estimate for Ghana's overall population density. These averages did not reflect variations in population distribution. For example, while the Northern Region, one of ten administrative regions, showed a density of seventeen persons per square kilometer in 1984, in the same year Greater Accra Region recorded nine times the national average of 52 per square kilometer.[22]

As was the case in the 1960 and 1970 figures, the greatest concentration of population in 1984 was to the south of the Kwahu Plateau. The highest concentration of habitation continued to be within the Accra-Kumasi-Takoradi triangle, largely because of the economic productivity of the region. All of Ghana's mining centres, timber-producing deciduous forests, and cocoa-growing lands lie to the south of the Kwahu Plateau. The Accra-Kumasi-Takoradi triangle is linked to the coast by rail and road systems—making this area an important magnet for investment and labor.[22]

A large part of the Volta Basin is sparsely populated. The far north is heavily populated. The population density of the Upper East Region is well above the national average. This may be explained in part by the better soil found in some areas.[22]

Urban–rural disparities[edit]

Localities of 5,000 persons and above have been classified as urban since 1960. The 1960 urban population totalled 1,551,174 persons, or 23.1 percent of total population. By 1970 the urban percentage had increased to 28 percent. That percentage rose to 32 in 1984 and was estimated at 33 percent for 1992.[23]

Urban areas in Ghana have customarily been supplied with more amenities than rural locations. Consequently, Kumasi, Accra, and many settlements within the southern economic belt attracted more people than the savanna regions of the north; only Tamale in the north has been an exception. The linkage of the national electricity grid to the northern areas of the country in the late 1980s may help to stabilize the north-to-south flow of internal migration.[23] Ghana has a hugely rural population that is dependent on subsistence agriculture. Ghana has continued to be a nation of rural communities. Rural residency was estimated to be 67 percent of the population in 1992. In the 1970s, 72 percent of Ghana's population lived in rural areas.[23] The "Rural Manifesto," which assessed the causes of rural underdevelopment, was introduced in April 1984. Development strategies were evaluated, and some were implemented to make rural residency more attractive. The Bank of Ghana established more than 120 rural banks to support rural entrepreneurs, and the rural electrification program was intensified in the late 1980s. The government presented its plans for district assemblies as a component of its strategy for rural improvement through decentralized administration.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2021 Ghana Population and Housing Census".
  2. ^ "Ghana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  3. ^ "The Bureau Of Ghana Languages-BGL". Ghana Embassy Washington DC, USA. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  4. ^ Kortmann, Bernd; de Gruyter, Walter (2004). A handbook of varieties of English. 1. Phonology, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9783110175325. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  5. ^ "Introduction To The Verbal and Multi-Verbalsystem of Akan" (PDF). ling.hf.ntnu.no. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  6. ^ a b Alhaji Ibrahim Abdulai; John M. Chernoff (1992). "Master Drummers of Dagbon, Volumes 1 and 2". Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  7. ^ "The Bureau Of Ghana Languages-BGL". National Commission on Culture. 2006. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Africa :: GHANA". CIA The World Factbook. 14 April 2022.
  9. ^ a b c "About this Collection | Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  10. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  11. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2022). "World Population Prospects 2022 Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XLS (91MB)). United Nations Population Division. 27 (Online ed.). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. rows 5333:5404, cols M,X,AE,S,AH,S,AA,AV,AI. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022.
  12. ^ "The DHS Program – Survey Search". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b National Analytical Report Archived 2018-07-12 at the Wayback Machine. Statsghana.gov.gh.
  14. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2014" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Ghana Population 2022", World Population Review
  17. ^ "GSS Online Membership And Data Request Centre (OMaDRC) – Dashboard Home". statsghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  18. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World FactBook – Ghana", The World Factbook, 2022
  19. ^ a b "Facts About Ghana". Touringghana.com. Ministry of Tourism (Ghana). 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  20. ^ a b "A Journey Through Islam: Muslims have come up well in Ghana". arabnews.com. Arab News. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  21. ^ "Ghana 2021 Population and Housing Census". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  22. ^ a b c "About this Collection | Country Studies | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
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