Demographics of Guatemala

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Demographics of Guatemala are diverse, the over 15 million people (June 2012)[1] consist primarily of mestizos, Amerindians, and people of European descent. The population is divided almost evenly between rural and urban areas.[1] About 60% of the population speak Spanish, with nearly all of the rest speaking Amerindian languages (there are 23 officially recognized Amerindian languages[2]).

According to official 2012 national statistics, 39.8% of the population is indigenous.[1]

Population[edit]

Guatemala's population (1950-2010).[3]

According to the 2012 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population estimate was 14,342,000 in 2010, compared to 3,146,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.5%, 54.1% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, and 4.4% were aged 65 years or older.[3]

Guatemala City, the largest city in Central America, is home to over 3 million inhabitants. In 1900 Guatemala had a population of 885,000.[4] Over the twentieth century Guatemala's population grew by a factor of fourteen. No other western hemisphere country saw such rapid growth.[citation needed]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 3 146 44.6 52.9 2.5
1955 3 619 45.4 52.0 2.6
1960 4 141 45.8 51.6 2.7
1965 4 736 45.2 52.0 2.8
1970 5 416 44.6 52.5 2.9
1975 6 194 44.8 52.3 2.9
1980 7 001 45.4 51.6 3.0
1985 7 920 45.7 51.2 3.1
1990 8 890 45.4 51.3 3.4
1995 9 984 44.9 51.4 3.7
2000 11 204 44.1 51.9 4.0
2005 12 679 43.2 52.6 4.3
2010 14 342 41.5 54.1 4.4

Population by departments[edit]

Rank Department Pop. Rank Department Rank. Department Pop.
1 Guatemala 3,306,397 10 Totonicapán 18 Retalhuleu 325,556
2 Huehuetenango 1,234,593 11 Sololá 19 Baja Verapaz 291,903
3 Alta Verapaz 1,219,585 12 Jutiapa 20 Zacapa 291,903
4 San Marcos 1,095,997 13 Izabal 445,125
5 Quetzaltenango 844,906 14 Chiquimula 397,202
6 Escuintla 746,309 15 Santa Rosa 367,569
7 Petén 711,585 16 Jalapa 345,926
8 Chimaltenango 666,938 17 Sacatepéquez 336,606
9 Suchitepéquez 555,261 18 Total -- 15,806,675 (2014)
Source: National Institute of Statistics (INE).[5]

Emigration[edit]

The Guatemalan civil war from 1960 to 1996 provoked migration of Guatemalans, with a large majority of those leaving for foreign countries living in the United States. According to the International Organization for Migration, the total number of emigrants increased from 6,700 in the 1960s to 558,776 for the period 1995-2000, by 2005 the total number had reached 1.3 million.[6] In 2013, the MPI estimated that there are around 900,000 people of Guatemalan origin in the United States.[7]

Country Count
United States United States 480,665[8] – 1,489,426[9]
Mexico Mexico 23,529[9]
Belize Belize 14,693[9]
Canada Canada 14,256[9] – 34,665[10]
Germany Germany 5,989[9]
Honduras Honduras 5,172[9]
El Salvador El Salvador 4,209[9]
Spain Spain 2,491[9]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Indigenous girls in Chichicastenango.
Ethnic groups
Group Number
Mestizo (42%) 6,638,803
Indigenous people (38.8%) 6,132,989
White (18%)[dubious ] 2,845,201
Other (1.2%) 189,670
Source: INE (2012)[dubious ]
Ethnic groups
Group Number
Mestizo and White[dubious ] (59.4%) 9,448,004
Indigenous people (40.5%) 5,304,659
Other (0.1%) 18,000
Source: CIA (2010)[dubious ]

The official 2012 statistics indicate that approximately 60% of the population is "non-indigenous",[11] referring to the Mestizo population and the people of European origin. Locally this group is called Ladino.

Approximately 40% of the population is indigenous, consisting of 23 groups of mayans and 1 non-mayan group, divided as follows: (K'iche 9.1%, 8.4% Kaqchikel, Mam 7.9%, 6.3% Q'eqchi', other Mayans 8.6%, 0.2% indigenous non-Mayan). And they are distributed all over the country, although they live most in the highlands.

There is a small number of Garifunas who live mainly in Livingstone, San Vicente and Puerto Barrios. They are descendants mainly from the Arawak family, and Belizean Creole.[2] There are also Asian Guatemalans, particularly from Korea.[citation needed]

Other racial groups include small numbers of Afro-Guatemalans and Garifuna of mixed African and indigenous Caribbean origins who live in the country's Eastern end. Asians, mostly of Chinese descent are descendants of farm workers and railroad laborers in the early 20th century.

History[edit]

The 1893 Guatemalan Census reported that 481,945 persons —or 35.3% of the population— were Ladinos (which it defined as both whites and people of European and Indian descent), and 882,733 persons —or 64.7% of the population— were Indios (Natives).[12]

White Guatemalans[edit]

The two categories in the national census are indigenous peoples and non-indigenous; the latter is also termed mestizo, or locally as Ladino.[citation needed]

A 2011 unofficial questionnaire by Latinobarómetro suggested that 15% self-identify as white, 29% as mestizo, 45% as indigenous, and 3% as other.[13]

Mestizo Guatemalans[edit]

Guatemalan mestizos are people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry. The mestizo population in Guatemala is concentrated in urban areas of the country (the national capital and departmental capitals).[14]

Historically the mestizo population in the Kingdom of Guatemala at the time of Independence amounted to nearly 600,000 Indians, 300,000 castes (mostly mestizos and a lesser number of mulattos), and 45,000 criollos or Spanish, with a very small number of Spaniards.[15]

Indigenous people[edit]

The Amerindian populations in Guatemala include the K'iche' 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9% and Q'eqchi 6.3%. 8.6% of the population is "other Mayan," 0.4% is indigenous non-Mayan, making the indigenous community in Guatemala about 40.5% of the population.[16]

In Guatemala the development of indigenous girls was compared to socio-economically better off mixed girls of mostly European origin.[17][18]

Languages[edit]

The official language of Guatemala is Spanish. It is spoken by more than 60% of the population and is found mainly in the departments of South region, east region, Guatemala City and Peten.[2] Though the official language is Spanish, it is often the second language among the indigenous population.

An additional approximately 23 indigenous languages are spoken by more than 30% of the population. The most significant are (Quiche, Kaqchikel, Mam, Tz’utujil, Q'eqchi' and Pocomam), plus a non-Mayan indigenous language is xinca, this language is almost extinct as the speakers less than 10,000 people. About 50,000 people speak the Garifuna language. There are also significant number of German, Chinese, French and English language speakers.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Guatemala
Religion in Guatemala (1996)[19]
Religion
Catholic
  
54%
Evangelical
  
25%
Atheist, None, Agnostic
  
8%
Others
  
9%
NS/NC
  
4%
Religion in Guatemala (2013)[19]
Religion
Catholic
  
47%
Evangelical
  
40%
Atheist, None, Agnostic
  
9%
Others
  
3%
NS/NC
  
1%

Catholicism was the official religion during the colonial era. Protestantism has increased in recent decades. More than one third of Guatemalans are Protestant, chiefly Evangelicals and Pentecostals. Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy claim rapid growth, especially among indigenous Mayans.

Traditionally a large proportion of Guatemalans have been Catholics. This has declined, from 90% of the population in 1950, 66% in 1985, 70% in 1989 (after the visit of the Pope John Paul II), 57% in 2006,[20] and 47% in 2013.[19] Between 1882 and 1940 2% of the population were Protestants, 17.98% were Protestant in 1978, 30% in 1986, 21% in 1991, 25.27% in 2001, 30.70% in 2006[20] and 40% Protestant in 2014.[19]

3% of Guatemalans follow other religions.[19] 9% are non-religious.[19] Guatemalans who self-identify themselves as atheists/agnostics were 5.85% of the population in 1982, 15.2% in 1991, and 11.5% in 2005.[20] According to the Latinobarómetro, 8% of the population were irreligious in 1996, 15% in 2000, 16% in 2007, 11% in 2008, 13% in 2010, with 10% irreligious in 2014 (counting NS/NC).[19] The "other religions" were 9% in 1996 to 14% one year later, and 3% in 2013.[19]

Religious identity in Guatemala (1996-2013).
Year  % catholics  % protestants  % atheist/non-religion  % others
1996 54% 25% 8% 13%
1997 54% 24% 6% 16%
1998 69% 19% 8% 3%
1999 60% 27% 9% 3%
2000 52% 29% 15% 4%
2001 58% 29% 7% 6%
2002 57% 29% 8% 6%
2003 59% 32% 7% 2%
2004 53% 33% 12% 2%
2005 57% 31% 10% 2%
2006 54% 34% 10% 2%
2007 48% 36% 15% 1%
2008 51% 36% 11% 2%
2009 54% 34% 9% 3%
2010 47% 39% 12% 2%
2011 55% 30% 11% 4%
2013 47% 40% 10% 3%

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 170 000 75 000 95 000 50.3 22.3 28.0 7.00 141 42.5 41.8 43.3
1955-1960 183 000 78 000 104 000 47.0 20.2 26.9 6.60 134 44.5 43.7 45.4
1960-1965 204 000 80 000 124 000 46.0 18.0 28.0 6.50 127 47.1 56.2 48.1
1965-1970 227 000 80 000 146 000 44.7 15.8 28.8 6.30 116 50.1 49.0 51.3
1970-1975 255 000 79 000 177 000 44.0 13.5 30.4 6.20 102 53.9 52.4 55.4
1975-1980 287 000 80 000 206 000 43.5 12.2 31.3 6.20 91 56.2 54.4 58.2
1980-1985 315 000 81 000 234 000 42.2 10.9 31.3 6.10 79 58.3 56.1 60.8
1985-1990 333 000 79 000 254 000 39.6 9.4 30.2 5.70 67 60.9 58.3 63.8
1990-1995 367 000 76 000 291 000 38.9 8.1 30.8 5.45 55 63.5 60.5 66.9
1995-2000 396 000 73 000 322 000 37.3 6.9 30.4 5.00 46 66.3 62.9 70.0
2000-2005 427 000 72 000 355 000 35.8 6.1 29.7 4.60 39 69.0 65.5 72.5
2005-2010 449 000 77 000 373 000 33.3 5.7 27.6 4.15 30 70.3 66.7 73.8
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Registered annual data[21][22][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1930 1 760 100 000 43 500 56 500 56.8 24.7 32.1
1931 1 810 99 000 44 000 55 000 54.7 24.3 30.4
1932 1 860 93 600 43 900 49 700 50.3 23.6 26.7
1933 1 910 90 700 52 100 38 600 47.5 27.3 20.2
1934 1 940 92 205 60 051 32 154 47.5 31.0 16.6
1935 1 980 96 031 54 789 41 242 48.5 27.7 20.8
1936 2 020 97 646 50 604 47 042 48.3 25.1 23.3
1937 2 070 96 981 51 027 45 954 46.9 24.7 22.2
1938 2 110 98 906 56 131 42 775 46.9 26.6 20.3
1939 2 150 102 908 64 117 38 791 47.9 29.8 18.0
1940 2 200 106 998 55 083 51 915 48.6 25.0 23.6
1941 2 250 103 688 56 444 47 244 46.1 25.1 21.0
1942 2 300 107 519 72 477 35 042 46.7 31.5 15.2
1943 2 340 112 407 72 837 39 570 48.0 31.1 16.9
1944 2 390 111 324 63 068 48 256 46.6 26.4 20.2
1945 2 440 118 912 59 732 59 180 48.7 24.5 24.3
1946 2 500 120 525 61 641 58 884 48.2 24.7 23.6
1947 2 570 134 066 63 316 70 750 52.2 24.6 27.5
1948 2 641 137 009 62 090 74 919 51.9 23.5 28.4
1949 2 724 140 596 59 277 81 319 51.6 21.8 29.9
1950 3 146 142 673 61 234 81 439 48.1 20.6 27.4
1951 3 238 151 416 56 550 94 866 49.6 18.5 31.1
1952 3 331 151 865 71 994 79 871 48.3 22.9 25.4
1953 3 426 156 377 70 794 85 583 48.3 21.9 26.4
1954 3 521 162 773 58 132 104 641 48.9 17.4 31.4
1955 3 619 158 856 67 088 91 768 46.3 19.6 26.7
1956 3 719 163 301 66 280 97 021 46.2 18.8 27.5
1957 3 820 170 381 70 933 99 448 46.9 19.5 27.4
1958 3 924 172 745 75 634 97 111 46.2 20.2 26.0
1959 4 031 181 740 63 010 118 730 47.2 16.4 30.8
1960 4 141 186 476 65 805 120 671 47.1 16.6 30.4
1961 4 253 193 833 63 287 130 546 47.5 15.5 32.0
1962 4 369 191 420 69 287 122 133 45.6 16.5 29.1
1963 4 488 197 671 71 449 126 222 45.8 16.6 29.2
1964 4 610 196 386 68 278 128 108 44.2 15.4 28.9
1965 4 736 201 059 74 830 126 229 44.0 16.4 27.6
1966 4 864 206 520 75 774 130 746 44.0 16.1 27.8
1967 4 996 201 816 71 191 130 625 41.8 14.8 27.1
1968 5 132 211 679 79 421 132 258 42.7 16.0 26.7
1969 5 271 215 397 85 174 130 223 42.2 16.7 25.5
1970 5 416 212 151 77 333 134 818 40.5 14.7 25.7
1971 5 565 229 674 75 223 154 451 42.6 14.0 28.6
1972 5 719 241 593 67 989 173 604 43.6 12.3 31.3
1973 5 877 238 498 69 454 169 044 41.8 12.2 29.6
1974 6 036 252 203 69 820 182 383 43.0 11.9 31.1
1975 6 194 249 332 78 708 170 624 41.4 13.1 28.4
1976 6 352 266 728 81 627 185 101 43.2 13.2 30.0
1977 6 510 284 747 71 777 212 970 45.0 11.3 33.6
1978 6 669 286 415 66 844 219 571 44.1 10.3 33.8
1979 6 832 295 972 72 274 223 698 44.5 10.9 33.6
1980 7 001 303 643 71 352 232 291 44.5 10.5 34.1
1981 7 177 308 413 75 658 232 755 44.1 10.8 33.3
1982 7 358 312 047 76 267 235 780 43.5 10.6 32.9
1983 7 543 306 827 74 462 232 365 41.7 10.1 31.6
1984 7 731 312 094 75 462 236 632 41.3 10.0 31.4
1985 7 920 326 849 69 455 257 394 42.2 9.0 33.3
1986 8 109 318 340 66 328 252 012 40.1 8.4 31.8
1987 8 299 319 942 66 404 253 538 39.4 8.2 31.2
1988 8 492 337 396 64 100 273 296 40.5 7.7 32.8
1989 8 688 340 807 61 548 279 259 39.9 7.2 32.7
1990 8 890 347 207 73 344 273 863 39.7 8.4 31.3
1991 9 099 359 904 72 896 287 008 39.6 8.0 31.5
1992 9 313 363 648 73 124 290 524 39.0 7.9 31.2
1993 9 533 370 138 73 870 296 268 38.8 7.7 31.1
1994 9 756 381 497 74 761 306 736 39.1 7.7 31.4
1995 9 984 371 091 65 159 305 932 37.2 6.5 30.6
1996 10 215 377 723 60 618 317 105 37.0 5.9 31.0
1997 10 450 387 862 67 691 320 171 37.1 6.5 30.6
1998 10 691 400 133 69 847 330 286 37.4 6.5 30.9
1999 10 942 409 034 65 139 343 895 37.4 6.0 31.4
2000 11 204 425 410 67 284 358 126 38.0 6.0 32.0
2001 11 479 415 338 68 041 347 297 36.2 5.9 30.3
2002 11 766 387 287 66 089 321 198 32.9 5.6 27.3
2003 12 063 375 092 66 695 308 397 31.1 5.5 25.6
2004 12 368 383 704 66 991 316 713 31.0 5.4 25.6
2005 12 679 374 066 71 039 303 027 29.5 5.6 23.9
2006 12 995 368 399 69 756 298 643 28.3 5.4 23.0
2007 13 318 366 128 70 030 296 098 27.5 5.3 22.2
2008 13 648 369 769 70 233 299 536 27.1 5.1 21.9
2009 13 989 351 628 71 707 279 921 25.1 5.1 20.0
2010 14 342 361 906 72 748 289 158 25.2 5.1 20.1
2011 14 707 373 692 72 354 301 338 25.4 4.9 20.5
2012 388 440 71 980 316 460 25.8 4.8 21.0

Structure of the population [23][edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2005) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 6 197 399 6 502 381 12 699 780 100
0-4 1 035 549 1 000 763 2 036 312 16,03
5-9 921 924 901 718 1 823 642 14,36
10-14 815 791 808 328 1 624 119 12,79
15-19 685 359 694 215 1 379 574 10,86
20-24 571 385 608 879 1 180 264 9,29
25-29 446 309 506 386 952 695 7,50
30-34 340 378 412 767 753 145 5,93
35-39 270 907 329 253 600 160 4,73
40-44 225 243 267 504 492 747 3,88
45-49 191 635 218 053 409 688 3,23
50-54 175 311 191 751 367 062 2,89
55-59 149 593 161 320 310 913 2,45
60-64 113 686 119 957 233 643 1,84
65-69 94 128 98 864 192 992 1,52
70-74 74 463 81 804 156 267 1,23
75-79 50 340 57 089 107 429 0,85
80+ 35 398 43 730 79 128 0,62
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 773 264 2 710 809 5 484 073 43,18
15-64 3 169 806 3 510 085 6 679 891 52,60
65+ 254 329 281 487 535 816 4,22

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (Estimates) (Projections based on the 2002 Population Census) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 7 003 337 7 358 328 14 361 666 100
0-4 1 103 521 1 062 224 2 165 745 15,08
5-9 1 017 180 987 490 2 004 670 13,96
10-14 906 603 891 659 1 798 262 12,52
15-19 794 459 795 688 1 590 147 11,07
20-24 646 911 675 214 1 322 125 9,21
25-29 538 214 590 746 1 128 960 7,86
30-34 418 535 494 657 913 192 6,36
35-39 323 010 402 681 725 691 5,05
40-44 258 454 321 849 580 303 4,04
45-49 215 304 260 145 475 449 3,31
50-54 182 662 211 040 393 702 2,74
55-59 165 910 184 214 350 124 2,44
60-64 139 395 152 936 292 331 2,04
65-69 103 433 111 058 214 491 1,49
70-74 81 809 88 219 170 028 1,18
75-79 60 257 68 733 128 990 0,90
80+ 47 678 59 778 107 456 0,75
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 3 027 304 2 941 373 5 968 677 41,56
15-64 3 682 856 4 089 167 7 772 023 54,12
65+ 293 177 327 788 620 965 4,32

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012" (PDF). INE. Archived from the original on November 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  2. ^ a b c "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  3. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
  4. ^ Lahmeyer, Jan (2002). "Guatemala: historical demographical data of the whole country". Population Statistics. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  5. ^ "Guatemalan population growth (by departament)" (web page). INE. Retrieved 2014-12-12. 
  6. ^ Economic Migrants Replace Political Refugees see Table 1. Emigration Flows from Guatemala, 1960s through 2005. Retrieved on, 18 November 2014
  7. ^ "Largest U.S. Immigrant Groups over Time, 1960-Present". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  8. ^ The 2000 U.S. Census recorded 480,665 Guatemalan-born respondents; see Smith (2006)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Smith, James (April 2006). "DRC Migration, Globalisation and Poverty".  Used the Version 4 data.
  10. ^ "Guatemala" (PDF). Retrieved June 1, 2010. 
  11. ^ INE- Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012 Retrieved, 2014/12/20.
  12. ^ Mara Loveman (1972). National Colors: Racial Classification and the State in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-19-933735-4. Retrieved 21 September 2014. 
  13. ^ Informe 2011. Corporación Latinobarómetro. page 58, table 16
  14. ^ http://www.countriesquest.com/central_america/guatemala.htm
  15. ^ "GUATEMALA: DEL MESTIZAJE A LA LADINIZACION, 1524-1964" (PDF). CIRMA. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  16. ^ "Belize" (PDF). 2010 Belize Housing and Population Census. Statistical Institute of Belize. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  17. ^ Tulika Sen (1988). Growth and Development of Bengalee Girls (Issue 73 of Memoir (Anthropological Survey of India) ed.). Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Department of Culture, Government of India. p. 30. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  18. ^ Tulika Sen (1988). Growth and Development of Bengalee Girls (Issue 73 of Memoir (Anthropological Survey of India) ed.). Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Department of Culture, Government of India. p. 30. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco" (PDF) (in Spanish). Latinobarómetro. April 2014. p. 6. Archived from the original (pdf) on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  20. ^ a b c El crecimiento de las Iglesias Evangélicas en Guatemala: Una mirada Socio-religiosa Guatemala, November 2010
  21. ^ United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  22. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Guatemala
  23. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm