Demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans

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Percent of Hispanic and Latino population by state in 2012.

The demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans depict a population that is the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, 52 million people or 16.7% of the national population, of them, 47 Million are American citizens.

Hispanic population is much younger than the rest of the country, less educated, less wealthy, with a very large immigrant component, of no less than two dozen national origins and of every race, with a longer life expectancy than their fellow Americans, and geographically concentrated in the southwestern United States.[1][2][3][4][5]

A large proportion of Hispanics that came from Latin America to the U.S. as adults have academic degrees because public university systems in most countries of Latin America are free[6][7] or very low cost and some of them continue their education or career in the US.[8][9] More than 40 % of Hispanic students are in college or are attending to college.[10]

History[edit]

Hispanic and Latino Americans (along with Asian Americans, most notably) have contributed to an important demographic change in the United States since the 1960s whereby minority groups now compose one-third of the population. Nearly one in six Americans was Hispanic or Latino as of 2009, a total of 48.4 million out of the estimated 307 million Americans. High rates of immigration and fertility have shaped the growth of the Hispanic and Latino population.

Population[edit]

CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as a heatmap by census tract.

Geographic distribution[edit]

As of 2000, the ten most populous places with Hispanic majorities were

The Hispanic population of Los Angeles County, California, numbering 4.7 million, is the largest of all counties in the nation,[19] comprising 47 percent of the county's ten million residents.[20]

Hispanic and Latino Population by state or territory (2000–2010)[11][12] Hispanics accounted for 16.7% of the national population, or around 52 million people.[13] The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population (at 7.2%).[14] The growth rate from July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006 alone was 3.4%[15]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%).[14] Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the US.[16] The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[17]
State/Territory Pop 2000 % pop 2000 Pop 2010 % pop 2010 % growth
2000-2010
%pop 2012
Alabama Alabama 75,830 1.7% 185,602 3.9% +144.8% 4.1%
Alaska Alaska 25,852 4.1% 39,250 5.5% +51.8% 6.1%
Arizona Arizona 1,295,617 25.3% 1,895,149 29.6% +46.3% 30.2%
Arkansas Arkansas 86,866 3.2% 186,050 6.4% +114.2% 6.8%
California California 10,966,556 32.4% 14,013,719 37.6% +27.8% 38.2%
Colorado Colorado 735,801 17.1% 1,038,687 20.7% +41.2% 21.0%
Connecticut Connecticut 320,323 9.4% 479,087 13.4% +49.6% 14.2%
Delaware Delaware 37,277 4.8% 73,221 8.2% +96.4% 8.6%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 44,953 7.9% 54,749 9.1% +21.8% 9.9%
Florida Florida 2,682,715 16.8% 4,223,806 22.5% +57.4% 23.2%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 435,227 5.3% 853,689 8.8% +96.1% 9.2%
Hawaii Hawaii 87,699 7.2% 120,842 8.9% +37.8% 9.5%
Idaho Idaho 101,690 7.9% 175,901 11.2% +73.0% 11.6%
Illinois Illinois 1,530,262 12.3% 2,027,578 15.8% +32.5% 16.3%
Indiana Indiana 214,536 3.5% 389,707 6.0% +81.7% 6.3%
Iowa Iowa 82,473 2.8% 151,544 5.0% +83.7% 5.3%
Kansas Kansas 188,252 7.0% 300,042 10.5% +59.4% 11.0%
Kentucky Kentucky 59,939 1.5% 132,836 3.1% +121.6% 3.2%
Louisiana Louisiana 107,738 2.4% 192,560 4.2% +78.7% 4.5%
Maine Maine 9,360 0.7% 16,935 1.3% +80.9% 1.4%
Maryland Maryland 227,916 4.3% 470,632 8.2% +106.5% 8.7%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 428,729 6.8% 627,654 9.6% +46.4% 10.1%
Michigan Michigan 323,877 3.3% 436,358 4.4% +34.7% 4.6%
Minnesota Minnesota 143,382 2.9% 250,258 4.7% +74.5% 4.9%
Mississippi Mississippi 39,569 1.4% 81,481 2.7% +105.9% 2.9%
Missouri Missouri 118,592 2.1% 212,470 3.5% +79.2% 3.7%
Montana Montana 18,081 2.0% 28,565 2.9% +58.0% 3.1%
Nebraska Nebraska 94,425 5.5% 167,405 9.2% +77.3% 9.7%
Nevada Nevada 393,970 19.7% 716,501 26.5% +81.9% 27.3%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 20,489 1.7% 36,704 2.8% +79.1% 3.0%
New Jersey New Jersey 1,117,191 13.3% 1,555,144 17.7% +39.2% 18.5%
New Mexico New Mexico 765,386 42.1% 953,403 46.3% +24.6% 47.0%
New York (state) New York 2,867,583 15.1% 3,416,922 17.6% +19.2% 18.2%
North Carolina North Carolina 378,963 4.7% 800,120 8.4% +111.1% 8.7%
North Dakota North Dakota 7,786 1.2% 13,467 2.0% +73.0% 2.5%
Ohio Ohio 217,123 1.9% 354,674 3.1% +63.4% 3.3%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 179,304 5.2% 332,007 8.9% +85.2% 9.3%
Oregon Oregon 275,314 8.0% 450,062 11.7% +63.5% 12.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 394,088 3.2% 719,660 5.7% +82.6% 6.1%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 90,820 8.7% 130,655 12.4% +43.9% 13.2%
South Carolina South Carolina 95,076 2.4% 235,682 5.1% +147.9% 5.3%
South Dakota South Dakota 10,903 1.4% 22,119 2.7% +102.9% 3.1%
Tennessee Tennessee 123,838 2.2% 290,059 4.6% +134.2% 4.8%
Texas Texas 6,669,666 32.0% 9,460,921 37.6% +41.8% 38.2%
Utah Utah 201,559 9.0% 358,340 13.0% +77.8% 13.3%
Vermont Vermont 5,504 0.9% 9,208 1.5% +67.3% 1.6%
Virginia Virginia 329,540 4.7% 631,825 7.9% +91.7% 8.4%
Washington (state) Washington 441,509 7.5% 755,790 11.2% +71.2% 11.7%
West Virginia West Virginia 12,279 0.7% 22,268 1.2% +81.4% 1.3%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 192,921 3.6% 336,056 5.9% +74.2% 6.2%
Wyoming Wyoming 31,669 6.4% 50,231 8.9% +58.6% 9.5%
American Samoa American Samoa 109[21] 0.2%
Guam Guam 2,124 [22] 1.4%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 117[23] 0.2%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 3,762,746 98.8% 3,688,455 99.0% 0.2% 99.5%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 15,196 14.0% 18,514 17.4%[24]
United States United States of America 35,305,818 12.5% 50,497,108 16.3% +43.0% 16.9%

Hispanic and Latino populations of each state by region of origin[edit]

The population change of Hispanic or Latino residents by county (2010 Census data).

Over 60% of the Hispanic and Latino population in the United States is of Mexican ancestry. The influence of Mexican and Mexican-American culture is felt throughout the country, with the epicenter of this influence located in the southwestern United States, including Texas, Nevada, Arizona and Southern California.

The remaining 40% of Latinos in the United States hail from the Caribbean, Central America and South America. Caribbean Latinos are those with ancestry originating in the Caribbean islands of Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. Puerto Ricans are the second-largest Hispanic group in the U.S. after those of Mexican descent. There are large Puerto Rican and Dominican populations in the Northeastern states, including the urban centers of New York, New Jersey and Boston as well as large Cuban and Puerto Rican populations in Florida, including the influential Cuban-American enclave in Miami and a Puerto Rican community in Orlando that is the third largest in the world.

Central American Latinos come from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Belize and Costa Rica. The largest numbers of Hispanics with Central American origins can be found in California, Texas, and the DC Metropolitan area. Due to its large agricultural industry, Florida has been a frequent destination for Guatemalan and Honduran migrant workers who often live and work alongside the state's large population of Mexicans.

Latinos from South America come from Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia and Paraguay. Significant numbers of Colombians and people of Colombian ancestry live in Miami and throughout Florida, as do Peruvians, who also have enclaves in New Jersey and the DC Metropolitical Area. Other Hispanic and Latino groups come from Spain, and the descendants of the colonial Spanish in Florida, Louisiana, and the US southwest.[25]

Hispanic and Latino populations of each state by region of origin (2010 Census)[11][12]
State/Territory Mexican % Mexican Caribbean % Caribbean Central American % Central American South American % South American other Hispanic % other
Alabama Alabama 122,911 2.6% 17,141 0.4% 22,800 0.5% 5,938 0.1% 16,812 0.4%
Alaska Alaska 21,642 3.0% 7,338 1.0% 2,509 0.4% 2,345 0.3% 5,415 0.8%
Arizona Arizona 1,657,668 25.9% 48,582 0.8% 36,642 0.6% 21,895 0.3% 130,362 2.0%
Arkansas Arkansas 138,194 4.7% 6,666 0.3% 23,216 0.8% 3,028 0.1% 14,946 0.5%
California California 11,423,146 30.7% 290,007 0.8% 1,132,520 3.0% 293,880 0.8% 874,166 2.3%
Colorado Colorado 757,181 15.1% 30,992 0.6% 29,386 0.6% 19,117 0.4% 202,011 4.0%
Connecticut Connecticut 50,658 1.4% 288,555 8.2% 35,023 1.0% 71,355 2.0% 33,496 0.9%
Delaware Delaware 30,283 3.4% 26,011 3.0% 8,112 0.9% 3,849 0.4% 4,966 0.6%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 8,507 1.4% 7,426 1.3% 23,354 3.9% 7,639 1.3% 7,823 1.3%
Florida Florida 629,718 3.3% 2,233,439 12.0% 432,665 2.3% 674,542 3.6% 253,442 1.3%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 519,502 5.4% 111,976 1.3% 106,987 1.1% 57,707 0.6% 57,517 0.6%
Hawaii Hawaii 35,415 2.6% 46,260 3.4% 2,962 0.2% 3,549 0.3% 32,656 2.4%
Idaho Idaho 148,923 9.5% 3,920 0.3% 3,494 0.2% 3,707 0.2% 15,857 1.0%
Illinois Illinois 1,602,403 12.5% 211,221 1.7% 70,000 0.5% 67,862 0.5% 76,092 0.6%
Indiana Indiana 295,373 4.6% 36,686 0.7% 22,093 0.3% 10,032 0.2% 25,523 0.4%
Iowa Iowa 117,090 3.8% 6,540 0.3% 13,289 0.4% 3,754 0.1% 10,871 0.4%
Kansas Kansas 247,297 8.7% 12,734 0.5% 15,293 0.5% 5,845 0.2% 18,873 0.7%
Kentucky Kentucky 82,110 1.9% 21,842 0.6% 11,479 0.3% 5,405 0.1% 12,000 0.3%
Louisiana Louisiana 78,643 1.7% 25,171 0.6% 51,722 1.1% 8,871 0.2% 28,153 0.6%
Maine Maine 5,134 0.4% 5,770 0.5% 1,708 0.1% 1,515 0.1% 2,808 0.2%
Maryland Maryland 88,004 1.5% 67,811 1.2% 195,692 3.4% 61,400 1.1% 57,725 1.0%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 38,379 0.6% 380,723 6.0% 96,958 1.5% 54,398 0.8% 57,196 0.9%
Michigan Michigan 317,903 3.2% 52,201 0.6% 17,785 0.2% 13,243 0.1% 35,226 0.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 176,007 3.3% 15,762 0.3% 19,908 0.4% 18,075 0.3% 20,506 0.4%
Mississippi Mississippi 52,459 1.8% 8,684 0.3% 8,343 0.3% 2,833 0.1% 9,162 0.3%
Missouri Missouri 147,254 2.5% 18,718 0.3% 17,763 0.3% 8,731 0.1% 20,004 0.3%
Montana Montana 20,048 2.0% 2,007 0.2% 735 0.1% 997 0.1% 4,778 0.5%
Nebraska Nebraska 128,060 7.0% 5,752 0.3% 17,242 0.9% 2,824 0.2% 13,527 0.7%
Nevada Nevada 540,978 20.0% 44,569 1.7% 55,937 2.1% 19,056 0.7% 55,961 2.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 7,822 0.6% 17,538 1.4% 2,731 0.2% 4,266 0.3% 4,347 0.3%
New Jersey New Jersey 217,715 2.5% 715,376 8.1% 176,611 2.0% 325,179 3.7% 120,263 1.4%
New Mexico New Mexico 590,890 28.7% 12,754 0.6% 6,621 0.3% 4,841 0.2% 338,297 16.4%
New York (state) New York 457,288 2.4% 1,816,148 9.5% 353,589 1.8% 513,417 2.6% 276,480 1.4%
North Carolina North Carolina 486,960 5.1% 105,104 1.2% 105,066 1.1% 46,307 0.5% 56,683 0.6%
North Dakota North Dakota 9,223 1.4% 1,337 0.3% 452 0.1% 539 0.1% 1,916 0.3%
Ohio Ohio 172,029 1.5% 108,941 1.0% 22,756 0.2% 17,571 0.2% 33,377 0.3%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 267,016 7.1% 15,705 0.4% 15,641 0.4% 7,134 0.2% 26,511 0.7%
Oregon Oregon 369,817 9.7% 14,342 0.4% 18,190 0.5% 9,648 0.3% 38,065 1.0%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 129,568 1.0% 466,360 3.6% 35,453 0.3% 48,126 0.6% 60,153 0.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 9,090 0.9% 71,627 6.8% 23,817 2.3% 14,013 1.3% 12,108 1.2%
South Carolina South Carolina 138,358 3.0% 35,466 0.8% 26,290 0.6% 17,856 0.4% 17,712 0.4%
South Dakota South Dakota 13,839 1.7% 1,827 0.2% 2,891 0.4% 617 0.1% 2,945 0.4%
Tennessee Tennessee 186,615 2.9% 30,946 0.5% 36,856 0.6% 11,039 0.2% 24,603 0.4%
Texas Texas 7,951,193 31.6% 190,470 0.8% 420,683 1.7% 133,808 0.5% 764,767 3.0%
Utah Utah 258,905 9.4% 10,397 0.4% 20,442 0.7% 26,028 0.9% 42,568 1.5%
Vermont Vermont 2,534 0.4% 3,053 0.5% 671 0.1% 1,204 0.2% 1,746 0.3%
Virginia Virginia 155,067 1.9% 99,691 1.3% 206,568 2.6% 101,480 1.3% 69,019 0.9%
Washington (state) Washington 601,768 8.9% 34,401 0.5% 33,661 0.5% 20,742 0.3% 65,218 1.0%
West Virginia West Virginia 9,704 0.5% 4,828 0.3% 2,081 0.1% 1,700 0.1% 3,955 0.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 244,248 4.3% 51,805 0.9% 10,616 0.2% 9,675 0.2% 19,712 0.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 37,719 6.7% 1,346 0.3% 977 0.2% 852 0.2% 9,337 1.7%
United States United States of America 31,798,258 10.3% 7,823,966 2.6% 3,998,280 1.3% 2,769,434 0.9% 4,087,656 1.3%

Race[edit]

Over half of the Hispanic and Latino American population self-identifies as White.[26] The largest number of White Hispanics come from within the Mexican community, the highest percentage of White Hispanics among major Hispanic groups comes from the Cuban American community, also high percentages of White Hispanics from Hispanic groups come from within the Colombian and also Spanish communities. The largest number of Black Hispanics come from within the Puerto Rican community, while the highest percentage of Black Hispanics among major Hispanic groups come from the Dominican community. Significant numbers of Black Hispanics can also be found among the Central American communities.[27]

The largest number of Asian Hispanics come from within the Mexican community, while the highest percentage of Asian Hispanics come from the Peruvian community. The largest population of Native American Hispanic come from within the Mexican community and the highest percentage of Native American Hispanics among major Hispanic groups come from within the Guatemalan community.

Though comprising very small percentages of the Hispanic and Latino American population, and even smaller percentages of the total U.S. population, some of the preceding racial subgroups make up large minorities among the respective racial groups, overall. For instance, Hispanics and Latinos who are American Indian or Alaska Native compose 15% of all American Indians and Alaska Natives (per the ACS estimates). Meanwhile, the 120,000 Hispanics and Latinos who are of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race compose 22% of this entire race nationally (per the Population Estimates). Again, nearly a third of the overall 'Two or more race' population is Hispanic or Latino (ACS).

Hispanic and Latinos by race (2010)[28]
Race Population % of all Hispanics and Latinos
White 26,735,713 53.0
Some other race (Mestizo, Mulatto, etc.) 18,503,103 36.7
Two or more races 3,042,592 6.0
Black 1,243,471 2.5
American Indian and Alaska Native 685,150 1.4
Asian 209,128 0.4
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 58,437 0.1
Total 50,477,594 100.0
Race of Major Hispanic ancestries (2010 US Census)(self-identified race)"Race of Major Hispanic Groups: 2010" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. 
Hispanic ancestry Total White Black American Indian
and Alaska Native
Asian Other
(Some Other Race
or Two or More Races
or Native Hawaiian
or Other Pacific Islander)
Mexico Mexican 31,798,258
100%
16,794,111
52.8%
296,778
0.9%
460,098
1.4%
101,654
0.3%
14,145,617
44.6%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican 4,623,716
100%
2,455,534
53.1%
403,372
8.7%
42,504
0.9%
24,312
0.5%
1,697,994
36.7%
Cuba Cuban 1,785,547
100%
1,525,521
85.4%
82,398
4.6%
3,002
0.2%
4,391
0.2%
170,235
9.6%
El Salvador Salvadoran 1,648,968
100%
663,224
40.2%
16,150
1.0%
17,682
1.1%
4,737
0.3%
947,175
57.4%
Dominican Republic Dominican 1,414,703
100%
419,016
29.6%
182,005
12.9%
19,183
1.4%
4,056
0.3%
790,443
55.8%
Guatemala Guatemalan 1,044,209
100%
401,763
38.5%
11,471
1.1%
31,197
3.0%
2,386
0.2%
597,392
57.2%
All other 4,087,656
100%
2,018,397
49.4%
112,521
2.8%
75,976
1.9%
50,299
1.2%
1,830,463
44.9%
Total 50,477,594
100%
26,735,713
53.0%
1,243,471
2.5%
685,150
1.4%
209,128
0.4%
21,604,132
42.8%

Sexuality[edit]

According to a Gallup survey conducted from June to September 2012, it found that 4 percent of Hispanic and Latino Americans self identify as LGBT; this is greater than the estimated 3.4 percent of American adults that self identify as LGBT in the total population,[29] but the difference is well within the margin of error for the number of LGBT Latinos in the 121 000 sample population of the survey.

Socioeconomic status[edit]

Education[edit]

According to the U.S Census Bureau, Hispanics are among the least educated ethnic group. In 2000, about 530,000 Hispanics and Latinos 16–19 years of age were high school dropouts, yielding a dropout rate of 21.1 percent for all Hispanics and Latinos.[30]

11 percent of Hispanics/Latinos have earned a bachelor's degree or higher, compared with 17 percent of non-Hispanic blacks, 30 percent of non-Hispanic whites, and 49 percent of Asian Americans.[31] Often, Hispanic and Latino youth begin schooling without the necessary economic and social resources that other children have. One frequent cause is their being the children of immigrant parents with low socioeconomic status and language barriers that result in a lack of knowledge about the U.S. education system. These unfavorable conditions frequently spawn others, such as weak parent-teacher relationships.

The overall average years of schooling for Hispanics and Latinos (10.5) does not include high school graduation (12 years). There is a notable education gap between foreign-born Hispanics, who have more difficulties with language barriers, and U.S.-born Hispanics. The latter only lag non-Hispanic Whites by 1.3 years of schooling, and nearly tie African Americans, as seen in the table below.

Table 1[32]

Average Years of Schooling, by Gender, Ethnicity, and Nativity Men, by Nativity Women, by Nativity

Ethnicity All Foreign-Born US Born All Foreign-Born US Born Whites 13.6 13.6 Black 12.4 12.8 All Hispanics 10.5 9.5 12.2 10.8 9.8 12.4 Mexicans 9.8 8.5 12.1 10.1 8.6 12.2 Puerto Ricans 11.7 11.2 12.4 12.0 11.4 12.7 Cubans 12.7 12.4 13.6 12.9 12.5 14.2

(NOTE: The samples include individuals ages 25 to 59.)

Hispanics can also attend to Hispanic-serving institution, institutions that are part of a federal program designed to assist colleges or universities in the United States that attempt to assist first generation, majority low income Hispanic students. There are over 250 schools that have been designated as an HSI.

Employment[edit]

Employment and earnings are a measure of labor market success, and depend on educational attainment. Given the lower level of education of the Hispanic or Latino population and the growing need for a college degree for entry-level jobs, Hispanics and Latinos are behind when entering into the labor force. The annual employment rate is defined as the percentage of individuals who worked any period of time during the calendar year.[33] Although Hispanics do not lag behind non-Hispanic blacks when it comes to employment rates, they do lag non-Hispanic whites. There is a major gap between male and female rates in Hispanics due to high fertility rates and female absence from the labor force to give birth. Furthermore, nativity plays a major role in employment rates because U.S. born Hispanics are more accustomed to the U.S. labor market.

Table2[34]

Annual Employment Rates (Percentages), by Gender, Ethnicity and Nativity

Men, by Nativity Women, by Nativity

Ethnicity All Foreign-Born US Born All Foreign-Born US Born Whites 91.8 80.2 Blacks 77.4 77.7 Hispanics 86.8 87.5 85.6 67.0 61.2 76.3 Mexicans 87.8 88.5 86.5 64.7 56.1 76.4 Puerto Ricans 80.0 76.6 83.8 67.7 60.8 75.5 Cubans 87.3 86.8 89.1 74.7 72.5 82.5 |} (NOTE: The samples include individuals ages 25 to 59.)

Earnings[edit]

In 2006, adults 18 and older with a master's, professional, or doctoral degree earned an average of $79,946, while those with less than a high school diploma earned about $19,915.[35]

Hispanic and Latino median earnings are significantly lower than the median earnings of the total U.S. population, a result of the lower education levels of the former group. Yet, there are other causes of the earnings gap besides education. A report released by the Census Bureau in 2003 estimated that the average lifetime earnings of Hispanics with an advanced degree are $500,000 less than those of non-Hispanic whites with an equivalent education.

Homeownership[edit]

The US homeownership rate according to race.[36]

Hispanic homeownership in 2016 is 45.6, around half of every Hispano-American lives in their own house.[37]

Poverty[edit]

Estimates show that about 22 percent of the Hispanic and Latino population is below the poverty level, with the rate being higher for children, while 8.3 percent of non-Hispanic whites and about 25 percent of African American remain under the poverty level as well.[38]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mann, Denise (2010-10-14). "Hispanics Have Highest Life Expectancy in U.S." WebMD. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  2. ^ "S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States; Hispanic or Latino (of any race)". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  3. ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  4. ^ "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  5. ^ "B03003. Hispanic or Latino origin [nation, regions, and seven southwestern states]". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  6. ^ "Studying in Argentina for Free - Inside Higher Ed". Insidehighered.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  7. ^ "U.S. can learn from strengths, weaknesses of Latin American universities - The Daily Texan". Dailytexanonline.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  8. ^ "87% of Hispanics value higher education, 13% have college degree - USATODAY.com". Usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  9. ^ "Demanding their Rights: The Latino Struggle for Educational Access and Equity". Nps.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  10. ^ "III. Hispanic College Enrollments". Pewhispanic.org. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b US Census Bureau: "Redistricting Data, First Look at Local 2010 Census Results" Archived 2013-10-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b DIvision, US Census Bureau Systems Support. "Population by Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin for the United States: 1990 and 2000 (PHC-T-1)". Census.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  13. ^ US Census Bureau Public Information Office. "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports - Population - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "T1. Population Estimates [10]; Data Set: 2007 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  15. ^ "US Census Press Releases". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07-16. Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  16. ^ USA Today: "Census: Hispanics surpass blacks in most U.S. metros" April 14, 2011
  17. ^ "Table 4. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2010 to 2050". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  18. ^ "Ten Places with Highest Percent Hispanic: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2002-02-19. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  19. ^ "US Census Press Releases; More Than 300 Counties Now "Majority-Minority"". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  20. ^ "Los Angeles County, California – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  21. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  22. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  23. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  24. ^ "Census 2010 News | U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 Census Ethnic Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  25. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  26. ^ "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-09-02.  while the ratio rises to 92% in the Population Estimates Program, which are the official estimates."T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race [15]". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-09-10. 
  27. ^ "The Hispanic Population, 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. May 2011. 
  28. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 
  29. ^ David Crary (18 October 2012). "Gallup study: 3.4 percent of US adults are LGBT". WTOP. Associated Press. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  30. ^ US Census Bureau, 2003
  31. ^ Tienda, 180
  32. ^ Tienda, Maria; Mitchell, Faith, eds. (2006). Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. p. 230. ISBN 0309100518. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  33. ^ Tienda, 235
  34. ^ Tienda & Mitchell 2006, p. 235.
  35. ^ US Census Bureau, 2006
  36. ^ "US Census Bureau, homeownership by race". Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
  37. ^ "Hispanic homeownership on the rise". Housingwire.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  38. ^ US Census, 2005

References[edit]

  • Brindis C.D., Driscoll A.K., Biggs M.A. & Valderrama L.T. 2002. Fact Sheet on Latino Youth: Income & Poverty.
  • Firestone, Juanita M. and Harris, Richard J.; "Educational and Occupational Attainment".
  • Marcelo, M Suárez-Orozco and Páez Mariela; (2002) Latinos: Remaking America. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23486-3
  • Tienda, Marta and Mitchell, Faith; (Eds). (2006) Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-10051-8
  • US Census Bureau. (2007). Earnings Gap by Census Bureau Data on Educational Attainment.
  • US Census Bureau. (2006). US Hispanic Population:2006 Power Point.

Further reading[edit]

  • Card, David & Ethan G. Lewis (2007). "The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants during the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts". In Borjas, George J. (Editor). Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-06632-5. 
  • Masud-Piloto, Felix Roberto (1996). From Welcomed Exiles to Illegal Immigrants: Cuban Migration to the U.S., 1959-1995. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8148-3.