Demographics of Indonesia

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Indonesian students during school excursion to a museum; Indonesia currently possesses a relatively young population.

The population of Indonesia was 237.64 million according to the 2010 national census,[1] and it was estimated to have reached 255.18 million at the official Inter-census Survey in 2015.[2] Fifty-eight per cent live on the island of Java,[1] the world's most populous island.[3]

Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since 1967,[4] Indonesia's population growth was 1.49% for the decade ending in 2010. At that rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the present population of the United States.[5] Some say family planning should be revitalised based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country, but this aim has been criticised by religious groups who believe that family planning goes against religious teachings.[6]

Indonesia has a relatively young population compared to Western nations, though it is ageing as the country's birth rate has slowed and its life expectancy has increased. The median age was 30.2 years in 2017.[7] Indonesia includes numerous ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups, some of which are related to each other. Since independence, Indonesian (a form of Malay and the official national language) is the language of most written communication, education, government, and business. Many local ethnic languages are the first language of most Indonesians and are still important.

Population[edit]

Provinces of Indonesia by population density per square kilometers in 2015
  10,001 above
  1,001 to 10,000
  101 to 1,000
  11 to 100
  1 to 10
Historical population of Indonesia
YearPop.±% p.a.
1930 60,727,233—    
1955 77,473,268+0.98%
1961 97,085,348+3.83%
1971 119,208,229+2.07%
1976 141,862,419+3.54%
1980 147,490,298+0.98%
1990 179,378,946+1.98%
2000 206,264,595+1.41%
2010 237,641,326+1.43%
Source: Statistics Indonesia,[8] Wertheim (1959),[9] Geografi dan Kependudukan (1976),[10] Widjojo Nitisastro (2006)[11]

Population by province[edit]

Province Population
(2010 Census)
Urban %
in 2010
Total
Fertility
Rate
Population
(2015 Census)
Aceh 4,494.410 23.6 2.79 4,486,570
North Sumatra 12,982,204 42.4 3.01 13,923,262
West Sumatra 4,846,909 29.0 2.91 5,190,577
Riau 5,538,367 43.7 2.82 6,330,941
Jambi 3,092,265 28.3 2.51 3,397,164
South Sumatra 7,450,394 34.4 2.56 8,043,042
Bengkulu 1,715,518 29.4 2.51 1,872,136
Lampung 7,608,405 21.0 2.45 8,109,601
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung 1,223,296 43.0 2.54 1,370,331
Kepulauan Riau
(Riau Islands)
1,679,163 67.4 2.38 1,968,313
Banten 10,632,166 52.2 2.35 11,934,373
Jakarta 9,607,787 100.0 1.82 10,154,134
West Java 43,053,732 50.3 2.43 46,668,214
Central Java 32,382,657 40.4 2.20 33,753,023
Yogyakarta 3,457,491 57.7 1.94 3,675,768
East Java 37,476,757 40.9 2.00 38,828,061
Bali 3,890,757 49.8 2.13 4,148,588
West Nusa Tenggara 4,500,212 34.8 2.59 4,830,118
East Nusa Tenggara 4,683,827 15.9 3.82 5,112,760
West Kalimantan 4,395,983 25.1 2.64 4,783,209
Central Kalimantan 2,212,089 27.5 2.56 2,490,178
South Kalimantan 3,626,616 36.3 2.35 3,984,315
East Kalimantan 3,028,487 57.6 2.61 3,422,676
North Kalimantan(a) 524,656 639,639
North Sulawesi 2,270,596 37.0 2.43 2,409,921
Gorontalo 1,040,164 25.5 2.76 1,131,670
Central Sulawesi 2,635,009 19.7 2.94 2,872,857
South Sulawesi 8,034,776 29.4 2.55 8,512,608
Southeast Sulawesi 2,232,586 20.8 3.20 2,495,248
West Sulawesi 1,158,651 -- 3.33 1,279,994
Maluku 1,533,506 25.9 3.56 1,683,856
North Maluku 1,038,087 29.5 3.35 1,160,275
Papua 2,833,381 22.2 2.87 3,143,088
West Papua 760,422 -- 3.18 868,819
Indonesia 237,641,326 2.41 255,182,144

Source: Population Census 2010,[1] except for final column, taken from Inter-Census Survey 2015.

Note: (a) North Kalimantan province was created in 2012 (by separation from East Kalimantan province); the 2010 total figures given are those for the provinces as they were following that splitting (Urban % and Total Fertility Rate columns unadjusted).

[1]

Largest cities[edit]

Age structure[edit]

Age structure in Indonesia (2010)[12]

  Minor: 0-14 years (27.3%)
  Workforce: 15-64 years (66.5%)
  Retiree: 65 years and over (6.2%)

Vital statistics[edit]

Indonesia fertility rate by province (2010)
  3,5 - 4
  3 - 3,5
  2,5 – 3
  2 – 2,5
  1,5 – 2

United Nations estimates[edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 3,347,000 1,933,000 1,414,000 42.7 21.4 21.3 5.49 191.9
1955–1960 3,897,000 1,888,000 2,009,000 44.8 19.2 25.6 5.67 163.8
1960–1965 4,280,000 1,820,000 2,461,000 43.6 16.8 26.8 5.62 139.3
1965–1970 4,628,000 1,768,000 2,860,000 41.5 14.4 27.1 5.57 117.4
1970–1975 4,842,000 1,691,000 3,151,000 38.2 12.2 26.0 5.30 98.9
1975–1980 4,985,000 1,630,000 3,356,000 34.9 10.5 24.4 4.73 83.2
1980–1985 5,065,000 1,590,000 3,475,000 31.7 9.2 22.5 4.11 69.8
1985–1990 4,853,000 1,555,000 3,298,000 27.5 8.3 19.2 3.40 58.5
1990–1995 4,702,000 1,547,000 3,155,000 24.4 7.6 16.8 2.90 49.1
1995–2000 4,518,000 1,564,000 2,954,000 21.8 7.2 14.6 2.55 41.1
2000–2005 4,638,000 1,620,000 3,018,000 22.0 7.4 13.7 2.52 34.5
2005–2010 4,464,000 1,692,000 2,772,000 21.3 7.2 11.9 2.50 28.8
2010–2015 20.2 7.1 13.1 2.45
2015–2020 18.4 7.2 11.2 2.32
2020–2025 17.0 7.5 9.5 2.21
2025–2030 15.9 7.9 8.0 2.12
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Source: [13]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
2003 213,600,000 13.4 2.3
2004 216,400,000 13.3 2.3
2005 219,800,000 13.2 2.2
2006 222,700,000 13.0 2.2
2007 225,600,000 12.8 2.18
2008 228,500,000 12.5 2.17
2009 231,400,000 12.2 2.16
2010 238,500,000 6,028,921 1,236,154 4,792,767 25.3 5.2 13.1 2.39
2011 241,000,000 13.2 2,37
2012 244,200,000 13.1 2,35

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[14]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-1983 4.3
1987 3.4 (3.1) 2.9 (2.6) 3.7 (3.4)
1991 25.1 3.02 (2.50) 24.0 2.60 (2.03) 25.6 3.24 (2.73)
1994 2.9 (2.4) 2.3 (1.8) 3.2 (2.7)
1997 2.8 (2.4) 2.4 (2.0) 3.0 (2.6)
2002-2003 21.9 2.6 (2.2) 22.1 2.4 (2.1) 21.7 2.7 (2.3)
2007 20.9 2.6 (2.2) 20.2 2.3 (2.0) 21.5 2.8 (2.4)
2012 20.4 2.6 (2.0) 20.1 2.4 (1.9) 20.7 2.8 (2.2)
2017 18.1 2.4 (2.1) 17.7 2.3 (1.9) 18.5 2.6 (2.2)

Fertility rate and ageing population (by province)[edit]

Total fertility rate (TFR) and population over age 60 by region as of 2010:[15]

Province Total fertility rate (2010) Population over age 60 (2010)
North Sumatera 3.01 5.9
West Sumatera 2.91 8.1
Riau 2.82 4.0
Jambi 2.51 5.5
South Sumatera 2.56 6.2
Bengkulu 2.51 5.8
Lampung 2.45 7.2
Bangka Belitung 2.54 5.8
Kepulauan Riau 2.38 3.4
Jakarta 1.82 5.1
West Java 2.43 7.0
Central Java 2.20 10.3
Yogyakarta 1.94 12.9
East Java 2.00 10.4
Banten 2.35 4.6
Bali 2.13 9.7
East Nusa Tenggara 3.82 7.4
West Kalimantan 2.64 5.8
Central Kalimantan 2.56 4.6
South Kalimantan 2.35 5.8
East Kalimantan 2.61 4.0
North Sulawesi 2.43 8.4
Central Sulawesi 2.94 6.6
South Sulawesi 2.55 8.2
Southeast Sulawesi 3.20 5.8
Gorontalo 2.76 5.9
West Sulawesi 3.33 6.2
Maluku 3.56 6.2
North Maluku 3.35 4.8
West Papua 3.18 3.2
Papua 2.87 2.4

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 43.5 1985–1990 62.4
1955–1960 47.0 1990–1995 64.2
1960–1965 50.2 1995–2000 65.8
1965–1970 53.1 2000–2005 66.7
1970–1975 55.9 2005–2010 68.6
1975–1980 58.5 2010–2015 69.4
1980–1985 60.7

Source: UN World Population Prospects[16]

Ethnic groups[edit]

More
Ethnic groups Percentage
Javanese
42.65%
Sundanese
15.41%
Malay
3.45%
Madurese
3.37%
Batak
3.02%
Minangkabau
2.72%
Betawi
2.51%
Bugis
2.49%
Bantenese
2.05%
Banjarese
1.74%
Acehnese
1.66%
Balinese
1.51%
Chinese
1.20%
Makassarese
0.99%

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia; 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. Javanese is the largest group with 100 million people (42%), followed by Sundanese, who number nearly 40 million (15%).

Religions[edit]

Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation; almost 87.18% of Indonesians declared themselves Muslim in the 2010 census.[17] 9.87% of the population adhered to Christianity (of which more than 70% were Protestant), 1.69% were Hindu, 0.72% Buddhist, and 0.56 of other faiths. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese[18] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are Chinese.[19]

Languages[edit]

Indonesian is the official language, but there are many different languages native to Indonesia. According to Ethnologue, there are currently 737 living languages spoken in Indonesia,[20] the most widely spoken being Javanese.

Some Chinese varieties, most prominently Min Nan, are also spoken. The public use of Chinese, especially Chinese characters, was officially discouraged between 1966 and 1998.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.81%
male: 95.5%
female: 90.4% (2011 est.)

Education is free in state schools; it is compulsory for children through to grade 12. Although about 92% of eligible children are enrolled in primary school, a much smaller percentage attends full-time. About 44% of secondary school-age children attend junior high school, and some others of this age group attend vocational schools.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook,[21] unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.02% (male 33,205,805/female 31,994,844)
15-24 years: 16.99% (male 22,537,842/female 21,738,210)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 56,493,414/female 53,980,979)
55-64 years: 8.58% (male 10,192,430/female 12,177,931)
65 years and over: 7.01% (male 7,954,795/female 10,304,489) (2017 est.)

Median age

total: 30.2 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 30.8 years (2017 est.)

Birth rate

16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

1.097% (2010 est.)
1.04% (2012 est.)
0.86% (2017 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 55.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanisation: 2.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 75.7 years (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 630,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS deaths: 39,000 (2017 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.9% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

19.9% (2013)

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages

Indonesian (official, a form of Malay influenced by other languages of Indonesia), local languages (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese).

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)

Education expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2014)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010". Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Population Projection by Province, 2010-2035". Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  3. ^ Calder, Joshua (3 May 2006). "Most Populous Islands". World Island Information. Retrieved 26 September 2006.
  4. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 47. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
  5. ^ Shamim Adam; Berni Moestafa; Novrida Manurung (28 January 2014). "Indonesia Population Approaching U.S. Revives Birth Control". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  6. ^ "Indonesia Facing Populace Larger Than US Revives Birth Control". 28 January 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  7. ^ https://www.indexmundi.com/indonesia/demographics_profile.html
  8. ^ "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010". Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  9. ^ Wertheim, W. F. (1959). Indonesian Society in Transition (Second (revised) ed.). 's-Gravenhage: Uitgeverij W. van Hoeve. p. 370.
  10. ^ Geografi dan Kependudukan untuk SMP kelas 2 [Geography and Demographics for High School Grade 2] (in Indonesian). FA. Hasmar. 1976.
  11. ^ Nitisastro, Widjojo (2006). Population trends in Indonesia. ISBN 9789793780436.
  12. ^ "Population of Indonesia". Indonesia Investment.
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  14. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=8&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  15. ^ http://www.ifa-fiv.org/wp-content/2014/09/Indonesian_Ageing_Monograph-print-version1.pdf[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  17. ^ Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut
  18. ^ Oey, Eric (1997). Bali (3rd ed.). Singapore: Periplus Editions. ISBN 962-593-028-0.
  19. ^ "Indonesia - Buddhism". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
  20. ^ ethnologue.com
  21. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2012). "Indonesia". The World Factbook. Retrieved 6 April 2012.

External links[edit]