Demographics of Indonesia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Indonesia population pyramid in 2020
Indonesian students during school excursion to a museum; Indonesia currently possesses a relatively young population.

The population of Indonesia was 270.20 million according to the 2020 national census, an increase from 237.64 in 2010.[1][2] Approximately 55% of Indonesia's population resides on Java, which is the most populous island in the world.

Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since 1967,[3] Indonesia's average population growth per year was over 1.1% for the decade ending in 2020, nearly having 13% population growth for that decade. At this rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the population of the United States if the population growth is not maintained .[4]

Indonesia has a relatively young population compared to Western nations, though it is aging as the country's birth rate has slowed and its life expectancy has increased. The median age was 30.2 years in 2017.[5] Indonesia includes numerous ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups, some of which are related to each other. Since independence, Indonesian (a form of Malay and the official national language) is the language of most written communication, education, government, and business. Many local ethnic languages are the first language of most Indonesians and are still important.

Population[edit]

Provinces of Indonesia by population density per square kilometer in 2020
  10,001 and above
  1,001 to 10,000
  101 to 1,000
  11 to 100
  1 to 10
Historical population of Indonesia
YearPop.±% p.a.
1930 60,727,233—    
1955 77,473,268+0.98%
1961 97,085,348+3.83%
1971 119,208,229+2.07%
1976 141,862,419+3.54%
1980 147,490,298+0.98%
1990 179,378,946+1.98%
2000 206,264,595+1.41%
2010 237,641,326+1.43%
2020 270,203,917+1.29%
Source: Statistics Indonesia,[6][7] Wertheim (1959),[8] Geografi dan Kependudukan (1976),[9] Widjojo Nitisastro (2006)[10]

Population by province[edit]

Province Population
(2010 Census)
Urban %
in 2010
Total
Fertility
Rate
Population
(2015 Census)
Aceh 4,494,410 23.6 2.79 4,486,570
North Sumatra 12,982,204 42.4 3.01 13,923,262
West Sumatra 4,846,909 29.0 2.91 5,190,577
Riau 5,538,367 43.7 2.82 6,330,941
Jambi 3,092,265 28.3 2.51 3,397,164
South Sumatra 7,450,394 34.4 2.56 8,043,042
Bengkulu 1,715,518 29.4 2.51 1,872,136
Lampung 7,608,405 21.0 2.45 8,109,601
Bangka Belitung Islands 1,223,296 43.0 2.54 1,370,331
Riau Islands 1,679,163 67.4 2.38 1,968,313
Banten 10,632,166 52.2 2.35 11,934,373
Jakarta 9,607,787 100.0 1.82 10,154,134
West Java 43,053,732 50.3 2.43 46,668,214
Central Java 32,382,657 40.4 2.20 33,753,023
Yogyakarta 3,457,491 57.7 1.94 3,675,768
East Java 37,476,757 40.9 2.00 38,828,061
Bali 3,890,757 49.8 2.13 4,148,588
West Nusa Tenggara 4,500,212 34.8 2.59 4,830,118
East Nusa Tenggara 4,683,827 15.9 3.82 5,112,760
West Kalimantan 4,395,983 25.1 2.64 4,783,209
Central Kalimantan 2,212,089 27.5 2.56 2,490,178
South Kalimantan 3,626,616 36.3 2.35 3,984,315
East Kalimantan 3,028,487 57.6 2.61 3,422,676
North Kalimantan 524,656 639,639
North Sulawesi 2,270,596 37.0 2.43 2,409,921
Gorontalo 1,040,164 25.5 2.76 1,131,670
Central Sulawesi 2,635,009 19.7 2.94 2,872,857
South Sulawesi 8,034,776 29.4 2.55 8,512,608
Southeast Sulawesi 2,232,586 20.8 3.20 2,495,248
West Sulawesi 1,158,651 -- 3.33 1,279,994
Maluku 1,533,506 25.9 3.56 1,683,856
North Maluku 1,038,087 29.5 3.35 1,160,275
Papua 2,833,381 22.2 2.87 3,143,088
West Papua 760,422 -- 3.18 868,819
Indonesia 237,641,326 2.41 255,182,144

Source: Population Census 2010,[2] except for final column, taken from Inter-Census Survey 2015.

Note: (a) North Kalimantan province was created in 2012 (by separation from East Kalimantan province); the 2010 total figures given are those for the provinces as they were following that splitting (Urban % and Total Fertility Rate columns unadjusted).

[1]

Largest cities[edit]

 
Largest cities in Indonesia
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Jakarta
Jakarta
Surabaya
Surabaya
1 Jakarta Jakarta 10,562,088 11 South Tangerang Banten 1,354,350 Bekasi
Bekasi
Bandung
Bandung
2 Surabaya East Java 2,874,314 12 Batam Riau Islands 1,196,396
3 Bekasi West Java 2,543,676 13 Bandar Lampung Lampung 1,166,066
4 Bandung West Java 2,444,160 14 Bogor West Java 1,043,070
5 Medan North Sumatra 2,435,252 15 Pekanbaru Riau 983,356
6 Depok West Java 2,056,335 16 Padang West Sumatra 909,040
7 Tangerang Banten 1,895,486 17 Malang East Java 843,810
8 Palembang South Sumatra 1,668,848 18 Samarinda East Kalimantan 827,994
9 Semarang Central Java 1,653,524 19 Denpasar Bali 725,314
10 Makassar South Sulawesi 1,423,877 20 Tasikmalaya West Java 716,155

Age structure[edit]

Age structure in Indonesia (2020)[11]

  Minor: 0-14 years (23.3%)
  Workforce: 15-64 years (70.7%)
  Retiree: 65 years and over (6.0%)

Vital statistics[edit]

Indonesia fertility rate by province (2017)
  3.3 to 3.5
  3.0 to 3.2
  2.7 to 2.9
  2.4 to 2.6
  2.1 to 2.3

United Nations estimates[edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 3,347,000 1,933,000 1,414,000 42.7 21.4 21.3 5.49 191.9
1955–1960 3,897,000 1,888,000 2,009,000 44.8 19.2 25.6 5.67 163.8
1960–1965 4,280,000 1,820,000 2,461,000 43.6 16.8 26.8 5.62 139.3
1965–1970 4,628,000 1,768,000 2,860,000 41.5 14.4 27.1 5.57 117.4
1970–1975 4,842,000 1,691,000 3,151,000 38.2 12.2 26.0 5.30 98.9
1975–1980 4,985,000 1,630,000 3,356,000 34.9 10.5 24.4 4.73 83.2
1980–1985 5,065,000 1,590,000 3,475,000 31.7 9.2 22.5 4.11 69.8
1985–1990 4,853,000 1,555,000 3,298,000 27.5 8.3 19.2 3.40 58.5
1990–1995 4,702,000 1,547,000 3,155,000 24.4 7.6 16.8 2.90 49.1
1995–2000 4,518,000 1,564,000 2,954,000 21.8 7.2 14.6 2.55 41.1
2000–2005 4,638,000 1,620,000 3,018,000 22.0 7.4 13.7 2.52 34.5
2005–2010 4,464,000 1,692,000 2,772,000 21.3 7.2 11.9 2.50 28.8
2010–2015 20.2 7.1 13.1 2.45
2015–2020 18.4 7.2 11.2 2.32
2020–2025 17.0 7.5 9.5 2.21
2025–2030 15.9 7.9 8.0 2.12
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Source: [12]

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Data from Department of Statistics of Indonesia :[13]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
2003 213,600,000 apprx. 4,439,176 13.4
2004 216,400,000 apprx. 4,439,176 13.3
2005 219,800,000 apprx. 4,439,176 13.2
2006 222,700,000 apprx. 4,439,176 13.0
2007 225,600,000 apprx. 4,439,176 12.8
2008 228,500,000 apprx. 4,439,176 12.5
2009 231,400,000 apprx. 4,418,871 12.2
2010 238,500,000 apprx. 4,418,871 1,236,154 18.5 5.2
2011 241,000,000 apprx. 4,418,871 13.2
2012 244,200,000 apprx. 4,418,871 13.1 2,6
2015 255,587,900 apprx. 4,418,871
2016 258,496,500 apprx. 4,414,499
2017 261,355,500 apprx. 4,414,499 2.4
2018 264,161,600 apprx. 4,414,499
2019 266,911,900 apprx. 4,414,499
2020 269,603,400 apprx. 4,414,499
2021 271,350,000

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[14]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-1983 4.3
1987 3.4 (3.1) 2.9 (2.6) 3.7 (3.4)
1991 25.1 3.02 (2.50) 24.0 2.60 (2.03) 25.6 3.24 (2.73)
1994 2.9 (2.4) 2.3 (1.8) 3.2 (2.7)
1997 2.8 (2.4) 2.4 (2.0) 3.0 (2.6)
2002-2003 21.9 2.6 (2.2) 22.1 2.4 (2.1) 21.7 2.7 (2.3)
2007 20.9 2.6 (2.2) 20.2 2.3 (2.0) 21.5 2.8 (2.4)
2012 20.4 2.6 (2.0) 20.1 2.4 (1.9) 20.7 2.8 (2.2)
2017 18.1 2.4 (2.1) 17.7 2.3 (1.9) 18.5 2.6 (2.2)

According to the CIA World Factbook , in 2020 Indonesia's average total fertility rate was 2.04 children/born per woman.[15]

Fertility rate and aging population (by province)[edit]

Total fertility rate (TFR) and population over age 60 by region as of 2010:[16]

Province Total fertility rate (2010) Population over age 60 (2010)
North Sumatera 3.01 5.9
West Sumatera 2.91 8.1
Riau 2.82 4.0
Jambi 2.51 5.5
South Sumatera 2.56 6.2
Bengkulu 2.51 5.8
Lampung 2.45 7.2
Bangka Belitung 2.54 5.8
Kepulauan Riau 2.38 3.4
Jakarta 1.82 5.1
West Java 2.43 7.0
Central Java 2.20 10.3
Yogyakarta 1.94 12.9
East Java 2.00 10.4
Banten 2.35 4.6
Bali 2.13 9.7
East Nusa Tenggara 3.82 7.4
West Kalimantan 2.64 5.8
Central Kalimantan 2.56 4.6
South Kalimantan 2.35 5.8
East Kalimantan 2.61 4.0
North Sulawesi 2.43 8.4
Central Sulawesi 2.94 6.6
South Sulawesi 2.55 8.2
Southeast Sulawesi 3.20 5.8
Gorontalo 2.76 5.9
West Sulawesi 3.33 6.2
Maluku 3.56 6.2
North Maluku 3.35 4.8
West Papua 3.18 3.2
Papua 2.87 2.4

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 43.5 1985–1990 62.4
1955–1960 47.0 1990–1995 64.2
1960–1965 50.2 1995–2000 65.8
1965–1970 53.1 2000–2005 66.7
1970–1975 55.9 2005–2010 68.6
1975–1980 58.5 2010–2015 69.4
1980–1985 60.7

Source: UN World Population Prospects[17]

Ethnic groups[edit]

More
Ethnic groups Percentage
Javanese
42.65%
Sundanese
15.41%
Malay
3.45%
Madurese
3.37%
Batak
3.02%
Minangkabau
2.72%
Betawi
2.51%
Bugis
2.49%
Bantenese
2.05%
Banjarese
1.74%
Acehnese
1.66%
Balinese
1.51%
Chinese
1.20%
Makassarese
0.99%

There are over 1,300 ethnic groups in Indonesia;[18] 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. Javanese is the largest group with 100 million people (42%), followed by Sundanese, who number nearly 40 million (15%).

Religions[edit]

Religion in Indonesia (2018)[19][20]

  Islam (86.7%)
  Protestantism & Other Christians (7.6%)
  Catholicism (3.12%)
  Hinduism (1.74%)
  Buddhism (0.8%)
  Confucianism (0.03%)
  Other (0.04%)

Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation; 86.7% of Indonesians declared themselves Muslim in the 2018 census.[21] 10.72% of the population adhered to Christianity (of which more than 70% were Protestant), 1.74% were Hindu, 0.77% Buddhist, and 0.07% of other faiths. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese[22] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are Chinese.[23]

Languages[edit]

Indonesian is the official language, but there are many different languages native to Indonesia. According to Ethnologue, there are currently 737 living languages spoken in Indonesia,[24] the most widely spoken being Javanese and Sundanese. In Western New Guinea, there are more than 270 indigenous languages in spoken form.[25][26] Some Chinese varieties, most prominently Min Nan, are also spoken. The public use of Chinese, especially usage of Chinese characters, was dissuaded officially between 1966 and 1998.[27]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.81%
male: 95.5%
female: 90.4% (2011 est.)

Education is free in state schools; it is compulsory for children through to grade 12. Although about 92% of eligible children are enrolled in primary school, a much smaller percentage attends full-time. About 44% of secondary school-age children attend junior high school, and some others of this age group attend vocational schools.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook,[28] unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.02% (male 33,205,805/female 31,994,844)
15-24 years: 16.99% (male 22,537,842/female 21,738,210)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 56,493,414/female 53,980,979)
55-64 years: 8.58% (male 10,192,430/female 12,177,931)
65 years and over: 7.01% (male 7,954,795/female 10,304,489) (2017 est.)

Median age

total: 30.2 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 30.8 years (2017 est.)

Birth rate

16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

1.097% (2010 est.)
1.04% (2012 est.)
0.86% (2017 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 55.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanisation: 2.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 75.7 years (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 630,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS deaths: 39,000 (2017 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.9% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

19.9% (2013)

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Religions

Muslim 86.7%, Christianity 10.72% (Protestant 7.6% and Roman Catholic 3.12%), Hinduism 1.74%, other 0.8% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.04% (2018 est.)

Languages

Indonesian (official, a form of Malay influenced by other languages of Indonesia), local languages (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese).

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)

Education expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2014)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2020" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 21 January 2021. p. 9. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010". Statistics Indonesia. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  3. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 47. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
  4. ^ Shamim Adam; Berni Moestafa; Novrida Manurung (28 January 2014). "Indonesia Population Approaching U.S. Revives Birth Control". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  5. ^ "Indonesia Demographics Profile".
  6. ^ "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2020" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 21 January 2021. p. 9. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  7. ^ "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010". Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  8. ^ Wertheim, W. F. (1959). Indonesian Society in Transition (Second (revised) ed.). 's-Gravenhage: Uitgeverij W. van Hoeve. p. 370.
  9. ^ Geografi dan Kependudukan untuk SMP kelas 2 [Geography and Demographics for High School Grade 2] (in Indonesian). FA. Hasmar. 1976.
  10. ^ Nitisastro, Widjojo (2006). Population trends in Indonesia. ISBN 9789793780436.
  11. ^ "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2020" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. 21 January 2021. p. 9. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
  13. ^ "Department of Statistics of Indonesia".
  14. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys".
  15. ^ "Indonesia People 2020, CIA World Factbook".
  16. ^ http://www.ifa-fiv.org/wp-content/2014/09/Indonesian_Ageing_Monograph-print-version1.pdf[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Mengulik Data Suku di Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  19. ^ "Statistik Umat Menurut Agama di Indonesia" (in Indonesian). Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia. 15 May 2018. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020. Muslim 231.069.932 (86.7), Christian 20.246.267 (7.6), Catholic 8.325.339 (3.12), Hindu 4.646.357 (1.74), Buddhist 2.062.150 (0.77), Confucianism 117091 (0.03), Other 299617 (0.13), Not Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118 (0.32), Total 266.534.836
  20. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by Region and Religion] (in Indonesian). Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011. Religion is belief in Almighty God that must be possessed by every human being. Religion can be divided into Muslim, Christian,, Hindu, Buddhist, Hu Khong Chu, and Other Religion. Muslim 207176162 (87.20%), Christian 16528513 (7), Catholic 6907873 (3), Hindu 4012116 (1.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.74), Confucianism 71.999 (0.05), Other 112.792 (0.04), Total 237.641.326
  21. ^ Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ Oey, Eric (1997). Bali (3rd ed.). Singapore: Periplus Editions. ISBN 962-593-028-0.
  23. ^ "Indonesia - Buddhism". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
  24. ^ ethnologue.com
  25. ^ Riesberg, Sonja; Shiohara, Asako; Utsumi, Atsuko (2018). Perspectives on information structure in Austronesian languages. Language Science Press. ISBN 978-3-96110-108-5.
  26. ^ "5 Reasons Why Companies Should Do Business in Indonesia". NNRoad. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  27. ^ Tiwary, Shiv Shanker; Kumar, Rajeev (2009). Encyclopaedia of Southeast Asia and Its Tribes. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-3837-1.
  28. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2012). "Indonesia". The World Factbook. Retrieved 6 April 2012.

External links[edit]