Demographics of Jordan

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Demographics of Jordan
Jordan single age population pyramid 2020.png
Jordan population pyramid in 2020
Population2021 census: 10,945,512 (84th)
2019 estimate: 10,392,309 (86th)
Density116/km2 (300/sq mi) (70th)
Growth rate2.05% (2017 est.)
Birth rate17.9 births/1,000 population
Death rate3.6 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy74.8 years (2017 est.)
 • male73.4 years
 • female76.3 years
Fertility rate2.7 children born/woman
Age structure
0–14 years34.4%
15–64 years62.02%
65 and over3.7%
Sex ratio
Total1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.00 male(s)/female
65 and over0.89 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityJordanians
Major ethnicArabs
Minor ethnicArmenians, Chechens, Circassians
Language
OfficialModern Standard Arabic
SpokenJordanian Arabic, English

Jordan has a population of around 11 million inhabitants as of 2021.[1] Jordanians (Arabic: أردنيون) are the citizens of Jordan. Some 95% percent of Jordanians are Arabs, while the remaining 5% are other ethnic minorities.[2] Around 2.9 million were non-citizens, a figure including refugees, legal and illegal immigrants.[3] Jordan's annual population growth rate stood at 2.05% in 2017, with an average of three children per woman. There were 1,977,534 households in Jordan in 2015, with an average of 4.8 persons per household.[3]

The official language is Arabic, while English is the second most widely spoken language by Jordanians. It is also widely used in commerce and government. In 2016, about 84% of Jordan's population live in urban towns and cities.[2] Many Jordanians and people of Jordanian descent live across the world, mainly in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries, United States, Canada and Turkey.[citation needed]

In 2016, Jordan was named as the largest refugee hosting country per capita in the world, followed by Turkey, Pakistan and Lebanon.[4] The kingdom of Jordan hosts refugees mainly from Palestine, Syria, Iraq and many other countries. There are also hundreds of thousands of workers from Egypt, Indonesia and South Asia, who work as domestic and construction workers.

Public attitudes[edit]

One World Values Survey reported 51.4% of Jordanians responded that they would prefer not to have neighbors of a different race.[5]

Definition[edit]

The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the Mandatory Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River.[6]

Ethnic and religious groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Jordan[7]
Ethnic groups
Arabs
95%
Circassian, Chechens
3%
Armenian and others
2%

Arab[edit]

Arab Jordanians are either descended from families and clans who were living in the cities and towns in Transjordan prior to the 1948 war, most notably in the governorates of Jerash, Ajlun, Balqa, Irbid, Madaba, Al Karak, Aqaba, Amman and some other towns in the country, or from the Palestinian families who sought refuge in Jordan in different times in the 20th century, mostly during and after the wars of 1948 and 1967. Many Christians are natives especially in towns such as Fuhies, Madaba, Al Karak, Ajlun, or have Bedouin origins, and a significant number came in 1948 and 1967 mainly from Jerusalem, Jaffa, Lydda, Bethlehem, and other Palestinian cities. Along to some other Arab ethnicities, mostly from Syria and Iraq.[citation needed]

Afro-Jordanians[edit]

An unknown but considerable number of Jordanians are black.

Druze[edit]

The Druze people are believed to constitute about 0.5% of the total population of Jordan, which is around 32,000.[8] The Druze, who refer to themselves as al-Muwahhideen, or "believers in one God," are concentrated in the rural, mountainous areas west and north of Amman. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims,[9][10][11][12][13] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.[14]

Bedouins Arabs[edit]

The other group of Jordanians is descended from Bedouins (of which, less than 1% live a nomadic lifestyle). Bedouin settlements are concentrated in the wasteland south and east of the country.

Armenians[edit]

There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009.[15] An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church,[15] and predominantly speak the Western dialect[16] of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.[17]

Assyrians[edit]

There is an Assyrian refugee population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan as refugees since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refugees.

Circassians[edit]

By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Authorities directed the Circassian immigrants to settle in Jordan. The Circassians are Sunni Muslims and are estimated to number 20,000 to 80,000 people.

Chechens[edit]

There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.

Refugees[edit]

Jordan is a home to 2,175,491 registered Palestinian refugees.[18] Out of those 2,175,491 refugees, 634,182 have not been given Jordanian citizenship.[19] Jordan also hosts around 1.4 million Syrian refugees who fled to the country due to the Syrian Civil War since 2011. About 31,163 Yemenis and 22,700 Libyan refugees live in Jordan as of January 2015.[3] There are thousands of Lebanese refugees who came to Jordan when civil strife and war and the 2006 war broke out in their native country. Up to 1 million Iraqis came to Jordan following the Iraq War in 2003.[20] In 2015, their number was 130,911. About 2,500 Iraqi Mandaean refugees have been resettled in Jordan.

Religion[edit]

Marsa Zayed mosque in Aqaba.
An eastern Orthodox church during a snowstorm in Amman.

Religion in Jordan[21]

  Islam (97%)
  Christianity (2.5%)
  Other (0.5%)

Health and education[edit]

Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region.[22] Qualified medics, favourable investment climate and Jordan's stability have contributed to the success of this sector.[23]

Jordan has a very advanced education system. The school education system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam (Tawjihi).[24] Scholars may attend either private or public schools.

Access to higher education is open to holders of the General Secondary Education Certificate, who can then choose between private Community Colleges, public Community Colleges or universities (public and private). The credit-hour system, which entitles students to select courses according to a study plan, is implemented at universities. The number of public universities has reached (10), besides (17) universities that are private, and (51) community colleges. Numbers of universities accompanied by significant increase in number of students enrolled to study in these universities, where the number of enrolled students in both public and private universities is estimated at nearly (236) thousand; (28) thousand out of the total are from Arab or foreign nationalities.[25]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 46.5 1985–1990 69.2
1955–1960 50.7 1990–1995 70.4
1960–1965 54.6 1995–2000 71.3
1965–1970 58.4 2000–2005 72.2
1970–1975 61.9 2005–2010 73.0
1975–1980 64.9 2010–2015 73.8
1980–1985 67.2

Source: UN World Population Prospects[26]

Statistics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1800200,000—    
1900271,845+35.9%
1952586,200+115.6%
1961900,800+53.7%
19701,508,200+67.4%
19802,233,200+48.1%
19903,468,000+55.3%
20004,857,000+40.1%
20106,698,000+37.9%
201710,053,000+50.1%
Source:[27][28][29]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total population[edit]

10,331,557 (According to the Population Clock as of September 30, 2021).[30]

Gender ratio[edit]

  • at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
  • 55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Age structure[edit]

  • 0-14 years: 34.68% (male 1,827,554/female 1,726,691)
  • 15-24 years: 20.07% (male 1,103,042/female 953,704)
  • 25-54 years: 37.36% (male 2,073,211/female 1,755,290)
  • 55-64 years: 4.44% (male 236,435/female 218,469)
  • 65 years and over: 3.45% (male 174,470/female 179,203) (2017 est.)

Structure of the population [31]

Structure of the population (01.10.2004) (Census)
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 626 287 2 477 352 5 103 639 100
0-4 333 216 317 115 650 331 12,74
5-9 329 133 313 738 642 871 12,60
10-14 313 083 297 046 610 129 11,95
15-19 287 693 272 145 559 838 10,97
20-24 279 600 260 593 540 193 10,58
25-29 239 774 216 487 456 261 8,94
30-34 207 178 191 991 399 169 7,82
35-39 167 737 155 689 323 426 6,34
40-44 123 945 117 455 241 400 4,73
45-49 87 098 83 358 170 456 3,34
50-54 64 607 63 633 128 240 2,51
55-59 55 765 57 956 113 721 2,23
60-64 52 084 46 703 98 787 1,94
65-69 37 095 34 728 71 823 1,41
70-74 23 467 23 353 46 820 0,92
75-79 12 651 11 617 24 268 0,48
80+ 10 137 11 923 22 060 0,43
80-84 6 144 7 441 13 585 0,27
85-89 2 444 2 588 5 032 0,10
90-94 1 012 1 304 2 316 0,05
95-99 537 590 1 127 0,02
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 975 432 927 899 1 903 331 37,29
15-64 1 565 481 1 466 010 3 031 491 59,40
65+ 83 350 81 621 164 971 3,23
unknown 2 024 1 822 3 846 0,08
Structure of the population (31.12.2013) (Estimates) (Excluding foreigners, including registered Palestinian refugees):
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 3 366 000 3 174 000 6 530 000 100
0-4 427 485 405 300 832 785 12,75
5-9 422 095 400 880 822 975 12,60
10-14 401 900 379 680 781 580 11,97
15-19 368 915 347 720 716 635 10,97
20-24 358 485 333 170 691 655 10,59
25-29 307 650 276 855 584 505 8,95
30-34 265 915 245 520 511 435 7,83
35-39 215 425 199 015 414 440 6,35
40-44 158 875 149 975 308 850 4,73
45-49 111 750 106 630 218 380 3,34
50-54 82 805 81 320 164 125 2,51
55-59 71 360 74 040 145 400 2,23
60-64 66 645 59 800 126 445 1,94
65-69 47 485 44 280 91 765 1,41
70-74 30 040 29 785 59 825 0,92
75-79 16 195 14 815 31 010 0,48
80-84 7 865 9 495 17 360 0,27
85-89 3 130 3 300 6 430 0,10
90-94 1 295 1 665 2 960 0,05
95+ 685 755 1 440 0,02
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 251 480 1 185 860 2 437 340 37,33
15-64 2 007 825 1 874 045 3 881 870 59,45
65+ 106 695 104 095 210 790 3,23
Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 30.XI.2015): [32]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 5 046 824 4 484 888 9 531 712 100
0–4 561 280 532 918 1 094 198 11.48
5–9 597 975 571 516 1 169 491 12.27
10–14 519 876 490 522 1 010 398 10.60
15–19 498 519 449 302 947 821 9.94
20–24 519 140 426 835 945 975 9.92
25–29 459 841 370 765 830 606 8.71
30–34 395 939 338 461 734 400 7.70
35–39 352 691 298 499 651 190 6.83
40–44 304 330 256 601 560 931 5.88
45–49 258 567 214 842 473 409 4.97
50–54 187 189 162 648 349 837 3.67
55–59 127 359 117 340 244 699 2.57
60–64 86 254 80 824 167 078 1.75
65-69 67 492 68 161 135 653 1.42
70-74 52 668 47 124 99 792 1.05
75-79 32 428 31 759 64 187 0.67
80-84 15 324 15 633 30 957 0.32
85-89 6 387 7 351 13 738 0.14
90-94 1 797 2 238 4 035 0.04
95+ 1 768 1 549 3 317 0.03
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 1 679 131 1 594 956 3 274 087 34.35
15–64 3 189 829 2 716 117 5 905 946 61.96
65+ 177 864 173 815 351 679 3.69

Median age[edit]

  • total: 22.5 years
  • male: 22.9 years
  • female: 22 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.05% (2017 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

17.9 births/1,000 population ( 2021 est.)

Births and deaths[33][34]

Average population


Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
1951 51,518
1952 586,200 46,146
1953 49,228
1954 53,170
1955 58,037
1956 55,374
1957 60,582
1958 69,594
1959 63,643
1960 78,520
1961 900,800 70,775
1962 86,397
1963 84,544
1964 86,327
1965 91,857
1966 94,299
1967 70,956
1968 69,483
1969 73,443
1970 1,508,200 76,828
1971 77,758
1972 80,327
1973 81,302
1974 81,490
1975 81,659
1976 84,380
1977 79,882
1978 84,195
1979 2,133,000 91,622
1980 2,233,000
1981 2,319,000 95,628
1982 2,409,000 97,794
1983 2,502,000 98,398
1984 2,599,000 102,521
1985 2,700,000 102,712
1986 2,805,000 112,451
1987 2,914,000 107,519
1988 3,027,000 116,346
1989 3,144,000 115,742
1990 3,468,000 116,520
1991 3,701,000 150,177
1992 3,844,000 155,684
1993 3,993,000 149,493
1994 4,139,400 140,444
1995 4,264,000 141,319
1996 4,383,000 142,404
1997 4,506,000 130,633 4.4
1998 4,623,000 133,714
1999 4,738,000 135,266
2000 4,857,000 126,016 13,339 112,677 25.9 2.7 23.2
2001 4,918,000 142,956 16,164 126,792 29.1 3.3 25.8
2002 5,038,000 146,077 17,220 128,857 29.0 3.4 25.6
2003 5,164,000 148,294 16,937 131,357 28.7 3.3 25.4
2004 5,414,000 150,248 17,011 133,237 27.8 3.1 24.6
2005 5,678,000 170,122 18,739 151,383 30.0 3.3 26.7
2006 5,843,000 180,642 21,333 159,309 30.9 3.7 27.3
2007 6,017,000 201,621 21,885 179,736 33.5 3.6 29.9 3.6
2008 6,200,000 187,916 19,816 168,100 30.3 3.2 27.1 3.6
2009 6,392,000 188,950 20,759 168,191 29.6 3.2 26.3 3.8
2010 6,594,000 205,972 22,662 183,310 31.2 3.4 27.8 3.8
2011 6,846,000 199,917 22,203 177,714 29.2 3.2 26.0 3.8
2012 7,210,000 198,538 23,301 175,237 27.5 3.2 24.3 3.5
2013 7,771,000 197,485 24,380 173,105 25.4 3.1 22.3 3.5
2014 8,459,000 209,284 26,954 182,330 24.7 3.2 21.6 3.5
2015 9,182,000 210,953 27,221 183,732 23.0 3.0 20.0 3.38
2016 9,798,000 218,290 28,880 189,410 22.3 2.9 19.3 3.38
2017 10,053,000 230,944 28,782 202,162 23.0 2.9 20.1 2.7
2018 10,309,000 226,820 29,098 197,722 22.0 2.8 19.2 2.7
2019 10,554,000 215,116 31,212 183,904 20.4 3.0 17.4 2.7
2020[35] 10,806,000 186,087 33,073 153,014 17.2 3.1 14.2 2.6
2021 11,057,000 197,397 39,333 158,064 17.9 3.6 14.3

Death rate[edit]

3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

-310 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 84.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.26% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Maternal mortality rate[edit]

58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

  • total population: 74.8 years
  • male: 73.4 years
  • female: 76.3 years (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.19 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [36] Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1976 7.4
1983 6.6
1990 36.1 5.57 (3.94) 33.9 4.75 (3.36) 39.0 6.85 (4.76)
1997 33.1 4.35 (2.9) 32.5 4.22 (2.9) 35.5 5.00 (3.1)
2002 29.0 3.7 (2.6) 28.4 3.5 (2.5) 31.3 4.2 (2.8)
2007 28.1 3.6 (2.8) 28.1 3.6 (2.8) 28.2 3.7 (2.8)
2009 30.6 3.8 (3.0) 30.6 3.8 (2.9) 30.7 4.0 (3.1)
2012 27.2 3.5 (2.4) 26.7 3.4 (2.4) 29.8 3.9 (2.7)
2017-18 21.6 2.7 (2.2) 21.3 2.7 (2.1) 23.7 3.1 (2.4)

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) by nationality

Year Jordanian Syrian Other nationality
2017-2018 2.6 (2.1) 4.7 (3.7) 1.9 (1.7)

Health expenditures[edit]

7.5% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density[edit]

2.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density[edit]

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate[edit]

Government health reports indicate that about 40% of Jordanian adults are overweight and child obesity stands at more than 50%.

Children under the age of 5 years underweight[edit]

3% (2012)

Literacy rate[edit]

15–24 years (in 2015):[37]

  • Total: 99.23%
  • Male: 99.11%
  • Female: 99.37%

15 years and older (in 2015):[37]

  • Total: 98.01%
  • Male: 98.51%
  • Female: 97.49%

UN estimates[edit]

Period[38] Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 26 000 11 000 15 000 47.4 19.3 28.1 7.38 160.9
1955–1960 38 000 13 000 25 000 49.4 16.5 32.9 7.38 128.9
1960–1965 54 000 15 000 40 000 53.6 14.5 39.1 8.00 103.2
1965–1970 73 000 16 000 57 000 52.3 11.8 40.5 8.00 82.8
1970–1975 90 000 17 000 73 000 49.0 9.4 39.6 7.79 68.3
1975–1980 92 000 16 000 76 000 42.8 7.5 35.3 7.38 56.5
1980–1985 101 000 17 000 85 000 39.7 6.5 33.2 7.05 44.4
1985–1990 117 000 18 000 99 000 37.5 5.7 31.8 6.44 36.0
1990–1995 132 000 19 000 113 000 33.9 4.9 29.0 5.14 30.6
1995–2000 147 000 21 000 127 000 32.0 4.5 27.5 4.34 26.7
2000–2005 143 000 21 000 122 000 28.1 4.2 23.9 3.60 23.6
2005–2010 152 000 23 000 128 000 26.4 4.1 22.3 3.27 21.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Public attitudes[edit]

One World Values Survey reported 51.4% of Jordanians responded that they would prefer not to have neighbors of a different race.[39]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gandolfo, Luisa (24 December 2012). Palestinians in Jordan: The Politics of Identity. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-095-7.

References[edit]

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  10. ^ Jonas, Margaret (2011). The Templar Spirit: The Esoteric Inspiration, Rituals and Beliefs of the Knights Templar. Temple Lodge Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781906999254. [Druze] often they are not regarded as being Muslim at all, nor do all the Druze consider themselves as Muslim
  11. ^ "Are the Druze People Arabs or Muslims? Deciphering Who They Are". Arab America. Arab America. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  12. ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
  13. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634. While they appear parallel to those of normative Islam, in the Druze religion they are different in meaning and interpretation. The religion is consider distinct from the Ismaili as well as from other Muslims belief and practice... Most Druze consider themselves fully assimilated in American society and do not necessarily identify as Muslims..
  14. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780030525964. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above..
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