Demographics of Jordan

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Jordan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population in Jordan[1] [2]
Year Million
1971 1.57
1980 2.18
1990 3.17
2000 4.80
2004 5.29
2008 5.91
2013 6.46
2015 9.53
Source: OECD/World Bank[3]

According to the OECD/World Bank, the Jordanian population increased from 1990 to 2008 by 2.7 million - an 86% growth in population, compared to 39% growth in Lebanon, 56% growth in Israel, 67% growth in Syria[1] and according to the U.S. Census 106% growth in the Palestinian territories.[4]

The population of Jordan since 1952.

It is estimated that half of Jordanians are of Palestinian roots, meaning that the two populations interbred. In addition, there are minorities such as Circassians, Chechens, Armenians and refugees such as Iraqis, Syrians, and Assyrians. There are also hundreds of thousands of guest workers from Egypt, Syria, Indonesia, and South Asia, who work as domestic and construction employees.

The official language is Arabic. English is used widely in commerce and government. About 70% of Jordan's population is urban; less than 6% of the rural population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. Most people live where the rainfall supports agriculture.

Definition[edit]

The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the Mandatory Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River.[5]

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[6][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 26 000 11 000 15 000 47.4 19.3 28.1 7.38 160.9
1955–1960 38 000 13 000 25 000 49.4 16.5 32.9 7.38 128.9
1960–1965 54 000 15 000 40 000 53.6 14.5 39.1 8.00 103.2
1965–1970 73 000 16 000 57 000 52.3 11.8 40.5 8.00 82.8
1970–1975 90 000 17 000 73 000 49.0 9.4 39.6 7.79 68.3
1975–1980 92 000 16 000 76 000 42.8 7.5 35.3 7.38 56.5
1980–1985 101 000 17 000 85 000 39.7 6.5 33.2 7.05 44.4
1985–1990 117 000 18 000 99 000 37.5 5.7 31.8 6.44 36.0
1990–1995 132 000 19 000 113 000 33.9 4.9 29.0 5.14 30.6
1995–2000 147 000 21 000 127 000 32.0 4.5 27.5 4.34 26.7
2000–2005 143 000 21 000 122 000 28.1 4.2 23.9 3.60 23.6
2005–2010 152 000 23 000 128 000 26.4 4.1 22.3 3.27 21.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths[7][edit]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
2007 5 723 185 011 20 924 164 087 29.1 7.0 22.1 3.6
2008 5 850 181 328 19 403 161 925 29.1 7.0 22.1 3.6
2009 5 980 179 872 20 251 159 621 30.1 7.0 23.1 3.6
2010 6 113 183 948 21 550 162 398 30.1 7.0 23.1 3.8
2011 6 249 178 435 21 730 156 705 28.6 7.0 21.6 3.8
2012 3.5
2013 178 143 23 898 154 245 27.3

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [8][edit]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1976 7,4
1983 6,6
1990 36,1 5,57 (3,94) 33,9 4,75 (3,36) 39,0 6,85 (4,76)
1997 33,1 4,35 (2,9) 32,5 4,22 (2,9) 35,5 5,00 (3,1)
2002 29,0 3,7 (2,6) 28,4 3,5 (2,5) 31,3 4,2 (2,8)
2007 28,1 3,6 (2,8) 28,1 3,6 (2,8) 28,2 3,7 (2,8)
2009 30,6 3,8 (3,0) 30,6 3,8 (2,9) 30,7 4,0 (3,1)
2012 27,2 3,5 (2,4) 26,7 3,4 (2,4) 29,8 3,9 (2,7)

Structure of the population [9][edit]

Structure of the population (01.10.2004) (Census)

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 626 287 2 477 352 5 103 639 100
0-4 333 216 317 115 650 331 12,74
5-9 329 133 313 738 642 871 12,60
10-14 313 083 297 046 610 129 11,95
15-19 287 693 272 145 559 838 10,97
20-24 279 600 260 593 540 193 10,58
25-29 239 774 216 487 456 261 8,94
30-34 207 178 191 991 399 169 7,82
35-39 167 737 155 689 323 426 6,34
40-44 123 945 117 455 241 400 4,73
45-49 87 098 83 358 170 456 3,34
50-54 64 607 63 633 128 240 2,51
55-59 55 765 57 956 113 721 2,23
60-64 52 084 46 703 98 787 1,94
65-69 37 095 34 728 71 823 1,41
70-74 23 467 23 353 46 820 0,92
75-79 12 651 11 617 24 268 0,48
80+ 10 137 11 923 22 060 0,43
80-84 6 144 7 441 13 585 0,27
85-89 2 444 2 588 5 032 0,10
90-94 1 012 1 304 2 316 0,05
95-99 537 590 1 127 0,02
unknown 2 024 1 822 3 846 0,08
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 975 432 927 899 1 903 331 37,29
15-64 1 565 481 1 466 010 3 031 491 59,40
65+ 83 350 81 621 164 971 3,23

Structure of the population (31.12.2013) (Estimates) (Excluding data for Jordanian territory under occupation since June 1967 by Israeli military forces. Excluding foreigners, including registered Palestinian): refugees. :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 3 366 000 3 174 000 6 530 000 100
0-4 427 485 405 300 832 785 12,75
5-9 422 095 400 880 822 975 12,60
10-14 401 900 379 680 781 580 11,97
15-19 368 915 347 720 716 635 10,97
20-24 358 485 333 170 691 655 10,59
25-29 307 650 276 855 584 505 8,95
30-34 265 915 245 520 511 435 7,83
35-39 215 425 199 015 414 440 6,35
40-44 158 875 149 975 308 850 4,73
45-49 111 750 106 630 218 380 3,34
50-54 82 805 81 320 164 125 2,51
55-59 71 360 74 040 145 400 2,23
60-64 66 645 59 800 126 445 1,94
65-69 47 485 44 280 91 765 1,41
70-74 30 040 29 785 59 825 0,92
75-79 16 195 14 815 31 010 0,48
80-84 7 865 9 495 17 360 0,27
85-89 3 130 3 300 6 430 0,10
90-94 1 295 1 665 2 960 0,05
95+ 685 755 1 440 0,02
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 251 480 1 185 860 2 437 340 37,33
15-64 2 007 825 1 874 045 3 881 870 59,45
65+ 106 695 104 095 210 790 3,23

Ethnic and religious groups[edit]







Circle frame.svg

Religion in Jordan (est. 2013)

  Islam (92%)
  Christianity (6%)
  Druze (1%)

Muslim (Sunni) 94%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, with some in Catholic, Greek Catholic, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, and Protestant denominations, and Iraqi refugee populations of Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic and Syriac Orthodox), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)

Ethnically, the Circassians and Chechens form more than 3% of the Jordanian population.

Arabs[edit]

Native Jordanians are either descended from Bedouins (of which, 6% live a nomadic lifestyle),[10] or from the many deeply rooted non bedouin communities across the country, most notably Al-Salt city west of Amman which was at the time of Emirate the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan River. Along with indigenous communities in Al Husn, Aqaba, Irbid, Al Karak, Madaba, Jerash, Ajloun, Fuheis and Pella.[11]

In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants have Palestinian roots but they are estimated to constitute half of the population,[12][13] which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million.[13] Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics put their number at 3.24 million in 2009.[14] There are more than two million registered Palestinian refugees in Jordan as of January 2012.[15]

Around 58,000 Iraqis are estimated to live in Jordan as of January 2015.[16]

There are a few thousand residents of Lebanese origin who came to Jordan when civil strife and war broke out in their native country. They primarily reside in Amman.

Armenians[edit]

Main article: Armenians in Jordan

There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009.[17] An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church,[17] and predominantly speak the Western dialect[18] of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.[19]

Assyrians[edit]

Main article: Assyrians in Jordan

There is an Assyrian refugee population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan as refugees since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refugees.

Circassians[edit]

Further information: Circassian diaspora
Circassian horsemanship in Transjordan, April 1921

Circassians obtained Ottoman citizenships since 1887, immigrated to Jordan and they selected Amman.[20] They settled in several cities such as Jerash and Zarqa, and established their own village, Wadi as-Ser.

The Circassians played a role in the history of Transjordan era, and are famous for their loyalty to Abdullah I of Jordan and his family, obtaining the Transjordan citizenship in the law of citizenship that was issued in 1928,[21] while other tribes obtained their citizenship in 1930 or later.[22]

Over the years, various Circassians have served in distinguished roles in Jordan, including the first ever Mayor of Amman Ismael Babouk, a prime minister Sa`id al-Mufti, ministers, high-ranking officers, etc. Circassians form the Hashemites honor guard at the royal palaces, and represented Jordan in the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 2010, joining other honor guards such as The Airborne Ceremonial Unit.[23][24]

The Circassians are Sunni Muslims and are estimated to number 120,000 persons, or 2% of Jordanian population, while accounting for 5% of Amman's residents.[citation needed]

Chechens[edit]

There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.

Mandaeans[edit]

Until recently, most Mandaeans were Iraqi, but this religious minority fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaeans community in Iraq faces extinction.[25] Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, only about 5,000 to 7,000 remain there; as of early 2007, over 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War.

Education[edit]

The era of king Hussein of Jordan saw increased school enrollment rates, which resulted in a rapid rise in the literacy rate in Jordan. At the beginning of his reign in 1952 the literacy rate was 33% and grew to 85% in 1996; according to the 2009 estimate, it is now 94% of the total population.[26]

Population demographic statistics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1950 449,000 —    
1960 895,000 +99.3%
1970 1,667,000 +86.3%
1980 2,299,000 +37.9%
1990 3,416,000 +48.6%
2000 4,827,000 +41.3%
2010 6,187,000 +28.2%
2016 9,531,712 +54.1%
Source:[27]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total population

6,508,887 (July 2012 est.)
8,117,564 (July 2015 est.) - Including Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Gender ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 35.42% (male 1,474,464/female 1,400,926)
15-24 years: 20.25% (male 840,714/female 803,237)
25-54 years: 36.12% (male 1,468,388/female 1,463,452)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 169,857/female 179,275)
65 years and over: 3.91% (male 149,207/female 168,044) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 22 years
male: 21.7 years
female: 22.4 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

2.338% (2008 est.)
0.83% (2015 est.)

Birth rate

25.37 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate

3.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2015 est.)

Net migration rate

5.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
-13.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 83.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.18 years
male: 78.82 years
female: 81.61 years (2012 est.)
total population: 74.35 years
male: 73 years
female: 75.78 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.36 children born/woman (2012 est.)
3.17 children born/woman (2015 est.)

Health expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2013)

Physicians density

2.56 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

28.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

3% (2012)

Languages[edit]

Arabic is the official language of Jordan. English is widely understood among the educated and the upper and middle classes.

Literacy[edit]

Young girls reading in Amman, Jordan

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 95.8%
female: 93% (2010 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
  2. ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/jordans-population-tops-8-million
  3. ^ Jordan, World Bank
  4. ^ US Census Bureau International Programs International Data Base IDB. See: West Bank and Gaza
  5. ^ "American Jewish Yearbook p.528" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  6. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  7. ^ Department of Statistics, Jordan
  8. ^ http://www.dhsprogram.com/
  9. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  10. ^ Lowi, Miriam R., Water and power: the politics of a scarce resource in the Jordan River basin, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.36
  11. ^ https://books.google.jo/books?id=_WAgDMWsyb8C&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=settlements+in+transjordan+al-salt&source=bl&ots=bCbFEpe46y&sig=-fdrYmCwoWoKs_DoN7a4h8D3qF0&hl=ar&sa=X&ved=0CEsQ6AEwCGoVChMI54qRhfmPyAIVhTsaCh1f_QSR#v=onepage&q=settlements%20in%20transjordan%20al-salt&f=false
  12. ^ "Assessment for Palestinians in Jordan". Minorities at Risk. 2006. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Jordan - Palestinians". Minority Rights Group International. 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "Palestinians at the end of 2012" (PDF). Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Where We Work - Jordan". UNRWA. 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  16. ^ "2015 UNHCR country operations profile - Jordan". UNHCR. 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  17. ^ a b Jordan: Religions & Peoples
  18. ^ Ethnologue 14 report for language code:ARM
  19. ^ Jordan :: Religion - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Amman Centennial, From the end of the Ummayad era till 1878
  21. ^ http://www.farrajlawyer.com/viewTopic.php?topicId=661 Arabic Language
  22. ^ http://www.moi.gov.jo/%C7%E1%D5%DD%CD%C9%C7%E1%D1%C6%ED%D3%ED%C9/%DE%E6%C7%E4%ED%E4%E6%CA%D4%D1%ED%DA%C7%CA/%DE%C7%E4%E6%E4%C7%E1%CC%E4%D3%ED%C9%C7%E1%C7%D1%CF%E4%ED%C9/tabid/107/Default.aspx Via Ministry of Interior (Arabic Language)
  23. ^ http://www.edintattoo.co.uk/news-and-press/jordan-the-tattoo
  24. ^ http://www.echoesfromjordan.com/performing-group/circassian-honour-guard Via EchoesfromJordan Website
  25. ^ Genocide Watch: Mandaeans of Iraq
  26. ^ The annual 'Eradication of Illiteracy' report by the Jordanian Ministry of Education http://www.moe.gov.jo/Departments/DepartmentSectionDetails.aspx?DepartmentSectionDetailsID=120&DepartmentID=17
  27. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision