Demographics of Kenya

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Demographics of Kenya
Kenya single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Kenya in 2020
Population51,044,355 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.12% (2022 est.)
Birth rate26.39 births/1,000 population
Death rate5.01 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy69.69 years
 • male67.98 years
 • female71.43 years
Fertility rate3.29 children
Infant mortality rate27.86 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Nationality
NationalityKenyan

The demography of Kenya is monitored by the Kenyan National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya is a multi-ethnic state in East Africa. Its total population was at 47 558,296 as of the 2019 census.[1]

A national census was conducted in 1999, although the results were never released. A new census was undertaken in 2009, but turned out to be controversial, as the questions about ethnic affiliation seemed inappropriate after the ethnic violence of the previous year.[2] Preliminary results of the census were published in 2010.[3]

Kenya's population was reported as 47.6 million during the 2019 census compared to 38.6 million inhabitants 2009, 30.7 million in 1999, 21.4 million in 1989, and 15.3 million in 1979.[4] This was an increase of a factor of 2.5 over 30 years, or an average growth rate of more than 3 percent per year. The population growth rate has been reported as reduced during the 2000s, and was estimated at 2.7 percent (as of 2010), resulting in an estimate of 46.5 million in 2016.[5]

History[edit]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Kenya has a very diverse population that includes most major ethnic, racial and linguistic groups found in Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 92% of the nation's inhabitants.[6] People from Asian or European heritage living in Kenya are estimated at around 200,000.

Kenya's largest ethnic group is the Kikuyu. They make up less than a fifth of the population. Since Kenyan independence in 1963, Kenyan politics have been characterized by ethnic tensions and rivalry between the larger groups. This devolved into ethnic violence in the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis.

In Kenya's last colonial census of 1962, population groups residing in the territory included European, African and Asian individuals.[7] According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Kenya had a population of 47,564,296 by 2019. The largest native ethnic groups were the Kikuyu (8,148,668), Luhya (6,823,842), Kalenjin (6,358,113), Luo (5,066,966), Kamba (4,663,910), Somalis (2,780,502), Kisii (2,703,235), Mijikenda (2,488,691), Meru (1,975,869), Maasai (1,189,522), and Turkana (1,016,174). Foreign-rooted populations included Asians (90,527), Europeans (42,868) with Kenyan citizenship, 26,753 without, and Kenyan Arabs (59,021).[8] The number of ethnic categories and sub-categories recorded in the census has changed significantly over time, expanding from 42 in 1969 to more than 120 in 2019.[9]

Bantu peoples[edit]

Bantus are the single largest population division in Kenya. The term Bantu denotes widely dispersed but related peoples that speak south-central Niger–Congo languages. Originally from Cameroon-Nigeria border regions, Bantus began a millennium-long series of migrations referred to as the Bantu expansion that first brought them south into East Africa about 2,000 years ago.

Most Bantu are farmers. Some of the prominent Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, the Kamba, the Luhya, the Kisii, the Meru, and the Mijikenda. The Swahili people are descended from Wangozi Bantu peoples that intermarried with Arab immigrants.[10][11]

The Kikuyu, who are one of the biggest tribes in Kenya, seem to have assimilated a significant number of Cushitic speakers. Evidence from their Y DNA shows that 18% of Kikuyu carry the E1b1b Y DNA.[12]

Nilotic peoples[edit]

Nilotes are the second-largest group of peoples in Kenya. They speak Nilo-Saharan languages and went south into East Africa from Western Asia and North Africa by way of South Sudan.[10] Most Nilotes in Kenya are historically pastoralists.The most prominent of these groups include the Luo, the Maasai, the Samburu, the Turkana, and the Kalenjin.[10] As with the Bantu, some Nilotic systems of governance (such as Ibinda of the Nandi[13]) bear similarities with those of their Cushitic neighbors (such as the Gada system[14] of the Oromo).[15]

Cushitic peoples[edit]

Cushitic peoples form a small minority of Kenya's population. They speak languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family and originally came from Ethiopia and Somalia. However, some large ethnic Somali clans are native to the area that used be known as NFD in Kenya. These people are not from Somalia but share the same ethnicity as the majority in Somalia. Most are herdsmen and have almost entirely adopted Islam.[16] Cushites are concentrated in the northernmost North Eastern Province, which borders Somalia.[17]

The Cushitic peoples are divided into two groups: the Southern Cushites and the Eastern Cushites.

  • The Southern Cushites were the second-earliest inhabitants of Kenya after the indigenous hunter-gatherer groups,[18] and the first of the Cushitic-speaking peoples to migrate from their homeland in the Horn of Africa about 2,000 years ago.[16] They were progressively displaced in a southerly direction or absorbed, or both, by the incoming Nilotic and Bantu groups until they wound up in Tanzania.[16] There are no longer any Southern Cushites left in Kenya. (The Dahalo were originally pre-Cushitic peoples who adopted the language of their dominant Southern Cushitic neighbors sometime toward the last millennium BC.[19]).
  • The Eastern Cushites include the Oromo and the Somali. After the Northern Frontier District (North Eastern Province) was handed over to Kenyan nationalists at the end of British colonial rule in Kenya, Somalis in the region fought the Shifta War against Kenyan troops to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. Although the war ended in a cease-fire, Somalis in the region still identify and maintain close ties with their kin in Somalia and see themselves as one people, since like most borders in Africa and Asia, national borders were arbitrarily drawn in colonial European countries, especially during the Scramble for Africa[20]

An entrepreneurial community, they established themselves in the business sector, particularly in Eastleigh, Nairobi.[21]

Indians[edit]

Asians living in Kenya are descended from South Asian migrants. Significant Asian migration to Kenya began between 1896 and 1901 when some 32,000 indentured labourers were recruited from British India to build the Kenya-Uganda Railway.[22] The majority of Kenyan Asians hail from the Gujarat and Punjab regions.[23] The community grew significantly during the colonial period, and in the 1962 census Asians made up a third of the population of Nairobi and consisted of 176,613 people across the country.[23]

Since Kenyan independence large numbers have emigrated due to race-related tensions with the Bantu and Nilotic majority. Those that remain are principally concentrated in the business sector, and Asians continue to form one of the more prosperous communities in the region.[17] According to the 2019 Census, Kenyan Asians number 47,555 people, while Asians without Kenyan citizenship number 42,972 individuals.[8] In 2017, they were officially recognised as the 44th tribe of Kenya.[24]

Europeans[edit]

Europeans in Kenya are primarily the descendants of British migrants during the colonial period, there is also a significant expat population of Europeans living in Kenya. Economically, virtually all Europeans in Kenya belong to the middle- and upper-middle-class. Nowadays, only a small minority of them are landowners (livestock and game ranchers, horticulturists and farmers), with the majority working in the tertiary sector: in air transport, finance, import, and hospitality. Apart from isolated individuals such as anthropologist and conservationist Richard Leakey, F.R.S., who died in 2022, Kenyan white people have virtually completely retreated from Kenyan politics, and are no longer represented in public service and parastatals, from which the last remaining staff from colonial times retired in the 1970s.[25] According to the 2019 Census, Kenyan Europeans number 42,868 people, while Europeans without Kenyan citizenship number 26,753 individuals. 0.3% of the population of Kenya is from Asia or Europe.[8]

Arabs[edit]

Arabs form a small but historically important minority ethnic group in Kenya. They are principally concentrated along the coast in cities such as Mombasa. A Muslim community, they primarily came from Oman and Hadhramaut in Yemen, and are engaged in trade. Arabs are locally referred to as Washihiri or, less commonly, as simply Shihiri in the Bantu Swahili language, Kenya's lingua franca.[17] According to the 2019 Census, Kenyan Arabs number 59,021 people.[8]

Languages[edit]

Lord's Prayer in Swahili, a Bantu language that alongside English serves as a lingua franca for many in Kenya.

Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities. The two official languages, English and Swahili, serve as the main lingua franca between the various ethnic groups. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling and government.[26] Peri-urban and rural dwellers are less multilingual, with many in rural areas speaking only their native languages.[27]

According to Ethnologue, there are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: Niger-Congo (Bantu branch) and Nilo-Saharan (Nilotic branch), which are spoken by the country's Bantu and Nilotic populations, respectively. The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afro-Asiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family.[28]

Population[edit]

Development of life expectancy by gender, 1960–2020

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[29][30], the total population was 53,005,614 in 2021 compared to 6,077,000 in 1950, and around 1,700,000 in 1900. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 42.5%, 54.9% between the ages of 15 and 65, and 2.7% was 65 years or older.[31] Worldometers estimates the total population at 48,466,928 inhabitants, a 29th global rank.[32]

Year Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 6 077 000 39.8 56.3 3.9
1955 6 980 000 42.8 53.4 3.8
1960 8 105 000 46.4 49.9 3.7
1965 9 505 000 48.4 48.0 3.6
1970 11 252 000 49.1 47.5 3.4
1975 13 486 000 49.6 47.1 3.3
1980 16 268 000 50.0 47.1 3.0
1985 19 655 000 50.0 47.2 2.8
1990 23 447 000 49.0 48.3 2.7
1995 27 426 000 46.5 50.8 2.7
2000 31 254 000 44.3 52.9 2.8
2005 35 615 000 42.7 54.5 2.8
2010 40 513 000 42.5 54.9 2.7
2019 47 564 296 39.0 57.1 3.9

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 24.VIII.2009):[33]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 19 192 458 19 417 639 38 610 097 100
0–4 3 000 439 2 938 867 5 939 306 15.38
5–9 2 832 669 2 765 047 5 597 716 14.50
10–14 2 565 313 2 469 542 5 034 855 13.04
15–19 2 123 653 2 045 890 4 169 543 10.80
20–24 1 754 105 2 020 998 3 775 103 9.78
25–29 1 529 116 1 672 110 3 201 226 8.29
30–34 1 257 035 1 262 471 2 519 506 6.53
35–39 1 004 361 1 004 271 2 008 632 5.20
40–44 743 594 732 575 1 476 169 3.82
45–49 635 276 637 469 1 272 745 3.30
50–54 478 346 477 860 956 206 2.48
55–59 359 466 352 497 711 953 1.84
60–64 295 197 298 581 593 778 1.54
65-69 183 151 207 612 390 763 1.01
70-74 160 301 179 000 339 301 0.88
75-79 99 833 118 675 218 508 0.57
80+ 159 125 224 576 383 701 0.99
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 8 398 421 8 173 456 16 571 877 42.92
15–64 10 191 627 10 514 320 20 705 947 53.63
65+ 602 410 729 863 1 332 273 3.45
Unknown 11 478 9 608 21 086 0.05

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 24.VIII.2019):[34]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 23 544 372 24 011 270 47 557 157 100
0–4 3 005 496 2 985 484 5 991 128 12.60
5–9 3 116 101 3 084 445 6 200 719 13.04
10–14 3 209 544 3 136 149 6 345 864 13.34
15–19 2 686 476 2 599 905 5 286 535 11.12
20–24 2 112 777 2 335 052 4 448 037 9.35
25–29 1 839 256 2 014 546 3 853 955 8.10
30–34 1 698 354 1 871 625 3 570 133 7.51
35–39 1 347 962 1 301 624 2 649 679 5.57
40–44 1 156 932 1 101 867 2 258 861 4.75
45–49 916 166 869 740 1 785 957 3.76
50–54 662 864 645 463 1 308 371 2.75
55–59 546 852 571 000 1 117 878 2.35
60–64 419 362 450 447 869 837 1.83
65-69 311 281 346 756 658 052 1.38
70-74 235 929 278 507 514 453 1.08
75-79 119 265 163 799 283 071 0.60
80-84 82 909 120 944 203 856 0.43
85-89 43 948 69 635 113 587 0.24
90-94 19 225 35 866 55 095 0.12
95-99 9 768 18 233 28 001 0.06
100+ 3 905 10 183 14 088 0.03
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 331 141 9 206 078 18 537 711 38.98
15–64 13 387 001 13 761 269 27 149 243 57.09
65+ 826 230 1 043 923 1 870 203 3.93

Population by province in 2019 census[edit]

A map of Kenya.

[35]

Province 2019
Kenya (country total) 47,564,296
Nairobi (capital city) 4,397,073
Central 5,482,239
Coast 4,329,474
Eastern 6,821,049
North Eastern 2,490,073
Nyanza 6,269,579
Rift Valley 12,752,966
Western 5,021,843

Population by census year[edit]

Population census
YearPop.±% p.a.
19629,980,563—    
196910,942,705+1.32%
197915,327,061+3.43%
198921,448,636+3.42%
YearPop.±% p.a.
199928,686,607+2.95%
200938,610,097+3.02%
201947,564,296+2.11%

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[36]

Year CBR Total TFR Total CBR Urban TFR Urban CBR Rural TFR Rural
1977 8,1
1984 7,7
1989 6,7 4,5 7,1
1993 35,8 5,40 (3,4) 35,1 3,44 (2,5) 35,9 5,80 (3,7)
1998 34,6 4,70 (3,5) 33,6 3,12 (2,6) 34,7 5,16 (3,8)
2003 37,5 4,9 (3,6) 35,3 3,3 (2,6) 38,1 5,4 (3,9)
2008–2009 (census) 34,8 4,6 (3,4) 32,5 2,9 (2,5) 35,3 5,2 (3,7)
2014 30,5 3,9 (3,0) 31,0 3,1 (2,6) 30,3 4,5 (3,4)

Fertility data as of 2014 (DHS Program):[37]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Coast 4.3 6.6 5.5
North Eastern 6.4 12.0 7.1
Eastern 3.4 4.6 4.7
Central 2.8 4.8 3.7
Rift Valley 4.5 7.0 5.5
Western 4.7 6.7 6.1
Nyanza 4.3 5.9 5.8
Nairobi 2.7 6.8 3.1

UN population projections[edit]

Numbers are in thousands. UN medium variant projections[31]

  • 2015 46,332
  • 2020 52,563
  • 2025 59,054
  • 2030 65,928
  • 2035 73,257
  • 2040 80,975
  • 2045 88,907
  • 2050 96,887

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Kenya not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [38]

Period Population

per year

Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
(in years)
1950 5 712 000   285,000   167,000   118,000 49.5 28.9 20.6 7.33 162.2 38.90
1951 5 836 000   299,000   166,000   133,000 50.7 28.1 22.6 7.36 161.2 39.09
1952 5 975 000   313,000   168,000   146,000 51.8 27.8 24.1 7.39 159.4 38.95
1953 6 122 000   328,000   163,000   165,000 52.8 26.3 26.5 7.42 152.2 40.32
1954 6 282 000   342,000   159,000   183,000 53.7 25.0 28.7 7.45 145.3 41.69
1955 6 461 000   356,000   156,000   200,000 54.3 23.8 30.5 7.48 138.9 42.96
1956 6 657 000   372,000   154,000   219,000 55.0 22.7 32.3 7.53 132.9 44.12
1957 6 871 000   388,000   149,000   239,000 55.5 21.3 34.2 7.59 127.3 45.83
1958 7 104 000   403,000   148,000   255,000 55.6 20.4 35.2 7.60 122.2 46.88
1959 7 343 000   414,000   146,000   268,000 55.4 19.5 35.8 7.62 117.5 47.77
1960 7 609 000   428,000   145,000   283,000 55.2 18.6 36.5 7.63 113.2 48.68
1961 7 894 000   446,000   144,000   302,000 55.5 17.9 37.6 7.72 109.4 49.53
1962 8 201 000   465,000   144,000   321,000 55.6 17.2 38.4 7.80 106.0 50.22
1963 8 526 000   482,000   145,000   338,000 55.5 16.6 38.8 7.86 103.1 50.81
1964 8 868 000   500,000   146,000   354,000 55.2 16.1 39.1 7.92 100.6 51.33
1965 9 227 000   521,000   148,000   373,000 55.3 15.7 39.6 8.03 98.7 51.70
1966 9 608 000   539,000   150,000   388,000 54.9 15.3 39.6 8.06 97.0 52.10
1967 9 997 000   555,000   153,000   402,000 54.4 15.0 39.4 8.05 95.5 52.46
1968 10 405 000   572,000   155,000   417,000 53.8 14.6 39.3 8.04 94.0 52.78
1969 10 823 000   589,000   157,000   433,000 53.4 14.2 39.2 8.03 92.4 53.17
1970 11 256 000   606,000   158,000   447,000 52.7 13.8 38.9 8.02 90.8 53.58
1971 11 690 000   625,000   159,000   466,000 52.4 13.3 39.1 8.00 89.1 54.26
1972 12 107 000   639,000   158,000   481,000 51.7 12.8 38.9 7.98 87.2 55.01
1973 12 539 000   652,000   158,000   495,000 51.0 12.3 38.7 7.94 85.3 55.68
1974 12 982 000   668,000   160,000   507,000 50.4 12.1 38.3 7.91 83.3 55.63
1975 13 426 000   685,000   162,000   523,000 50.0 11.8 38.2 7.88 81.2 55.83
1976 13 878 000   704,000   164,000   540,000 49.8 11.6 38.2 7.84 79.0 55.90
1977 14 327 000   722,000   164,000   559,000 49.4 11.2 38.2 7.80 76.7 56.49
1978 14 828 000   744,000   164,000   580,000 49.2 10.8 38.4 7.75 74.4 56.94
1979 15 347 000   766,000   163,000   604,000 49.0 10.4 38.6 7.68 72.1 57.72
1980 15 894 000   787,000   162,000   626,000 48.6 10.0 38.6 7.60 70.1 58.50
1981 16 480 000   816,000   151,000   665,000 48.5 9.0 39.5 7.51 68.2 61.17
1982 17 092 000   838,000   156,000   683,000 48.1 8.9 39.1 7.40 66.5 60.95
1983 17 731 000   860,000   159,000   701,000 47.5 8.8 38.7 7.26 64.9 61.01
1984 18 408 000   888,000   164,000   724,000 47.3 8.8 38.6 7.12 63.7 60.80
1985 19 099 000   913,000   170,000   743,000 46.9 8.8 38.1 6.98 62.8 60.58
1986 19 806 000   941,000   178,000   763,000 46.6 8.8 37.8 6.85 62.4 60.22
1987 20 516 000   966,000   185,000   781,000 46.2 8.8 37.3 6.68 62.4 60.04
1988 21 248 000   982,000   195,000   788,000 45.4 9.0 36.4 6.51 62.9 59.54
1989 22 004 000   998,000   205,000   793,000 44.5 9.2 35.4 6.32 63.9 59.04
1990 22 772 000  1,008,000   216,000   793,000 43.5 9.3 34.2 6.13 65.2 58.61
1991 23 553 000  1,019,000   228,000   791,000 42.5 9.5 33.0 5.94 66.8 58.01
1992 24 284 000  1,029,000   242,000   787,000 41.7 9.8 31.9 5.75 68.3 57.26
1993 25 028 000  1,044,000   255,000   789,000 41.1 10.0 31.0 5.57 69.4 56.62
1994 25 756 000  1,062,000   266,000   796,000 40.6 10.2 30.4 5.45 70.1 56.27
1995 26 512 000  1,088,000   280,000   809,000 40.4 10.4 30.0 5.37 70.1 55.62
1996 27 245 000  1,112,000   292,000   821,000 40.2 10.5 29.7 5.31 69.7 55.16
1997 27 987 000  1,139,000   303,000   836,000 40.1 10.7 29.4 5.26 68.7 54.82
1998 28 742 000  1,174,000   313,000   861,000 40.2 10.7 29.5 5.25 67.4 54.53
1999 29 533 000  1,199,000   321,000   878,000 40.0 10.7 29.3 5.18 65.6 54.50
2000 30 398 000  1,232,000   329,000   903,000 39.9 10.7 29.3 5.14 63.6 54.41
2001 31 306 000  1,271,000   336,000   934,000 40.0 10.6 29.4 5.09 61.3 54.51
2002 32 295 000  1,298,000   339,000   959,000 39.6 10.3 29.3 5.02 58.9 54.99
2003 33 265 000  1,318,000   337,000   981,000 39.0 10.0 29.1 4.91 56.5 55.60
2004 34 270 000  1,347,000   334,000  1,013,000 38.7 9.6 29.1 4.83 54.0 56.36
2005 35 314 000  1,380,000   328,000  1,052,000 38.5 9.1 29.4 4.78 51.3 57.34
2006 36 372 000  1,414,000   323,000  1,091,000 38.3 8.7 29.5 4.75 48.8 58.22
2007 37 479 000  1,450,000   322,000  1,128,000 38.1 8.5 29.6 4.72 46.5 58.87
2008 38 595 000  1,471,000   317,000  1,154,000 37.5 8.1 29.5 4.65 43.8 59.61
2009 39 779 000  1,476,000   312,000  1,164,000 36.6 7.7 28.8 4.51 41.7 60.37
2010 40 950 000  1,471,000   314,000  1,157,000 35.4 7.6 27.9 4.37 40.2 60.65
2011 42 086 000  1,461,000   317,000  1,144,000 34.2 7.4 26.8 4.22 39.0 61.05
2012 43 185 000  1,451,000   326,000  1,125,000 33.2 7.5 25.7 4.09 38.1 61.12
2013 44 267 000  1,440,000   332,000  1,008,000 32.1 7.4 24.7 3.95 37.0 61.39
2014 45 318 000  1,436,000   335,000  1,101,000 31.3 7.3 24.0 3.84 36.0 61.82
2015 46 346 000  1,452,000   345,000  1,107,000 31.0 7.4 23.6 3.80 34.9 61.89
2016 47 357 000  1,457,000   352,000  1,105,000 30.4 7.3 23.1 3.72 33.8 62.16
2017 48 432 000  1,458,000   357,000  1,100,000 29.8 7.3 22.5 3.64 33.0 62.48
2018 49 464 000  1,460,000   365,000  1,094,000 29.2 7.3 21.9 3.58 32.0 62.68
2019 50 443 000  1,451,000   372,000  1,079,000 28.5 7.3 21.2 3.47 31.1 62.94
2020 51 460 000  1,456,000   388,000  1,068,000 28.0 7.5 20.5 3.40 30.4 62.68
2021 52 511 000  1,468,000   427,000  1,041,000 27.7 8.1 19.6 3.34 29.8 61.43
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Other population statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[39]

  • One birth every 21 seconds
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 53 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 26 seconds

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[40] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

55,864,655 (2022 est.)
47,564,296 (2019 census )

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 38.71% (male 10,412,321/female 10,310,908)
15-24 years: 20.45% (male 5,486,641/female 5,460,372)
25-54 years: 33.75% (male 9,046,946/female 9,021,207)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 1,053,202/female 1,093,305)
65 years and over: 3.07% (2020 est.) (male 750,988/female 892,046)
0-14 years: 39.03% (male 9,474,968 /female 9,416,609)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 4,737,647 /female 4,752,896)
25-54 years: 34.27% (male 8,393,673 /female 8,193,800)
55-64 years: 4% (male 894,371 /female 1,040,883)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 640,005 /female 852,675) (2019 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.12% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 38th
1.57% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 67th

Birth rate[edit]

26.39 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 43rd
22.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 66th

Death rate[edit]

5.01 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 196th
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 137th

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.29 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 44th
2.81 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th

Median age[edit]

total: 20 years. Country comparison to the world: 195th
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.1 years (2020 est.)
total: 20 years. Country comparison to the world: 191st
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.2 years (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

20.3 years (2014 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

59.7% (2019)
61.6% (2016)

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 111st
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 109th

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 73.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 29% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 27% of total population (2018)[41]
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 69.69 years. Country comparison to the world: 175th
male: 67.98 years
female: 71.43 years (2022 est.)
total population: 64.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 63.1 years (2018 est.)
female: 66.1 years (2018 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

5.1% of GDP (2020) Country comparison to the world: 60th

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 81.5%
male: 85%
female: 78.2% (2018)
total population: 78% (2015 est.)
male: 81.1% (2015 est.)
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 5 years (1970) to 11 years (2009)[42]
male: 11 years (2009)
female: 11 years (2009)

Health[edit]

Like the demographics of Africa in general, Kenya is plagued by high infant mortality, low life expectancy, malnourishment (32% of population) and HIV/AIDS. While these concerns remain grave, a trend towards improvement is reported in the period of 2006 to 2010: Infant mortality was at estimated at 59.26 deaths/1,000 live births as of 2006, decreasing to 54.7 deaths/1,000 live births as of 2010. Life expectancy was estimated at 48.9 years as of 2006, and has risen to 64 years in 2012.[43]

According to 2008–09 Kenyan government survey, total fertility was 4.6, contraception usage among married women was 46 percent.[44] Total fertility rate has decreased 4.91 children per woman (2006 estimate), to 4.38 (2010 estimate). Literacy (age 7 and over) was estimated at 85.1% in 2003 (male: 90.6%, female: 79.7%).

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies

Religion[edit]

Pew Research Center (2020)[45]
religion percent
Christianity
84.5%
Islam
10.5%
None
2.3%
Traditionalists
1.5%
Other
1.1%
Unspecified
0.1%

CIA World Factbook estimate:[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kenya Population (2019)". Daily Nation. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  2. ^ Kenya begins contentious census BBC News, 24 August 2009.
  3. ^ Kenya defends tribal census figures BBC News, 31 August 2010.
  4. ^ "Kenya: Provinces, Counties, Cities, Towns, Urban Centers – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b "CIA World Fact Book – Kenya". CIA – The World Fact Book. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  6. ^ Asongu, J. J.; Marr, Marvee (2007). Doing Business Abroad: A Handbook for Expatriates. Greenview Publishing Co. pp. 12 & 112. ISBN 978-0-9797976-3-7.
  7. ^ "Kenya Population Census 1962, Appendix 1" (PDF). Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Government of Kenya. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume IV: Distribution of Population by Socio-Economic Characteristics". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  9. ^ Balaton-Chrimes, Samantha (2020). "Who are Kenya's 42(+) tribes? The census and the political utility of magical uncertainty". Journal of Eastern African Studies. 15: 43–62. doi:10.1080/17531055.2020.1863642. ISSN 1753-1055. S2CID 231681524.
  10. ^ a b c A. Okoth & A. Ndaloh, Peak Revision K.C.P.E. Social Studies, (East African Publishers), p.60-61.
  11. ^ S. Wandibba et al, Social Studies STD 6, (East African Publishers), p.45-47.
  12. ^ Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher; Lin, Alice A.; Oefner, Peter J.; Shen, Peidong; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Underhill, Peter A. (5 August 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (31): 10693–10698. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10510693H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801184105. PMC 2504844. PMID 18678889.
  13. ^ WOODWARD, P. (1 April 1999). "Conflict, Age and Power in North East Africa: Age systems in transition". African Affairs. 98 (391): 286–287. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a008035.
  14. ^ Abdurahman, Abdulahi (1 May 2019). "The Gada system and the Oromo's (Ethiopia) culture of peace". Skhid. 2 (160): 45–51. doi:10.21847/1728-9343.2019.2(160).164984.
  15. ^ Robert O. Collins, The southern Sudan in historical perspective, (Transaction Publishers: 2006), p.9-10.
  16. ^ a b c S. Wandibba et al, p.19-20.
  17. ^ a b c Godfrey Mwakikagile, Kenya: identity of a nation, (Godfrey Mwakikagile: 2007), p.99-102.
  18. ^ H. Okello Ayot, Topics in East African history, 1000–1970 (East African Literature Bureau: 1976), p.13.
  19. ^ Randall L. Pouwels, Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800–1900, Volume 53 of African Studies, (Cambridge University Press: 2002), p.9.
  20. ^ Mwakikagile, p.79.
  21. ^ "Kenya/Somalia: Somalia community doing booming business in country". Afrika.no. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  22. ^ Evans, Ruth (24 May 2000). "Kenya's Asian heritage on display". BBC. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  23. ^ a b Herzig, Pascale, South Asians in Kenya: Gender, Generation and Changing Identities in Diaspora, LIT Verlag Münster, 2006, page 28
  24. ^ "Kenya's-44th-tribe". The Nation. 28 June 2020.
  25. ^ "The rarity of White African Politicians' involvement in the African politics". This is africa. 24 September 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  26. ^ Proquest Info & Learning (COR) (2009). Culturegrams: World Edition. p. 98. ISBN 978-0977809165.
  27. ^ Brown, E. K.; Asher, R. E.; Simpson, J. M. Y. (2006). Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, Volume 1, Edition 2. Elsevier. p. 181. ISBN 0080442994.
  28. ^ "Kenya". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  29. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  30. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  31. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  32. ^ "Kenya Population (2017, 2018) – Worldometers". Worldometers.info. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  33. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  34. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  35. ^ "Kenya: Provinces, Major Cities, Towns & Urban Centers - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information".
  36. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  37. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2014" (PDF). Dhsprograms.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  38. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  39. ^ "Kenya Population 2022", World Population Review
  40. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World FactBook - Kenya", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
  41. ^ "World Development Indicators (WDI) | Data Catalog". datacatalog.worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  42. ^ "Education Statistics (EdStats) | Data Catalog". datacatalog.worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Kenya's life expectancy jumps to 64 years". Nation.co.ke. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  44. ^ "Kenya – Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008–09". Statistics.knbs.or.ke. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  45. ^ "Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Kenya"

Attribution:

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Demographics of Kenya at Wikimedia Commons