Demographics of Liberia

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Demographics of Liberia
Liberia single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Liberia in 2020
Population5,358,483 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.73% (2022 est.)
Birth rate36.64 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate6.62 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Net migration rate-2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years43.35%
65 and over2.83%
Nationality
NationalityLiberian
Language
OfficialEnglish

As of 2006, Liberia has the highest population growth rate in the world (4.50% per annum).[1] 43.5% of Liberians were below the age of 15 in 2010.[2] With recent civil wars being fought along ethnic lines, Liberia is a multiethnic and multicultural country.

Population[edit]

Liberia's population from 1961-2013.[3] Liberia's population tripled in 40 years.[3]
Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[4][5], Liberia's total population was 5,193,416 in 2021. This is compared to 911,000 in 1950.[2]

43.5% of Liberians were below the age of 15 in 2010.[2] 53.7% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.8% were 65 years or older.[2]

As of 2006, Liberia has the highest population growth rate in the world (4.50% per annum).[1]

Estimates of Liberia's population prior to the 20th century are unreliable due to the lack of historical censuses.[6] Estimates by scholars of pre-World War II demographics in Liberia differ wildly.[6]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 911 000 41.0 55.9 3.0
1955 997 000 41.1 56.1 2.8
1960 1 116 000 41.4 55.9 2.7
1965 1 262 000 43.0 54.3 2.6
1970 1 440 000 44.1 53.3 2.6
1975 1 658 000 44.8 52.6 2.6
1980 1 923 000 45.5 51.9 2.6
1985 2 212 000 45.9 51.5 2.6
1990 2 127 000 45.6 52.8 2.6
1995 2 095 000 44.5 52.8 2.6
2000 2 847 000 43.6 53.8 2.6
2005 3 183 000 43.3 54.0 2.7
2010 3 994 000 43.5 53.7 2.8

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 21.III.2008):[7]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 1 739 945 1 736 663 3 476 608 100
0–4 270 564 263 911 534 475 15.37
5–9 251 411 250 520 501 931 14.44
10–14 214 859 206 807 421 666 12.13
15–19 189 407 186 288 375 695 10.81
20–24 161 951 180 979 342 930 9.86
25–29 141 006 150 852 291 858 8.39
30–34 107 326 112 306 219 632 6.32
35–39 99 136 104 400 203 536 5.85
40–44 81 670 74 067 155 737 4.48
45–49 63 827 54 980 118 807 3.42
50–54 44 870 38 070 82 940 2.39
55–59 30 975 25 485 56 460 1.62
60–64 25 473 27 357 52 830 1.52
65-69 19 250 20 557 39 807 1.14
70-74 12 343 13 403 25 746 0.74
75-79 11 580 11 333 22 913 0.66
80-84 5 408 6 599 12 007 0.35
85+ 8 889 8 749 17 638 0.51
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 736 834 721 238 1 458 072 41.94
15–64 945 641 954 784 1 900 425 54.66
65+ 57 470 60 641 118 111 3.40

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Liberia not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [8]

Year Mid-year population Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy (years)
1950   916 000   40 000   22 000   18 000 43.1 24.0 19.1 6.00 199.3 38.5
1951   933 000   41 000   23 000   18 000 43.7 24.2 19.6 6.04 198.8 38.6
1952   952 000   42 000   23 000   19 000 44.3 24.2 20.2 6.09 198.0 38.7
1953   971 000   44 000   24 000   20 000 44.9 24.2 20.6 6.12 197.3 38.8
1954   992 000   45 000   24 000   21 000 45.4 24.3 21.1 6.16 196.6 39.0
1955   1 014 000   46 000   25 000   22 000 45.8 24.5 21.3 6.19 197.2 38.8
1956   1 037 000   48 000   26 000   22 000 46.4 24.7 21.6 6.24 198.0 38.8
1957   1 061 000   50 000   26 000   23 000 46.8 24.9 21.9 6.28 198.7 38.7
1958   1 085 000   51 000   27 000   24 000 47.2 25.2 22.1 6.31 199.4 38.5
1959   1 110 000   53 000   28 000   25 000 47.7 25.4 22.3 6.35 200.1 38.4
1960   1 137 000   55 000   29 000   26 000 48.0 25.6 22.5 6.39 200.6 38.3
1961   1 165 000   56 000   30 000   26 000 48.4 25.7 22.7 6.45 200.7 38.3
1962   1 194 000   58 000   31 000   27 000 48.7 25.7 23.0 6.50 200.5 38.4
1963   1 224 000   60 000   31 000   28 000 48.9 25.7 23.2 6.56 200.0 38.5
1964   1 255 000   61 000   32 000   29 000 49.0 25.7 23.4 6.59 199.0 38.6
1965   1 287 000   63 000   33 000   30 000 49.1 25.5 23.6 6.62 197.5 38.8
1966   1 320 000   65 000   33 000   31 000 49.0 25.3 23.7 6.63 195.8 39.1
1967   1 354 000   66 000   34 000   33 000 49.0 25.0 24.0 6.65 193.7 39.4
1968   1 389 000   68 000   34 000   34 000 49.0 24.7 24.2 6.66 191.3 39.8
1969   1 426 000   70 000   35 000   35 000 49.1 24.4 24.7 6.64 188.5 40.2
1970   1 464 000   71 000   35 000   36 000 48.5 24.0 24.5 6.58 185.6 40.6
1971   1 502 000   72 000   35 000   37 000 48.0 23.6 24.5 6.54 183.1 40.9
1972   1 541 000   74 000   36 000   39 000 48.2 23.1 25.1 6.60 180.3 41.5
1973   1 583 000   77 000   36 000   40 000 48.4 22.8 25.6 6.65 177.7 41.9
1974   1 626 000   79 000   36 000   42 000 48.5 22.4 26.0 6.69 175.1 42.4
1975   1 672 000   81 000   37 000   44 000 48.6 22.1 26.5 6.74 172.4 42.8
1976   1 718 000   84 000   37 000   46 000 48.7 21.8 26.9 6.79 169.9 43.2
1977   1 768 000   86 000   38 000   48 000 48.7 21.4 27.3 6.84 167.6 43.6
1978   1 821 000   88 000   38 000   50 000 48.6 21.0 27.6 6.88 165.4 44.0
1979   1 876 000   91 000   39 000   52 000 48.5 20.7 27.8 6.92 163.4 44.3
1980   1 932 000   93 000   39 000   54 000 48.0 20.3 27.7 6.87 161.6 44.6
1981   1 990 000   94 000   40 000   55 000 47.5 19.9 27.5 6.83 159.9 45.0
1982   2 048 000   96 000   40 000   56 000 46.9 19.6 27.3 6.79 158.6 45.2
1983   2 109 000   98 000   41 000   57 000 46.5 19.4 27.0 6.76 157.8 45.4
1984   2 174 000   100 000   42 000   58 000 45.9 19.3 26.6 6.73 157.8 45.4
1985   2 240 000   102 000   44 000   58 000 45.7 19.7 26.1 6.69 159.9 44.7
1986   2 306 000   105 000   45 000   60 000 45.5 19.4 26.0 6.64 161.0 45.0
1987   2 372 000   107 000   47 000   60 000 45.0 19.7 25.3 6.57 164.0 44.5
1988   2 440 000   109 000   49 000   60 000 44.7 20.1 24.6 6.51 167.4 44.0
1989   2 508 000   111 000   51 000   60 000 44.5 20.5 24.0 6.43 170.6 43.5
1990   2 210 000   114 000   65 000   49 000 44.4 25.5 18.9 6.37 173.2 36.7
1991   1 939 000   85 000   40 000   45 000 44.6 21.0 23.6 6.32 175.0 42.8
1992   2 053 000   90 000   43 000   48 000 44.5 21.0 23.5 6.28 173.9 42.7
1993   2 133 000   95 000   46 000   49 000 44.6 21.5 23.1 6.25 174.8 42.2
1994   2 125 000   97 000   48 000   50 000 44.6 21.8 22.8 6.21 172.9 41.8
1995   2 142 000   94 000   43 000   52 000 44.7 20.2 24.4 6.17 166.1 43.9
1996   2 204 000   99 000   44 000   55 000 44.6 19.9 24.7 6.13 161.2 44.4
1997   2 383 000   100 000   39 000   60 000 44.4 17.6 26.8 6.08 151.5 47.8
1998   2 639 000   115 000   44 000   71 000 44.3 16.9 27.4 6.02 144.6 48.9
1999   2 790 000   122 000   45 000   77 000 44.1 16.1 27.9 5.95 137.3 50.0
2000   2 895 000   126 000   44 000   82 000 43.6 15.2 28.4 5.88 129.8 51.4
2001   2 982 000   128 000   43 000   86 000 43.0 14.3 28.7 5.77 122.0 52.8
2002   3 061 000   130 000   42 000   88 000 42.3 13.6 28.7 5.65 114.2 53.8
2003   3 085 000   131 000   43 000   88 000 41.7 13.9 27.9 5.55 108.9 53.0
2004   3 122 000   129 000   38 000   92 000 41.5 12.1 29.3 5.51 99.5 56.0
2005   3 266 000   133 000   37 000   96 000 41.5 11.6 29.9 5.52 93.2 56.9
2006   3 455 000   141 000   38 000   103 000 41.3 11.2 30.2 5.53 87.8 57.6
2007   3 633 000   147 000   39 000   108 000 40.9 10.8 30.1 5.46 83.3 58.3
2008   3 784 000   151 000   39 000   111 000 39.9 10.4 29.5 5.33 79.6 58.8
2009   3 905 000   152 000   39 000   113 000 38.9 10.1 28.8 5.17 76.5 59.2
2010   4 020 000   153 000   40 000   113 000 38.1 9.9 28.2 5.06 74.0 59.4
2011   4 181 000   155 000   40 000   114 000 37.4 9.7 27.7 4.97 72.0 59.6
2012   4 332 000   162 000   42 000   121 000 37.3 9.6 27.7 4.88 70.3 59.9
2013   4 427 000   160 000   42 000   118 000 36.1 9.5 26.7 4.75 68.8 59.9
2014   4 519 000   159 000   44 000   115 000 35.1 9.8 25.3 4.62 68.7 59.1
2015   4 612 000   158 000   45 000   113 000 34.2 9.7 24.5 4.52 67.7 59.1
2016   4 706 000   159 000   43 000   116 000 33.7 9.1 24.7 4.46 65.0 60.4
2017   4 797 000   159 000   43 000   116 000 33.2 9.0 24.2 4.40 63.7 60.6
2018   4 889 000   160 000   43 000   117 000 32.7 8.8 23.9 4.34 62.4 60.9
2019   4 985 000   161 000   43 000   118 000 32.2 8.7 23.5 4.26 61.1 61.1
2020   5 088 000   161 000   45 000   117 000 31.7 8.8 23.0 4.17 59.6 60.9
2021   5 193 000   163 000   46 000   117 000 31.3 8.8 22.4 4.09 58.0 60.7
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[9][10]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2007 37.6 5.2 (4.6) 32.5 3.8 (3.3) 40.4 6.2 (5.6)
2013 34.4 4.7 (4.0) 31.1 3.8 (3.3) 38.5 6.1 (5.1)
2019-20 30.1 4.2 (3.7) 27.5 3.4 (3.1) 33.6 5.5 (4.8)

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[11]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
North Western 5.8 10.3 7.1
South Central 3.8 6.7 5.8
South Eastern A 6.5 9.6 6.7
South Eastern B 5.9 9.2 7.1
North Central 5.6 10.2 6.2

Ethnic communities of Liberia[edit]

Indigenous[edit]

The indigenous ethnic groups of Liberia can be linguistically divided into three groups who speak;

to which must be added the immigrant communities;

The Gola ethnic group originated somewhere in central Africa. During the Empire of Ancient Ghana they were involved in the land-surveying and jurisprudence of the empire.

The other ethnic groups that fall under the Mande-Tan, Mande-Fu were also members of Ancient Ghana. Because of their influence in the judicial aspects of the Ghana, the Gola's social structure dominated through the Poro.

With the influx of Islam many groups adopted it while others resisted. The Golas fought three wars with pro-Islamic elements in a changing Ghana. These wars were known as the Kumba Wars. The Golas lost the third of these wars and were forced to retreat toward Sierra Leone. They were pursued by the Mende, Gbandi and Loma. Their battles with the Mende in Sierra Leone forced them to retreat yet again and settle finally in Liberia where they encountered the Dei.

Immigrants from Mali[edit]

The Kpelle, Gio, Mano, Mandingo and Vai groups migrated from the Empire of Mali for various reasons, some escaping political intrigue, others looking for a better life. The Vais, settled in Grand Cape Mount county in the west of Liberia, were the first to invent a form of writing in 1833 or 1834. The reported inventor was Dwalu Bukele of Bandakor along the Robertsport (provincial capital) highway.

Immigrants from Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

In the 16th century; Kru (Tajuasohn), Bassa, Belleh, Krahn, Grebo.

19th century[edit]

  • Americo-Liberians: Free black people and emancipated slaves, and their descendants, from the U.S. and the Caribbean
  • Congos is an eponymic term for "recaptives," people rescued from slave ships after the slave trade, not slavery itself, was abolished by Great Britain and the United States. These people were "repatriated" to Liberia (and Sierra Leone if rescued by the British) and their descendants. The term was used because many of these rescued Africans were thought to be from the Congo River Basin.[12][13][14]

Immigrants from Lebanon[edit]

In the late 19th century to early 20th century Lebanese merchants, families and businessmen began arriving in Liberia. Lebanese currently own many major businesses such as supermarkets, restaurants, textiles, construction works, factories and other production based companies across the country. Despite living in the country, Lebanese are denied citizenship rights due to Liberia's nationality law and are seen in a political view as foreigners.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Liberia (2008)[15]

  Christianity (85.6%)
  Islam (12.2%)
  None (1.4%)
  Traditional (0.6%)
  Others (0.2%)

According to the 2008 National Census, 85.5% of Liberia's population practices Christianity.[16] Muslims comprise 12.2% of the population, largely coming from the Mandingo and Vai ethnic groups.[16] The vast majority of Muslims are Malikite Sunni, with sizeable Shia and Ahmadiyya minorities.[17] Traditional indigenous religions are practiced by 0.5% of the population, while 1.8% subscribe to no religion.[16]

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[18]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 14 minutes
  • One net migrant every 103 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 4 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[19] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

5,358,483 (2022 est.)
4,809,768 (July 2018 est.)

Religions[edit]

Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%, Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.5% (2008 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Liberia in 2020
0-14 years: 43.35% (male 1,111,479/female 1,087,871)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 516,136/female 516,137)
25-54 years: 30.01% (male 747,983/female 774,615)
55-64 years: 3.46% (male 89,150/female 86,231)
65 years and over: 2.83% (male 70,252/female 73,442) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 43.72% (male 1,062,766 /female 1,040,211)
15-24 years: 19.9% (male 478,041 /female 478,999)
25-54 years: 30.1% (male 711,963 /female 735,878)
55-64 years: 3.43% (male 84,474 /female 80,410)
65 years and over: 2.85% (male 67,229 /female 69,797) (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

36.64 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 11th
37.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 10th

Death rate[edit]

6.62 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 131st
7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 116th

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.79 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 13th
5 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 13th

Median age[edit]

total: 18 years. Country comparison to the world: 215th
male: 17.7 years
female: 18.2 years (2020 est.)
total: 17.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 217th
male: 17.6 years
female: 18.1 years (2018 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.73% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 16th
2.59% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 19th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.1 years (2019/20 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
19.2 years (2013 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

24.9% (2019/20)
31% (2016)

Net migration rate[edit]

-2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 176th
-4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 192nd

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 83.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 77.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.1 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 53.1% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 3.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 51.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population:1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Development of life expectancy
total population: 65.45 years. Country comparison to the world: 201st
male: 63.19 years
female: 67.78 years (2022 est.)
total population: 63.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 61.6 years (2018 est.)
female: 66 years (2018 est.)
total population: 57 years (2011 est.)
male: 55.44 years
female: 58.6 years

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Liberia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Liberia (2008)[15]
Ethnic groups
Kpelle
20.3%
Other
20.1%
Bassa
13.4%
Grebo
10%
Gio
8%
Mano
7.9%
Kru
6%
Lorma
5.1%
Gola
5.1%
Kissi
4.8%

There are officially 17[20] ethnic groups that make up Liberia's indigenous African population, making up maybe 95% of the total: Kpelle, the largest group; Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mandingo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, Sapo, Belleh (Kuwaa), Mende and Dey.

There are also more or less nomadic groups like the Fula, who engage mostly in trade, and the Fanti, who are often fishermen or traders of fish, usually from Ghana, living seasonally and more and more often permanently in Liberia.

Then there are Americo-Liberians, who are descendants of free-born and formerly enslaved African Americans who arrived in Liberia from 1822 onward and Congo People (descendants of immigrants from the Caribbean), making up an estimated 5% of the population. They used to dominate political life in Liberia and still have a lot of influence.

There are about 5,000 people of European descent, many of them having settled down as miners, missionaries, business people, and so on. There also is a sizeable number of Lebanese, Indians, and other people with Asian roots who make up a significant part of Liberia's business community. Because of the civil war and its accompanying problem of insecurity, the number of non-Africans in Liberia is low and confined largely to Monrovia and its immediate surroundings.

The Liberian Constitution restricts citizenship of Liberia only to people who are either 'Negroes or of Negro descent' wherein the Liberian Constitution / Chapter 4 / Article 27b states: "In order to preserve, foster and maintain the positive Liberian culture, values and character, only persons who are Negroes or of Negro descent shall qualify by birth or by naturalization to be citizens of Liberia."[21]

Languages[edit]

English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages, of which a few can be written and are used in correspondence.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 48.3%
male: 62.7%
female: 34.1% (2017)
total population: 47.6% (2015 est.)
male: 62.4% (2015 est.)
female: 32.8% (2015 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 2.3% (2016 est.)
male: 2.4% (2016 est.)
female: 2.2% (2016 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision : Table A.8" (PDF). Un.org. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Data of FAO, year 2005
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  6. ^ a b Gardner, Leigh A., ed. (2022), "Reconstructing the Fragments: Liberia's Economic History, 1847–1980", Sovereignty without Power: Liberia in the Age of Empires, 1822–1980, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–30, doi:10.1017/9781009181082.002, ISBN 978-1-009-18110-5
  7. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  9. ^ "Liberia Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  10. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2007" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  11. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  12. ^ Clegg 2004
  13. ^ Ciment 2013
  14. ^ Sundiata 2003
  15. ^ a b "Africa :: LIBERIA". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.
  16. ^ a b c "International Religious Freedom Report 2010: Liberia". United States Department of State. November 17, 2010. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
  17. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. August 9, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  18. ^ "Liberia Population 2022", World Population Review
  19. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from "Liberia". World Factbook (2023 ed.). CIA.
  20. ^ "2008 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS" (PDF). Lisgis.net. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  21. ^ http://judiciary.gov.lr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CONSTITUTION-OF-THE-REPUBLIC-OF-LIBERIA.pdf[bare URL PDF]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ciment, J. (2013) Another America: The Story of Liberia and the Former Slaves Who Ruled It. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-9542-1
  • Clegg, C. (2004). The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia. Chapel Hill: UNC Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2845-8
  • Sundiata, I. (2003) Brothers and Strangers: Black Zion, Black Slavery, 1914-1940. Durham: Duke University Press ISBN 0-8223-3233-7

External links[edit]