Demographics of Libya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Libyan population
Regions with significant populations
 Libya 6,416,776 (2013)[1]
 Tunisia 1,000,000
 Egypt 300,000
 Israel 17,460[2]
 United Kingdom 16,000[2]
 Canada 5,515[3][4]
 Germany 4,827[2]
 Serbia 1,769[5]
Languages
Arabic, Berber and English (main foreign)
Religion
Sunni Muslims (main)
Minorities: Muwahhid Muslims, Christianity

Demographics of Libya include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration exists in Libya.[citation needed] Of the over 6,000,000 Libyans that lived in Libya prior to the Libyan Crisis, more than a million were immigrants.[citation needed] The estimates in this article are from the 2010 Revision of the World Population Prospects which was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, unless otherwise indicated.[6]

The Libyan population resides in the country of Libya, a territory located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, to the west of and adjacent to Egypt. Most Libyans live in Tripoli, the capital of the country and first in terms of population city and Benghazi, Libya's second largest city. Ethnically, the Libyan population is largely a mixture of Arab and Berber ethnicities. According to DNA studies, 90% [citation needed] of the Arab Libyan population descended from the Arab-Berber inter-ethnic mixture[7] and the remaining 10% are Phoenicians, black Africans (especially in the south of the country) and other North African, Asian and European peoples.[citation needed]

Demographics of Libya, Data of FAO, year 2006; Number of inhabitants in thousands. to see the latest information, please visit this official site: http://www.gait.gov.ly/info/info2.htm

History[edit]

Main article: History of Libya

Over the centuries, Libya has been occupied by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Italians, Arabs and Egyptians. The Phoenicians may have had the biggest impact on Libya as the capital's name, Tripoli, is Phoenician, and also many of the coastal towns and cities were established by them as trade outposts within the southern Mediterranean coast in order to facilitate the Phoenician business activities in the area. Starting in the 8th century BCE, Libya was under the rule of Carthage.[clarification needed] In the 7th century CE Libya was conquered by the Arab Muslims as part of the Arab conquest of North Africa. Centuries after that the Ottoman Empire conquered Libya in 1551 and remained in control of its territory until 1911 when the country was conquered by Italy. In the 18th century Libya was used as the base for various pirates.

In the Second World War Libya was one of the main battlegrounds of North Africa. During the war, the territory was under an Anglo-French military government until it was overrun by the Axis Powers, who, in turn, were defeated by the Allies in 1943.

In 1951, the country was granted independence by the United Nations, being governed by King Idris. In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the overthrow of King Idris I. Gaddafi then established an anti-Western dictatorship. In 1970, Gaddafi ordered all British and American military bases closed.

The Libyan population has increased rapidly after 1969. They were only 523,176 humans in 1911, 2 million in 1968, and 5 million in 1969.[citation needed] That population growth was due in large part to King Idris and Gaddafi granting citizenship to many Tunisians, Egyptians and other immigrants.[citation needed] Many migrant workers came to Libya since 1969. Among the workers were construction workers and laborers from Tunisia, teachers and laborers from Egypt, teachers from Palestine, and doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 1,000,000 workers, mainly from other neighboring African countries like Sudan, Niger, Chad and Mali, migrated to Libya in the 1990s, after changes were made to Libya's Pan-African policies.[7]

Gaddafi used money from the sale of oil to improve the living conditions of the population and to assist Palestinian guerrillas in their fight against the Israelis. In 1979, Libya fought in Uganda to assist the government of Idi Amin in the Ugandan Civil War, and in 1981, fought in the Libyan-Chadian War. Libya had occupied the Aozou Strip; however, in 1990 the International Court of Justice submitted the case and allowed the full recuperation of territory to Chad.

According to the census conducted in the 2000s, most of the people of Libya are primarily Arab or a mixture of Arab-Berber ethnicities. In addition to this, modern Libyans received large genetic input from other ethnicities like the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Greeks, Mamelukes and Ottomans, who had either conquered, settled or conducted trade in ancient Libya before its conquest by the Islamic Empire, followed by the genetic contributions from Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula and indigenous African Berbers. Arab culture was adopted by the ancestors of modern Libyans through submission, cultural and ethnic assimilation/inter-marriage of indigenous Libyans with the incoming Arabs, as in most of northern Africa during the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate into North Africa. This indicates that most Libyans (North Africans in the general) are more racially linked with the Mediterranean peoples of southern Europe than with the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula.[citation needed]

In September 2008, Italy and Libya signed a memorandum by which Italy would pay $5 billion over the next 20 years to compensate Libya for its dominion over Libya for its reign of 30 years.[8]

Since 2011, the country is swept by Libyan Civil War, which broke out between the Anti-Gaddafi rebels and the Pro-Gaddafi government in 2011, culminating in the death and overthrow of Gaddafi. Nevertheless, even today Libya still continues to generate problems within the area and beyond, greatly affecting its population and the migrant route to Europe.

Population[edit]

Population pyramid for Libya in 2011.
Libyan young men in Bayda. In 2010, about 30 % of the population was under the age of 15.1.

Libya has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² (130/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² (2.7/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. About 90%[9] of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the four largest cities, Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata and Bayda. Thirty percent of the population is estimated to be under the age of 15[citation needed], but this proportion has decreased considerably during the past decades.

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1801 ~ 3 000 -- -- --
1825 ~ 3 059 -- -- --
1850 ~ 2 700 -- -- --
1870 ~ 2 400 -- -- --
1910 ~ 1 600 -- -- --
1950 1 029 41.9 53.4 4.7
1955 1 126 43.0 52.7 4.3
1960 1 349 43.3 52.7 4.0
1965 1 623 43.4 53.0 3.6
1970 1 994 45.2 52.1 2.7
1975 2 466 46.5 51.3 2.2
1980 3 063 47.0 50.7 2.2
1985 3 850 47.3 50.5 2.3
1990 4 334 43.5 53.9 2.6
1995 4 775 38.3 58.8 2.9
2000 5 231 32.4 64.2 3.4
2005 5 770 30.6 65.6 3.8
2010 6 355 30.4 65.3 4.3

[citation needed]

Population census[edit]

Eight population censuses have been carried out in Libya, the first in 1931 and the most recent one in 2006.[10][11] The population sixfolded between 1931 and 2006.

Year Males (thousands) Females (thousands) Total population (thousands) Average annual growth rate (%)
1931 704
1936 463 386 849 3.8
1954 564 524 1,089 1.4
1964 (July 31) 813 751 1,564 3.7
1973 (July 31) 1,192 1,057 2,249 4.1
1984 (July 31) 1,954 1,689 3,643 4.5
1995 (August 11) 2,237 2,168 4,405 1.7
2006 (April 15) 2,934 2,723 5,658 2.3

Vital statistics[edit]

During the past 60 years the demographic situation of Libya changed considerably. Since the 1950s, life expectancy increased steadily and the infant mortality rates decreased. As the fertility rates remained high until the 1980s (the number of births tripled between 1950–55 and 1980–85), population growth was very high for three decades. However, after 1985 a fast decrease in fertility was observed from over 7 children per woman in the beginning of the 1980s to less than 3 in 2005-2010.[citation needed] Because of this decrease in fertility the population growth slowed down and also the proportion of Libyans under the age of 15 decreased from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2010.[citation needed]

Births and deaths[edit]

Period Births Deaths Difference CBR* CDR* NC* IMR* TFR*
1950–1955 52.000 24.000 28.000 48,0 22,5 25,5 185 6,87
1955–1960 60.000 25.000 35.000 48,5 19,9 28,6 170 6,97
1960–1965 73.000 27.000 46.000 49,0 18,3 30,7 150 7,18
1965–1970 90.000 30.000 60.000 49,5 16,8 32,7 125 7,48
1970–1975 109.000 33.000 76.000 49,0 14,8 34,2 105 7,59
1975–1980 131.000 35.000 96.000 47,3 12,7 34,6 68 7,38
1980–1985 158.000 38.000 120.000 45,6 10,9 34,7 50 7,18
1985–1990 123.000 22.000 101.000 29,9 5,3 24,6 38,0 5,65
1990–1995 113.000 20.000 93.000 24,7 4,5 20,2 28,3 4,10
1995–2000 115.000 20.000 95.000 23,0 4,0 19,0 20,5 3,25
2000–2005 134.000 22.000 112.000 24,3 4,0 20,3 17,7 3,00
2005–2010 145.000 24.000 121.000 24,0 4,0 20,0 15,0 2,72

Births and deaths [12]

Year Population (x1000) Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 134 682 22 859 111 823

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

  • 1950-1955: 42.85 years
  • 1955-1960: 45.4 years
  • 1960-1965: 48.1 years
  • 1965-1970: 50.5 years
  • 1970-1975: 52.8 years
  • 1975-1980: 56.45 years
  • 1980-1985: 60.2 years
  • 1985-1990: 63.5 years
  • 1990-1995: 65.85 years
  • 1995-2000: 67.2 years
  • 2000-2005: 68.8 years
  • 2005-2010: 69.9 years

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[13]

Vital statistics[edit]

Population

5,613,380 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 27.7% (male 795,748/ female 759,806)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 2,006,059/ female 1,834,119)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 111,144/ female 106,504) (2012 est.)

Median age

total: 24.8 years
male: 24.8 years
female: 24.7 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.26% (2012 est.)

Birth rate

17.5 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate

4.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)
3.01 children born/woman (2010 est.)
2.12 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 78% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.83 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 80.27 years (2012 data)

Ethnic and tribal groups[edit]

Ethnic composition of the Libyan population in 1974 (CIA map)
  Berber
  Tuareg
  Toubou
  uninhabited

Ethnic groups[edit]

The native population of Libya is primarily Berber [14] or a mixture of Native Libyan ethnicities like Tuareg, Toubou and Berber, there is small minority of Berber-speaking tribal groups concentrated in northwest part of Tripolitania, Tuareg no Toubou tribes can be found in southern Libya, which are nomadic or semi-nomadic. Most of the Libyans claim descent from the Bedouin Arab tribes of the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym, who invaded the Maghreb in the 11th century. There is also some Punic admixture, and a curious traditional element from the Romanized Punics such as the Roman toga can be seen in Tripoli's people and was used by Muammar Gaddafi himself.

In the west of the country, there are some Tuareg nomads, mobile across the Libyan-Algerian border. Tuaregs are also scattered over Algeria, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso.

In the southeast, there are small populations of the Nilo-Saharan Toubou (Tibbu), although they occupy between a quarter and a third of the country and who also inhabit Niger and Chad.

Among foreign residents, the largest groups are from other African nations, including citizens of other North African nations (primarily Egyptians) as well as sub-Saharan Africans.

Tribal groups[edit]

Libyan society is to a large extent structured along tribal lines, with more than 20 major tribal groups.[15]

The major tribal groups of Libya in 2011 were listed:[15]

Some of the ancient Berber tribes include: Adyrmachidae, Auschisae, Es'bet, Temeh’u, Teh’nu, Rebu, Kehek, KeyKesh, Imukehek, Meshwesh, Macetae, Macatutae, Nasamones, Nitriotae, and Tautamaei.[7]

As of 2012 the major tribal groups of Libya, by region, were as follows:[16]

  • Tripolitania: alawana-Souk El Joma'a, AL-Mahameed, Warfalla, Tarhona, Misurata tribes, Al-Jawary, Siyan Tribe, The Warshfana tribes, Zawia Groups, Ghryan Tribes, AL-Asabea, Al-Fwatir, Awlad Busayf, Zintan, Al-jbalya, Zwara, Alajelat, Al-Nawael tribe, Alalqa tribe, Al-Rijban, al Mashashi, Amaym.
  • Cyrenaica: Al-Awagir, Magharba, Al-Abaydat, Drasa, Al-Barasa, Al-Fawakhir, Zuwayya, Majabra, Awama, Minfa, Taraki, alawana, Shwa'ir and in Kufra Zuwayya; Toubou.
  • Sirte: Awlad-Suleiman, Qadhadhfa, Magharba, Al-Hosoon, Ferrjan
  • Fezzan: Awlad Suleiman, Al-Riyyah, Magarha, Al-Zuwaid, Al-Hutman, Al-Hassawna; Toubou, Tuareg.
  • Kufra: Zuwayya; Toubou.

Foreign population[edit]

Foreign population is estimated at 3%, mostly migrant workers in the oil industry from Tunisia and Egypt, but also including small numbers of Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Pakistanis, Palestinians, Turks, Indians and people from former Yugoslavia. Due to the Libyan Civil War, most of these migrant workers have returned to their homelands or simply left the country for a different one.

However, according to news accounts in Allafrica.com, and the Libya Herald, between 1 million and 2 million Egyptians are resident in Libya and Sudanese number in the hundreds of thousands. If this is correct, the foreign population could be as high as 30% of the country, as simultaneously at least two million Libyans have fled since the NATO intervention of 2011, toppling the previous Libyan government.

Genetics[edit]

Y-chromosome[edit]

Analysis of Y-chromosome have found three Y-chromosome lineages (E1b1b-M81, J-M267 and E1b1b-M78) at high frequency in Libya like in other North African populations. Some studies suggest a Paleolithic component for E-M81 and E-M78, while other studies point to a Neolithic origin. E1b1b-M78 has probably emerged in Northeastern Africa and is today widely distributed in North Africa, East Africa, and West Asia. E1b1b-M81 show high frequencies in Northwestern Africa and a high prevalence among Berbers (it is sometimes referred to as a genetic "Berber marker"). Its frequency declines towards Egypt and the Levant. On the other hand, E-M78 and E-M123 are frequent in the Levant and Egypt and decline towards Northwest Africa. Another common paternal lineage in Libya and North Africa is haplogroup J through its subtypes J1 (M267) and J2 (M172). J1 is prevalent in all North African and Levantine groups and found at high frequencies in the Arabic peninsula. It has been previously associated with the Islamic expansion. J2 is sporadically detected in North Africa and Iberia and is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region. Its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC). E-M2 is the predominant lineage in Western Africa.

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Libya.[17]

Hg Libya (n=215)
E-M81 35.88%
J-M267 30.53%
E-M78 11.07%
E-M2 8.78%
G-M201 4.20%
J-M172 3.44%
R* 3.43%
E-M123 1.53%
E* 0.76%
R-M17 0.38%

Religions[edit]

Almost all Libyans are Sunni Muslim. Foreigners contribute very little Christian presence, but there are some local Christian church adherents in Eastern Libya - the Copts. A small Jewish community historically lived in Libya since antiquity (see History of the Jews in Libya), but the entire Jewish community in Libya eventually fled the country for Italy, Israel, or the United States, particularly after anti-Jewish riots in the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War between Arab countries and Israel.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Libya

Cuisine[edit]

Libyan cuisine is heavily influenced by Mediterranean, North African (Tunisian cuisine) and the Middle Eastern (Egyptian cuisine) traditions. Notable dishes include Shorba Arabiya, or Arabian soup, which is a thick, highly spiced soup.[18] Bazeen is a traditional Libyan food, made from a mix of barley flour and a small amount of plain flour.

Music[edit]

Libyan origin instruments are the zokra (a bagpipe), a flute (made of bamboo), the tambourine, the oud (a fretless lute) and the darbuka (a goblet drum held sideways and played with the fingers). Bedouin poet-singers had a great influence on the musical folklore of Libya, particularly the style of huda, the camel driver's song.

Language[edit]

Main article: Languages of Libya

The official language of Libya is Standard Arabic, while the prevalent spoken language is Libyan Arabic, Berber, spoken by about 6 million Libyans. 68% of the total population speak in Arabic and 72% tamazghit berber or one of the . The Arabic dialects are partly spoken by immigrant workers and partly by local Libyan populations. These dialects include Egyptian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic, South Levantine Arabic and Hassaniyya Arabic.

The Berber languages is still spoken by some of the Tuareg, a rural group in Libya's south.[19]

Indigenous minority languages in Libya:[20]

Non-Arabic languages had largely been spoken by foreign workers (who had been massively employed in Libya in various infrastructure projects prior to the 2011 civil war), and those languages with more than 10,000 speakers included Punjabi, Urdu, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, Sinhala, Bengal, Tamil, Tagalog, French, Italian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and English.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Libya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c EU Migration Policy Centre. "Migration Facts Libya April 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  3. ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  4. ^ Libyan Canadians cast ballots in first post-Gadhafi election
  5. ^ Serbian Government. "MMIGRATION PROFILE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA FOR 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  6. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  7. ^ a b c http://www.temehu.com/Libyan-People.htm Temehu. Libyan people and Ethnic tribes. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  8. ^ http://www.hejleh.com/countries/libya.html The Country & People of Libya. Posted 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2012, to 23:53 pm.
  9. ^ Libya | ARARAT
  10. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000.
  11. ^ United nations. Demographic Yearbooks 1948-2008
  12. ^ United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics
  13. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Libya
  14. ^ Libyan People & Ethnic Tribes
  15. ^ a b Jon Hemming, Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule, Reuters (2011)
  16. ^ Souhail Karam, Jon Hemming, Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule, Reuters (2011)[1]
  17. ^ Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013) Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11): e80293. See Table S2
  18. ^ Served as "starter", the soup is mentioned in the New York Times
  19. ^ The people of Libya. Retrieved January 5, 2012, to 0:30 pm.
  20. ^ (English) Ethnologue report for Libya, Languages of Libya