Demography of London

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Population density in the 2011 census in Greater London.
Inner London and Outer London as defined by the Office for National Statistics

The demography of London is analysed by the Office for National Statistics and data is produced for each of the Greater London wards, the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, the Inner London and Outer London statistical sub-regions, each of the Parliamentary constituencies in London, and for all of Greater London as a whole. Additionally, data is produced for the Greater London Urban Area. Statistical information is produced about the size and geographical breakdown of the population, the number of people entering and leaving country and the number of people in each demographic subgroup.

Population change[edit]

See also Historical population of London

The historical population for the current area of Greater London, divided into the statistical areas of Inner and Outer London is as follows:[1][2][3]

Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
Inner London 879,491 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,040,033 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,263,975 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,515,557 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,661,346 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,995,846 Green Arrow Up.svg 2,634,143 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,272,441 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,910,735 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,422,340
Outer London 131,666 Green Arrow Up.svg 157,640 Green Arrow Up.svg 186,147 Green Arrow Up.svg 214,392 Green Arrow Up.svg 255,667 Green Arrow Up.svg 290,763 Green Arrow Up.svg 460,248 Green Arrow Up.svg 629,737 Green Arrow Up.svg 799,225 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,143,516
Greater London 1,011,157 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,197,673 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,450,122 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,729,949 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,917,013 Green Arrow Up.svg 2,286,609 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,094,391 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,902,178 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,709,960 Green Arrow Up.svg 5,565,856
Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991
Inner London Green Arrow Up.svg 4,670,177 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,997,741 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,936,803 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,887,932 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,224,135 Red Arrow Down.svg 3,680,821 Red Arrow Down.svg 3,336,557 Red Arrow Down.svg 3,030,490 Red Arrow Down.svg 2,425,534 Green Arrow Up.svg 2,625,245
Outer London Green Arrow Up.svg 1,556,317 Green Arrow Up.svg 2,160,134 Green Arrow Up.svg 2,616,723 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,211,010 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,763,801 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,483,595 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,444,785 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,418,694 Red Arrow Down.svg 4,182,979 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,262,035
Greater London Green Arrow Up.svg 6,226,494 Green Arrow Up.svg 7,157,875 Green Arrow Up.svg 7,553,526 Green Arrow Up.svg 8,098,942 Red Arrow Down.svg 7,987,936 Green Arrow Up.svg 8,164,416 Red Arrow Down.svg 7,781,342 Red Arrow Down.svg 7,449,184 Red Arrow Down.svg 6,608,513 Green Arrow Up.svg 6,887,280
Year 2001 2011[4]
Inner London Green Arrow Up.svg 2,765,975 Green Arrow Up.svg 3,231,900
Outer London Green Arrow Up.svg 4,406,061 Green Arrow Up.svg 4,942,100
Greater London Green Arrow Up.svg 7,172,036 Green Arrow Up.svg 8,173,900
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18011,011,157—    
18111,197,673+1.71%
18211,450,122+1.93%
18311,729,949+1.78%
18411,917,013+1.03%
18512,286,609+1.78%
18613,094,391+3.07%
18713,902,178+2.35%
18814,709,960+1.90%
18915,565,856+1.68%
19016,226,494+1.13%
19117,157,875+1.40%
19217,553,526+0.54%
19318,098,942+0.70%
19417,987,936−0.14%
19518,164,416+0.22%
19617,781,342−0.48%
19717,449,184−0.44%
19816,608,513−1.19%
19916,887,280+0.41%
20017,172,036+0.41%
20118,173,941+1.32%
20168,787,892+1.46%

ethnicity by borough[edit]

This table shows the proportion of each main race by London borough, as found in the 2011 census.

Local authority White Mixed Asian Black Other
Barnet 64.1 4.8 18.5 7.7 4.9
Barking and Dagenham 58.3 4.2 15.9 20 1.6
Bexley 81.9 2.3 6.6 8.5 0.8
Brent 36.3 5.1 34.1 18.8 5.8
Bromley 84.3 3.5 5.2 6 0.9
Camden 66.3 5.6 16.1 8.2 3.8
City of London 78.6 3.9 12.7 2.6 2.1
Croydon 55.1 6.6 16.4 20.2 1.8
Ealing 49 4.5 29.7 10.9 6
Enfield 61 5.5 11.2 17.2 5.1
Greenwich 62.5 4.8 11.7 19.1 1.9
Hackney 54.7 6.4 10.5 23.1 5.3
Haringey 60.5 6.5 9.5 18.8 4.7
Harrow 42.2 4 42.6 8.2 2.9
Havering 87.7 2.1 4.9 4.8 0.6
Hammersmith and Fulham 68.1 5.5 9.1 11.8 5.5
Hillingdon 60.6 3.8 25.3 7.3 3
Hounslow 51.4 4.1 34.4 6.6 3.6
Islington 68.2 6.5 9.2 12.8 3.4
Kensington and Chelsea 70.6 5.7 10 6.5 7.2
Kingston upon Thames 74.5 3.9 16.3 2.5 2.7
Lambeth 57.1 7.6 6.9 25.9 2.4
Lewisham 53.5 7.4 9.3 27.2 2.6
Merton 64.9 4.7 18.1 10.4 1.9
Newham 29 4.5 43.5 19.6 3.5
Redbridge 42.5 4.1 41.8 8.9 2.7
Richmond upon Thames 86 3.6 7.3 1.5 1.6
Southwark 54.3 6.2 9.4 26.9 3.3
Sutton 78.6 3.8 11.6 4.8 1.3
Tower Hamlets 45.2 4.1 41.1 7.3 2.3
Waltham Forest 52.2 5.3 21.1 17.3 4.1
Wandsworth 71.4 5 10.9 10.7 2.1
Westminster 61.7 5.2 14.5 7.5 11.1
Illustrated London Boroughs maps showing the percentage of races in each borough, according to the 2011 census
White
White
Asian
Asian
Black
Black

Ethnicity[edit]

The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 census in Greater London.

Ethnic Group 1991[5] 2001[6] 2011[7] Change 2001-2011
Number % Number % Number % %
White: British[Note 1] 4,287,861 59.79% 3,669,284 44.89%
Decrease14.43%
White: Irish 256,470 3.83% 220,488 3.07% 175,974 2.15%
Decrease20.19%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller[Note 2] 8,196 0.10%
n/a
White: Other[Note 3] 594,854 8.29% 1,033,981 12.65%
Increase73.82%
White: Total 5,333,580 79.80% 5,103,203 71.15% 4,887,435 59.79%
Decrease4.23%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 347,091 5.19% 436,993 6.09% 542,857 6.64%
Increase24.24%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 87,816 1.31% 142,749 1.99% 223,797 2.74%
Increase56.78%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 85,738 1.28% 153,893 2.15% 222,127 2.72%
Increase44.34%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese[Note 4] 56,579 0.84% 80,201 1.12% 124,250 1.52%
Increase54.92%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 112,807 1.68% 133,058 1.86% 398,515 4.88%
Increase199.51%
Asian or Asian British: Total 690,031 10.33% 946,894 13.20% 1,511,546 18.49%
Increase59.63%
Black or Black British: African 163,635 2.44% 378,933 5.28% 573,931 7.02%
Increase51.46%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 290,968 4.35% 343,567 4.79% 344,597 4.22%
Increase0.3%
Black or Black British: Other Black 80,613 1.20% 60,349 0.84% 170,112 2.08%
Increase181.88%
Black or Black British: Total 535,216 8.01% 782,849 10.92% 1,088,640 13.32%
Increase39.06%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 70,928 0.99% 119,425 1.46%
Increase68.38%
Mixed: White and Black African 34,182 0.48% 65,479 0.80%
Increase91.56%
Mixed: White and Asian 59,944 0.84% 101,500 1.24%
Increase69.33%
Mixed: Other Mixed 61,057 0.85% 118,875 1.45%
Increase94.70%
Mixed: Total[Note 5] 226,111 3.15% 405,279 4.96%
Increase79.24%
Other: Arab[Note 6] 106,020 1.30%
n/a
Other: Any other ethnic group 113,034 1.58% 175,021 2.14%
Increase54.84%
Other: Total 120,872 1.81% 113,034 1.58% 281,041 3.44%
Increase148.63%
Total 6,679,699 100.00% 7,172,091 100.00% 8,173,941 100.00%
Increase13.97%
  1. ^ New category created for the 2001 census
  2. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
  3. ^ New category created for the 2001 census
  4. ^ In 2001, listed under the 'Other ethnic group' heading.
  5. ^ New category created for the 2001 census
  6. ^ New category created for the 2011 census

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000 in London.[8]

Country of birth[edit]

2011 United Kingdom Census[9]
Country of birth Population
United Kingdom United Kingdom 5,175,677
India India 262,247
Poland Poland 158,300
Republic of Ireland Ireland 129,807
Nigeria Nigeria 114,718
Pakistan Pakistan 112,457
Bangladesh Bangladesh 109,948
Jamaica Jamaica 87,467
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 84,542
France France 66,654
Somalia Somalia 65,333
Kenya Kenya 64,212
United States United States 63,920
Ghana Ghana 62,896
Italy Italy 62,050
Turkey Turkey 59,596
South Africa South Africa 57,765
Germany Germany 55,476
Australia Australia 53,959
Romania Romania 44,848
Philippines Philippines 44,199
Cyprus Cyprus 43,428
Portugal Portugal 41,041
Lithuania Lithuania 39,817
China China 39,452
Afghanistan Afghanistan 37,680
Iran Iran 37,339
Spain Spain 35,880
Uganda Uganda 32,136
Brazil Brazil 31,357

The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population are foreign-born (including 24.5% born in a non-European country) making London the city with the second largest immigrant population, behind New York City, in terms of absolute numbers. The table to the right shows the most common countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[10]

Languages[edit]

According to the 2011 Census, 6,083,420 or 77.9% of London's population aged 3 and over spoke English as a main language, with a further 1,406,912 (19.8%) speaking it as a second language or well to very well.[11] 271,693 (3.5%) could not speak English well, while 47,917 (0.6%) could not speak English at all.[11] 2,456 (<0.1%) spoke other UK minority languages, with the most common being Welsh and 2,926 (<0.1%) used British Sign Language.[12] This shows also great challenges for TfL and other government services, for example most ticket vending machines use only English, French and up to 2 other western Europe hemisphere languages, while as shown below most demand is for Indian languages, Polish etc.

The most common main languages spoken in Greater London according to the 2011 census are shown below.[13]

Rank Language Usual residents aged 3+ Proportion
1 English 6,083,420 77.90%
2 Polish 147,816 1.90%
3 Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya) 114,267 1.50%
4 Gujarati 101,676 1.30%
5 French 84,191 1.10%
6 Urdu 78,667 1.00%
7 Portuguese 71,525 0.90%
8 Turkish 71,242 0.90%
9 Spanish 71,192 0.90%
10 Arabic 70,602 0.90%
11 Tamil 70,565 0.90%
12 Punjabi 68,525 0.90%
13 Somali 54,852 0.70%
14 Italian 49,484 0.60%
15 Romanian 39,653 0.50%
16 Persian 39,645 0.50%
17 Lithuanian 35,341 0.50%
18 German 31,306 0.40%
19 Greek 26,924 0.30%
20 Russian 26,603 0.30%
Other 441,968 5.66%

Religion[edit]

The following table shows the religion of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 censuses in Greater London.

Religion 2001[14] 2011[15]
Number % Number %
Christian 4,176,175 58.23% 3,957,984 48.42%
No religion 1,130,616 15.76% 1,694,372 20.73%
Muslim 607,083 8.46% 1,012,823 12.39%
Religion not stated 621,366 8.66% 692,739 8.47%
Hindu 291,977 4.07% 411,291 5.03%
Jewish 149,789 2.09% 148,602 1.82%
Sikh 104,230 1.45% 126,134 1.54%
Buddhist 54,297 0.76% 82,026 1.00%
Other religion 36,558 0.51% 47,970 0.59%
Total 7,172,091 100.00% 8,173,941 100.00%

Eurostat NUTS[edit]

In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), London is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKI", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code
London UKI Inner London UKI1 West Inner London (City of London, Camden, Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Wandsworth, Westminster) UKI11
NUTS 3 regions of London map.svg East Inner London (Hackney, Haringey, Islington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets) UKI12
Outer London UKI2 East and North East Outer London (Barking and Dagenham, Bexley, Enfield, Greenwich, Havering, Redbridge, Waltham Forest) UKI21
South Outer London (Bromley, Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton, Sutton) UKI22
West and North West Outer London (Barnet, Brent, Ealing, Harrow, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames) UKI23

Urban and metropolitan area[edit]

At the 2001 census, the population of the Greater London Urban Area was 8,278,251.[16] This area does not include some outliers within Greater London, but does extend into the adjacent South East England and East of England regions. In 2004 the London Plan of the Mayor of London defined a metropolitan region with a population of 18 million.[17] Eurostat has developed a harmonising standard for comparing metropolitan areas in the European Union and the population of the London Larger Urban Zone is 11,917,000; it occupies an area of 8,920 square kilometres (3,440 sq mi). Another definition gives the population of the metropolitan area as 13,709,000.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  2. ^ "Outer London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  3. ^ "Inner London through time: Population Statistics: Total Population". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  5. ^ "1991 census – theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "2001 census – theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  8. ^ Benedictus, Leo (25 January 2005). "Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  9. ^ "Table QS213EW 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Kyambi, Sarah (7 September 2005). Beyond Black and White: Mapping New Immigrant Communities. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 1-86030-284-X. 
  11. ^ a b "Proficiency in English, 2011 (QS205EW)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 
  12. ^ "Main Language (detailed), 2011 (QS204EW)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 
  13. ^ "Download:local authorities: county / unitary". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "2001 census – theme tables". Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Religion by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. 
  17. ^ Mayor of London. "The London Plan". Greater London Authority. 
  18. ^ "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Archived from the original (pdf) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2010.