Demographics of Mali

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Demographics of Mali
Mali single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Mali in 2020
Population20,741,769 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.95% (2022 est.)
Birth rate41.07 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy62.41 years
 • male60.19 years
 • female64.7 years
Fertility rate5.54 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate60.64 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-3.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years47.69%
65 and over3.02%
Nationality
NationalityMalian
Language
OfficialFrench

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mali, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Mali's population (1961-2003)

Population[edit]

In 2021, Mali's population was an estimated 21.9 million[1][2], with an annual growth rate of 2.7%.[3] This figure can be compared to 4,638,000 in 1950.[4] The population is predominantly rural (68% in 2002), and 5–10% of Malians are nomadic.[5] More than 90% of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents.[5]

In 2007, about 48% of Malians were less than 15 years old, 49% were 15–64 years old, and 3% were 65 and older.[3] The median age was 15.9 years.[3] The birth rate in 2007 was 49.6 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate was 7.4 children per woman.[3]

The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths per 1,000.[3] Life expectancy at birth was 49.5 years total (47.6 for males and 51.5 for females).[3] Mali has one of the world's highest rates of infant mortality,[5] with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births.[3]

The proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 47.2%.[4] 50.6% of the population were aged between 15 and 65 years of age. 2.2% of the population were aged 65 years or older.[4]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4 638 000 38.9 58.3 2.8
1955 4 928 000 40.1 57.4 2.5
1960 5 248 000 40.5 57.2 2.3
1965 5 597 000 41.5 56.2 2.3
1970 6 034 000 42.3 55.2 2.4
1975 6 604 000 43.3 54.1 2.6
1980 7 246 000 44.6 52.6 2.8
1985 8 010 000 45.8 51.3 2.9
1990 8 673 000 47.5 49.5 3.0
1995 9 825 000 47.4 49.9 2.8
2000 11 295 000 47.2 50.3 2.5
2005 13 177 000 47.1 50.6 2.3
2010 15 370 000 47.2 50.6 2.2

Structure of the population[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

Structure of the population (01.04.2009) (Census, Complete tabulation):[6]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 7 204 990 7 323 672 14 528 662 100
0-4 1 328 871 1 294 514 2 623 385 18.06
5-9 1 202 875 1 154 948 2 357 823 16.23
10-14 918 866 865 138 1 784 004 12.28
15-19 732 526 783 620 1 516 146 10.44
20-24 529 535 612 368 1 141 903 7.86
25-29 449 099 546 603 995 702 6.85
30-34 385 003 427 795 812 798 5.59
35-39 325 005 326 894 651 949 4.49
40-44 271 239 275 364 546 603 3.76
45-49 228 626 217 261 445 887 3.07
50-54 189 424 192 382 381 806 2.63
55-59 148 594 134 083 282 677 1.95
60-64 127 557 123 461 251 018 1.73
65-69 88 292 77 082 165 374 1.14
70-74 67 319 66 063 133 382 0.92
75-79 40 904 36 197 77 101 0.53
80+ 41 992 43 602 85 594 0.59
unknown 129 213 146 297 275 510 1.90
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 3 450 612 3 314 600 6 765 212 46.56
15-64 3 386 658 3 639 831 7 026 489 48.36
65+ 238 507 222 944 461 451 3.18

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2018):[7]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 9 631 376 9 786 721 19 418 097 100
0–4 1 824 718 1 854 149 3 678 867 18.95
5–9 1 481 610 1 505 507 2 987 117 15.38
10–14 1 235 790 1 255 722 2 491 512 12.83
15–19 1 027 744 1 044 321 2 072 065 10.67
20–24 872 370 886 440 1 758 810 9.06
25–29 740 900 752 850 1 493 750 7.69
30–34 608 309 618 121 1 226 430 6.32
35–39 481 340 489 104 970 444 5.00
40–44 363 798 369 665 733 463 3.78
45–49 270 771 275 138 545 909 2.81
50–54 211 869 215 287 427 156 2.20
55–59 172 475 175 257 347 731 1.79
60–64 127 886 129 949 257 835 1.33
65-69 103 184 104 848 208 033 1.07
70-74 60 828 61 809 122 637 0.63
75-79 31 964 32 479 64 443 0.33
80+ 15 820 16 075 31 895 0.16
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 4 542 118 4 615 378 9 157 496 47.16
15–64 4 877 462 4 956 132 9 833 594 50.64
65+ 211 796 215 211 427 007 2.20

Ethnic groups[edit]

A family in Djenné, Mali.

Ethnic groups include:[8]

33.3% Bambara
13.3% Fula
 9.8% Soninke
 9.6% Senufo / Bwa / Malinke
 8.7% Dogon
 5.9% Songhai
 1.7% Tuareg
 6.1% Bobo
11.6% Others

Mali's population consists of Sub-Saharan ethnic groups, sharing similar historic, cultural, and religious traditions. Exceptions are two nomadic northern groups, the Tuaregs, a Berber people, and Maurs (or Moors), of Arabo-Berber origins. In Mali and Niger, the Moors are also known as Azawagh Arabs, named after the Azawagh region of the Sahara.[9] Azawagh Arabs speak mainly Hassaniya Arabic which is one of the regional varieties of Arabic.[10]

The Tuaregs traditionally have opposed the central government. Starting in June 1990 in the north, Tuaregs seeking greater autonomy led to clashes with the military. In April 1992, the government and most opposing factions signed a pact to end the fighting and restore stability in the north. Its major aims are to allow greater autonomy to the north and increase government resource allocation to what has been a traditionally impoverished region. The peace agreement was celebrated in 1996 in Timbuktu during an official and highly publicized ceremony called "Flamme de la Paix"--(peace flame).

Historically, interethnic relations throughout the rest of the country were facilitated by easy mobility on the Niger River and across the country's vast savannahs. Each ethnic group was traditionally tied to a specific occupation, all working within proximity to each other, although the distinctions were often blurred.

The Bambara, Malinké, Sarakole, Dogon and Songhay are farmers; the Fula or Fulani, Maur, and Tuareg are herders, while the Bozo are fishers. In recent years this linkage has shifted considerably, as ethnic groups seek nontraditional sources of income.

Europeans in Mali[edit]

People of European origin form a small minority in the country. They include those of mixed European and African descendant, as well as those of full European background. The latter includes the French, as well as the Spanish, Irish, Italian and Portuguese origins. Some of them descend from the Arma people (1% of the nation's population). They mainly live in Bamako, Sikasso, Kalabancoro, Koutiala, Ségou, Kayes, Kati, Mopti, Niono, Gao, San, Koro, Bla, Bougouni, Mandé, Baguineda-Camp, Kolondiéba, Kolokani, and others.[11]

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Mali is not complete. The website Our World in Data prepared the following estimates based on statistics from the Population Department of the United Nations.[12]

Mid-year population (thousands) Live births (thousands) Deaths (thousands) Natural change (thousands) Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) Life expectancy (in years)
1950 4 695   245   176   69 52.2 37.5 14.7 6.96 211.1 28.17
1951   4 760   247   178   69 51.8 37.3 14.6 6.96 210.2 28.29
1952   4 825   249   178   70 51.5 36.9 14.6 6.95 208.4 28.53
1953   4 888   250   179   72 51.1 36.5 14.6 6.95 206.9 28.76
1954   4 951   252   179   73 50.8 36.1 14.7 6.94 205.5 28.97
1955   5 015   254   180   74 50.5 35.8 14.7 6.94 204.3 29.13
1956   5 079   256   180   76 50.4 35.5 14.9 6.94 203.3 29.37
1957   5 145   259   182   77 50.2 35.3 15.0 6.95 202.5 29.47
1958   5 209   262   183   79 50.2 35.1 15.1 6.95 201.8 29.59
1959   5 275   267   185   81 50.5 35.1 15.4 6.99 201.2 29.65
1960   5 347   270   187   83 50.5 35.0 15.5 7.00 200.6 29.75
1961   5 420   274   189   84 50.4 34.9 15.5 7.00 200.0 29.83
1962   5 495   277   191   86 50.4 34.8 15.6 7.02 199.3 29.94
1963   5 570   281   193   88 50.4 34.6 15.8 7.03 198.4 30.15
1964   5 647   285   194   91 50.4 34.3 16.1 7.05 197.3 30.42
1965   5 726   290   195   94 50.5 34.1 16.4 7.08 195.8 30.62
1966   5 807   294   197   97 50.6 33.9 16.7 7.10 194.0 30.87
1967   5 888   299   198   101 50.6 33.6 17.1 7.13 191.8 31.21
1968   5 974   303   198   105 50.7 33.1 17.5 7.15 189.4 31.63
1969   6 062   306   199   108 50.4 32.7 17.7 7.17 186.9 32.05
1970   6 154   310   198   112 50.4 32.2 18.2 7.18 183.9 32.53
1971   6 248   315   199   116 50.4 31.8 18.6 7.20 181.3 32.94
1972   6 347   320   196   124 50.3 30.8 19.5 7.20 177.8 33.86
1973   6 455   326   195   131 50.4 30.2 20.3 7.21 174.8 34.57
1974   6 569   332   193   139 50.4 29.3 21.1 7.23 171.9 35.43
1975   6 687   338   192   146 50.5 28.6 21.9 7.24 169.0 36.23
1976   6 808   344   189   155 50.4 27.7 22.7 7.25 165.5 37.20
1977   6 935   350   187   163 50.4 26.9 23.5 7.28 162.0 38.11
1978   7 073   357   185   172 50.4 26.1 24.3 7.30 158.5 39.06
1979   7 218   365   183   182 50.5 25.3 25.2 7.32 155.0 39.95
1980   7 373   372   182   190 50.3 24.7 25.7 7.33 151.5 40.75
1981   7 533   379   183   195 50.1 24.3 25.9 7.32 148.2 41.22
1982   7 696   383   183   200 49.6 23.7 25.9 7.27 144.6 41.82
1983   7 864   387   184   204 49.1 23.3 25.8 7.23 141.2 42.14
1984   8 030   394   183   210 48.9 22.8 26.1 7.22 138.0 42.70
1985   8 188   399   183   216 48.5 22.3 26.2 7.21 134.9 43.21
1986   8 335   405   181   224 48.3 21.6 26.7 7.24 131.7 43.98
1987   8 474   408   179   229 47.8 21.0 26.9 7.25 128.9 44.69
1988   8 617   413   176   237 47.7 20.4 27.3 7.26 126.3 45.39
1989   8 774   416   176   241 47.2 19.9 27.3 7.28 123.8 45.88
1990   8 945   419   173   246 46.7 19.3 27.4 7.25 121.8 46.62
1991   9 124   430   172   258 47.0 18.8 28.2 7.23 119.8 47.22
1992   9 311   437   173   263 46.7 18.5 28.2 7.18 118.1 47.50
1993   9 507   443   174   269 46.4 18.3 28.1 7.12 116.5 47.73
1994   9 712   452   177   275 46.4 18.2 28.2 7.07 115.2 47.74
1995   9 921   455   179   275 45.7 18.0 27.7 6.99 113.6 47.82
1996   10 132   464   182   282 45.7 17.9 27.8 6.95 112.1 47.79
1997   10 359   477   180   297 45.9 17.4 28.6 6.91 110.0 48.53
1998   10 620   492   180   312 46.2 16.9 29.3 6.89 107.9 49.16
1999   10 917   513   180   333 47.0 16.5 30.5 6.88 105.5 49.80
2000   11 239   530   180   350 47.1 16.0 31.1 6.87 102.8 50.54
2001   11 584   549   180   369 47.3 15.5 31.8 6.85 100.0 51.28
2002   11 953   568   178   390 47.5 14.9 32.6 6.82 97.1 52.22
2003   12 342   588   178   410 47.6 14.4 33.2 6.78 94.2 52.89
2004   12 752   611   179   432 47.9 14.0 33.9 6.74 91.4 53.54
2005   13 181   633   180   453 48.0 13.7 34.3 6.72 88.7 54.00
2006   13 624   649   180   469 47.6 13.2 34.4 6.69 86.2 54.62
2007   14 081   666   182   484 47.3 12.9 34.4 6.66 83.7 54.94
2008   14 551   684   184   501 47.0 12.6 34.4 6.64 81.2 55.29
2009   15 033   705   183   521 46.8 12.2 34.6 6.61 78.8 55.87
2010   15 529   724   184   541 46.6 11.8 34.8 6.58 76.5 56.38
2011   16 040   743   185   558 46.2 11.5 34.7 6.55 74.2 56.76
2012   16 515   762   186   576 45.9 11.2 34.7 6.52 72.0 57.08
2013   17 004   771   186   585 45.3 10.9 34.3 6.49 70.0 57.36
2014   17 552   788   185   602 44.8 10.5 34.2 6.44 67.8 57.90
2015   18 113   804   185   619 44.3 10.2 34.1 6.39 65.8 58.36
2016   18 700   820   186   634 43.8 9.9 33.9 6.32 63.9 58.73
2017   19 311   839   186   652 43.4 9.6 33.7 6.25 62.1 59.13
2018   19 934   856   188   668 42.9 9.4 33.5 6.18 60.4 59.39
2019   20 567   873   190   683 42.4 9.2 33.2 6.10 58.7 59.66
2020   21 224   892   202   689 42.0 9.5 32.5 6.04 57.1 58.63
2021   21 905   913   203   710 41.6 9.3 32.4 5.96 55.4 58.94

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[13]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-1983 7.10 6.85 7.17
1984-1986 6.73 6.09 6.97
1995-1996 45.1 6.7 (6.0) 39.9 5.4 (4.8) 47.2 7.3 (6.6)
2001 45.1 6.8 (6.1) 42.1 5.5 (4.8) 45.9 7.3 (6.6)
2006 45.2 6.6 (6.0) 41.8 5.4 (5.1) 46.6 7.2 (6.5)
2012-2013 38.8 6.1 (5.3) 36.7 5.0 (4.3) 39.2 6.5 (5.6)
2018 40.9 6.3 (5.5) 36.3 4.9 (4.2) 42.3 6.8 (6.0)

Fertility data as of 2012-2013 (DHS Program):[14]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Kayes 6.0 11.3 6.0
Koulikoro 6.0 14.3 5.8
Sikasso 6.6 11.5 6.2
Ségou 6.1 12.2 6.1
Mopti 6.5 11.7 5.9
Bamako 5.1 6.5 5.1

Immigration and emigration[edit]

Mali had an estimated net migration rate of –6.6 migrants per 1,000 people in 2006.[15] About 3 million Malians are believed to reside in Côte d'Ivoire and France. Conversely, according to a 2003 estimate, Mali hosts about 11,000 Mauritanians; most are Fulani herders who routinely engage in cross-border migration. In addition, there are several thousand refugees from Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Liberia in Bamako and other urban areas of Mali.[5]

Demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[16]

  • One birth every 37 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 13 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 51 seconds

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[17] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

20,741,769 (2022 est.)
18,429,893 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Mali in 2020
0-14 years: 47.69% (male 4,689,121/female 4,636,685)
15-24 years: 19% (male 1,768,772/female 1,945,582)
25-54 years: 26.61% (male 2,395,566/female 2,806,830)
55-64 years: 3.68% (male 367,710/female 352,170)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 293,560/female 297,401) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 48.03% (male 4,449,790 /female 4,402,076)
15-24 years: 18.89% (male 1,657,609 /female 1,823,453)
25-54 years: 26.36% (male 2,243,158 /female 2,615,695)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 346,003 /female 335,733)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 277,834 /female 278,542) (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

41.07 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 4th
43.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 3rd

Death rate[edit]

8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 73rd
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 45th

Total fertility rate[edit]

5.54 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 4th
5.9 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 5th

Population growth rate[edit]

2.95% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 11th
2.98% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th

Median age[edit]

total: 16 years. Country comparison to the world: 224th
male: 15.3 years
female: 16.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 15.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 127th
male: 15.2 years
female: 16.5 years (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.2 years (2018 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 20-49
18.8 years (2012/13 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

17.2% (2018)
15.6% (2015)

Net migration rate[edit]

-3.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 181st
-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 181st

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 101.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 96.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 45.4% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.57% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 42.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 62.41 years. Country comparison to the world: 211st
male: 60.19 years
female: 64.7 years (2022 est.)
total population: 60.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 58.6 years (2018 est.)
female: 63 years (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Education expenditures[edit]

3.4% of GDP (2019) Country comparison to the world: 131st

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 35.5%
male: 46.2%
female: 25.7% (2018)
total population: 33.1% (2015 est.)
male: 45.1% (2015 est.)
female: 22.2% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 2.4%
male: 2.6%
female: 2.3% (2018 est.)

Languages[edit]

Although each ethnic group speaks a separate language, nearly 80% of Malians communicate over ethnic borders in Bambara, which is the common language of the marketplace. French is the country's official language and is spoken somewhat by 30% of Malians.

Religion[edit]

An estimated 95% of Malians are Sunni Muslim, 4% adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs, and 1% are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant).[3][5] Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a daily basis.[5] Islam as practiced in Mali can be moderate, tolerant, and adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of minority religious faiths are generally amicable.[5] The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right.[5]

Health[edit]

Life expectancy in Mali

Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. In 2000 only 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some kind; only 8 percent was estimated to have access to modern sanitation facilities. Only 20 percent of the nation’s villages and livestock watering holes had modern water facilities.[5]

There were an estimated 140,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reported in 2003, and an estimated 1.9 percent of the adult population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (see also HIV/AIDS in Africa).[5] In the same year, there were 12,000 AIDS deaths. The infant mortality rate is 69.5 deaths/1,000 live births (75.3/1,000 among males and 63.5/1,000 among females) (2017 est.). Life expectancy at birth is 60.3 years (58.2 years among males and 62.5 years among females) (2017 est.).

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[18]
1950–1955 26.96
1955–1960 Increase 27.98
1960–1965 Increase 28.61
1965–1970 Increase 30.79
1970–1975 Increase 34.20
1975–1980 Increase 37.71
1980–1985 Increase 41.55
1985–1990 Increase 44.51
1990–1995 Increase 46.57
1995–2000 Increase 46.75
2000–2005 Increase 49.96
2005–2010 Increase 54.03
2010–2015 Increase 56.24

Education[edit]

In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was 61% (71% of males and 51% of females). The primary school completion rate is also low: only 36 percent of students in 2003 (and lower for females). The majority of students reportedly leave school by age 12. In the late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15% percent (20% of males and 10% of females).[5]

According to United States government estimates, the adult literacy rate (defined as those over age 15 who can read and write) was 46.4 percent for the total population in 2003 (53.5 percent for males and 39.6 percent for females). According to United Nations sources, however, the literacy rate is actually much lower—only 27–30 percent overall and as low as 12 percent for females, among the lowest rates in Africa.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h CIA world factbook.
  4. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mali country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  7. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  8. ^ "Africa :: MALI". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.
  9. ^ For an introduction to the culture of the Azawagh Arabs, see Rebecca Popenoe, Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6
  10. ^ Popenoe (2003), p. 16-17.
  11. ^ Fage, J. D.; Oliver, Roland Anthony (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. ISBN 9780521204132.
  12. ^ "Population & Demography Data Explorer". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  13. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  14. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDSM-V) 2012-2013" (PDF). Mali Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDSM-V).
  15. ^ CIA factbook
  16. ^ "Mali Population 2022", World Population Review
  17. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from "Mali". World Factbook (2022 ed.). CIA. 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2022. (Archived 2018 edition)
  18. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.

Further reading[edit]