Demographics of New Brunswick

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Canada New Brunswick Density 2016

New Brunswick is one of Canada's three provinces of the Maritimes, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. The provincial Department of Finance estimates that the province's population in 2006 was 729,997 of which the majority is English-speaking but with a substantial French-speaking minority of mostly Acadian origin.[1]

First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians are descendants of French settlers and also some of the Indigenous peoples of Acadia, a French colony in what is today Nova Scotia. The Acadians were expelled by the British (1755) for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George II which drove several thousand Acadian residents into exile in North America, the UK and France during the French and Indian War. (Those American Acadians who wound up in Louisiana, and other parts of the American South, are often referred to as Cajuns, although some Cajuns are not of Acadian origin.) In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick,[2] due to the British prohibiting them from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia.

Many of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick are descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the province, with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. A small population of Danish origin may be found in New Denmark in the northwest of the province.

Population history[edit]

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
Provinces
1824 74,176 n/a n/a n/a
1834 119,457 n/a 61.0 n/a
1841 156,162 n/a n/a n/a
1851 193,800 n/a 24.1 n/a
1861 252,047 n/a 30.0 n/a
1871 285,594 n/a 13.3 4
1881 321,233 n/a 12.5 4
1891 321,263 n/a 0.0 4
1901 331,120 n/a 3.1 4
1911 351,889 n/a 6.3 8
1921 387,876 n/a 10.2 8
1931 408,219 n/a 5.2 8
1941 457,401 n/a 12.0 8
1951 515,697 n/a 12.7 8
1956 554,616 7.5 n/a 8
1961 597,936 7.8 15.9 8
1966 616,788 3.2 11.2 8
1971 634,560 2.9 6.9 8
1976 677,250 6.7 9.8 8
1981 696,403 2.8 9.7 8
1986 709,445 1.9 4.8 8
1991 723,900 2.0 3.9 8
1996 738,133 2.0 4.0 8
2001 729,498 -1.2 0.8 8
2006 729,997 0.1 -1.1 8
2011 751,171 2.9 3.0 8
2016 747,101 -0.5 2.3 8

Source:[3] Statistics Canada [4][5]

Population geography[edit]

City Metropolitan Areas[edit]

City 2011 2006 Land Area km² Density /km²
Greater Moncton 138,644 126,424 2,406.31 57.6
Greater Saint John 127,761 122,389 3,362.95 38.0
Greater Fredericton 94,268 85,688 4,886.40 19.3
Greater Bathurst 33,484 34,106 2,292.80 14.6
Greater Miramichi 28,115 28,773 7,578.30 3.7
Greater Edmundston 21,903 22,471 916.85 23.9
Greater Campbellton 17,842 17,878 1,629.94 10.9

Cities and towns[edit]

Town Population (2011) Population Ranking Land Area km² Area Ranking Density /km² Density Ranking
Bathurst 12,275 9 91.86 6 133.6 24
Beresford 4,351 20 19.20 17 226.6 18
Bouctouche 2,423 26 18.34 19 132.1 25
Campbellton 7,385 12 18.66 18 395.7 9
Caraquet 4,169 23 68.26 8 61.1 35
Dalhousie 3,512 24 14.51 23 242.1 17
Dieppe 23,310 4 54.11 11 430.8 6
Edmundston 16,032 8 107.00 5 149.8 23
Florenceville-Bristol 1,639 29 15.61 22 105.0 29
Fredericton 56,224 3 131.67 4 427.0 7
Grand Bay–Westfield 5,117 17 59.86 9 85.5 33
Grand Falls 5,706 14 18.05 20 315.9 13
Hampton 4,292 22 21.00 16 204.3 21
Hartland 947 35 9.63 30 98.4 31
Lamèque 1,432 31 12.45 28 115.1 27
Miramichi 17,811 7 179.93 2 99.0 30
McAdam 1,404 32 14.47 24 97.02 32
Moncton 69,074 2 141.17 3 489.3 2
Nackawic 1,049 34 8.40 32 124.9 26
Oromocto 8,932 11 22.37 15 399.2 8
Quispamsis 17,886 6 57.06 10 313.5 14
Richibucto 1,286 33 11.83 27 108.7 28
Riverview 19,128 5 33.88 13 564.6 1
Rothesay 11,947 10 34.77 12 343.6 12
Sackville 5,558 15 74.32 7 74.8 34
Saint Andrews 1,889 28 8.35 33 226.2 19
Saint John 70,063 1 315.82 1 221.8 20
Saint-Léonard 1,343 32 5.20 34 258.3 16
Saint-Quentin 2,095 27 4.30 35 486.7 3
Shediac 6,053 13 12.50 26 484.4 4
Shippagan 2,603 25 9.94 29 261.9 15
St. George 1,543 30 16.13 21 95.6 32
St. Stephen 4,817 19 13.45 24 358.0 11
Sussex 4,312 21 9.03 31 477.4 5
Tracadie–Sheila 4,933 18 24.65 14 200.1 22
Woodstock 5,254 16 13.41 25 391.7 10

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic Origin Population Percent
English Canadian / Canadien 415,810 57.78%
French 193,470 26.8%
English 165,235 22.96%
Irish 135,835 18.87%
Scottish 127,635 17.73%
German 27,490 3.82%
Acadian 26,220 3.64%
First Nations 23,815 3.31%
Dutch (Netherlands) 13,355 1.86%
Welsh 7,620 1.06%
Italian 5,610 0.78%
Métis 4,955 0.69%
American (USA) 3,925 0.55%
Danish 3,390 0.47%


The information at the left is from Statistics Canada [6] Percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses e.g. "Danish-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "Danish" and the category "Canadian". Groups with more than 3,000 responses are included.

Visible minorities and Aboriginals[edit]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2016 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
European 676,790 92.6%
Visible minority group
Source:[7]
South Asian 2,535 0.3%
Chinese 3,925 0.5%
Black 7,000 1%
Filipino 1,980 0.3%
Latin American 1,285 0.2%
Arab 2,960 0.4%
Southeast Asian 1,230 0.2%
West Asian 730 0.1%
Korean 1,685 0.2%
Japanese 230 0%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 305 0%
Multiple visible minority 675 0.1%
Total visible minority population 24,535 3.4%
Aboriginal group
Source:[8]
First Nations 17,575 2.4%
Métis 10,200 1.4%
Inuit 385 0.1%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 750 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 470 0.1%
Total Aboriginal population 29,385 4%
Total population 730,710 100%

Languages[edit]

Knowledge of official languages of Canada in New Brunswick[9]
Language Percent
English only
57.15%
French only
8.58%
English and French
33.95%
Neither English nor French
0.32%

Compared to other provinces, New Brunswick has a relatively even split of French and English population. As a comparison, the minority language communities of Ontario and Quebec (Franco-Ontarians and English-speaking Quebecers respectively) make up less than 10% of those provinces' populations.[10] With both official language communities so strongly represented, New Brunswick is home to both French and English language hospitals and healthcare networks, school systems, universities, and media. The province also has a relatively high proportion of people who state that they can speak both official languages, with about 246,000 people, or 33.2% of the population reporting the ability to speak both English and French (though Francophones make up two-thirds of those who are bilingual).[11]

Language policy remains a perennial issue in New Brunswick society and politics. Recurring debates have arisen in regards to interpretation of the provincial bilingualism policy, duality (the system of parallel French and English speaking public services), and specifics of implementation. The extent of the provincial policy on bilingualism means that a new row is never far off in the New Brunswick news cycle.[12][13] The French-speaking community continues to advocate for full funding of French-language public services and fair representation in public sector employment, while some Anglophones (and Francophones) fear that the system of duality is financially inefficient and its extent is not worthwhile, or that the provincial governments targets for bilingualism in public employment are hurting their chances to work for the government, as Anglophones are less likely than Francophones to be proficient enough in both official languages to use them in employment.

The province's distribution of English and French is highly regional

The province's bilingual status is enshrined in both provincial and federal law. The Canadian Constitution makes specific mention of New Brunswick's bilingual status and defines the spirit of implementation as one based on both community and individual rights (in contrast with the constitutional protections for the other provinces that is limited to individuals, though this extends to "community" issues in terms of provision of schooling etc.). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms has a number of New Brunswick specific articles and makes specific mention of New Brunswick in each section relating to language (ex. Section 18 has two paragraphs, the first regarding bilingual publication of the Canadian Parliaments work and laws, the second specifying that New Brunswick's legislature will publish its work in both French and English). Of particular interest is Article 16.1, which declares that the French and English speaking communities of New Brunswick have equal rights and privileges, including community specific educational and cultural institutions. This specific distinction of linguistic community is important in that it recognizes not only the rights of individuals to use their language, but also demands that the two official language communities have their specific institutions upheld.

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 single responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were:[14]

New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. During the 19th century Scottish Gaelic was also spoken in the Campbellton and Dalhousie area. The language died out as a natively-spoken language in the province in the early 20th century.

In 2012, New Brunswick francophones scored lower on the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies than their anglophone counterparts in New Brunswick.[15]

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 singular responses to the question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

Ranking Language Population Percentage
1. English 479,930 65.58%
2. French 233,530 31.90%
3. Algonquian languages 2,125 0.29%
Mi'kmaq 2,115 0.29%
Cree language 10 0.001%
4. Chinese 1,825 0.25%
Mandarin 405 0.06%
Cantonese 225 0.03%
Taiwanese 5 0.001%
5. Korean 1,810 0.25%
6. German 1,805 0.25%
7. Arabic 1,325 0.18%
8. Spanish 1,135 0.16%
9. Dutch (Nederlands) 925 0.13%
10. Tagalog 585 0.08%
11. Hindustani 455 0.06%
Hindi 250 0.03%
Urdu 205 0.03%
12. Persian 450 0.06%
13. Italian 440 0.06%
14. Romanian 420 0.06%
15. Russian 355 0.05%
16. Vietnamese 285 0.04%
17. Serbo-Croatian languages 280 0.04%
Serbian 120 0.02%
Croatian 75 0.01%
Bosnian 40 0.01%
18. Polish 255 0.03%
19. Scandinavian languages 235 0.03%
Danish 145 0.01%
Norwegian 45 0.01%
Swedish 45 0.01%
20. Portuguese 220 0.03%
21. Bantu languages 200 0.03%
Swahili 140 0.02%
22. Bengali 180 0.02%
23. Hungarian (Magyar) 155 0.02%
24. Greek 140 0.02%

Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhere

There were also 45 single-language responses for Gujarati; 135 for Niger-Congo languages n.i.e.; 70 for Creole; 95 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 115 for Japanese; 30 for Indo-Iranian languages n.i.e.; 5 for Somali; 20 for Sinhala (Sinhalese); and 40 for Malayalam. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)[14]

Religion[edit]

Main Religious Denominations in New Brunswick[16][17]
2001 20111
Number % Number %
Total Population 719,715 100 735,835 100
Christian 647,295 89.9 616,910 83.8
- Total Catholic2 386,035 53.6 366,155 49.8
- Total Protestant 260,695 36.2 249,820 34.0
- Baptist 80,490 11.2 70,990 9.6
- United Church of Canada 69,235 9.6 54,270 7.4
- Anglican Church of Canada 58,210 8.1 51,365 7.0
- Pentecostal 20,150 2.8 18,435 2.5
- Protestant, Other3 24,200 2.6 45,910 6.2
- Presbyterian 6,900 1.0 7,770 1.1
- Lutheran 1,510 0.2 1080 0.1
- Christian Orthodox4 565 0.1 980 0.1
No Religious Affiliation 56,440 7.8 111,435 15.1
Other 5,295 0.7 7,495 1.0
- Muslim 1,275 0.2 2,640 0.4
- Other Religions5 1,970 0.3 1,915 0.3
- Jewish 670 0.1 620 0.1
- Buddhist 545 0.1 975 0.1
- Hindu 475 0.1 820 0.1
- Aboriginal Spirituality 360 0.1 525 0.1

1 The 2011 data is from the National Household Survey[17] and so numbers are estimates.
2Includes Roman Catholic and Ukrainian Catholic
3 Includes persons who report only "Protestant" and those who report "Christian", and those who report "Apostolic", "Born-again Christian" and "Evangelical" and those who report from all Protestant denominations with less than 0.05% of the population including those who report "Christian Reformed Church and those who report "Methodist" and those who report "Mennonite" and those who report "Christian Missionary Alliance" and those who report "Brethren in Christ" and those who report "Evangelical Missionary Church"
4 Includes persons who report "Orthodox". Also includes Greek Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Bulgarian Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox and Macedonian Orthodox
5 Includes persons who report all Religions with less than 0.05% of the population including Pagan, Wiccan and Sikh as well as persons who report only "non-denominational".

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 33,815 immigrants living in New Brunswick.

Immigrants in New Brunswick by country of birth (2016 Census)[18]
Rank Country Population % of total immigrants
1 United States 7,615 22.5%
2 United Kingdom 4,605 13.6%
3 China 2,210 6.5%
4 Germany 1,620 4.8%
5 South Korea 1,495 4.4%
6 Philippines 1,340 4%
7 Syria 1,230 3.6%
8 Netherlands 975 2.9%
9 India 820 2.4%
10 France 760 2.2%
11 Vietnam 720 2.1%
12 Iran 485 1.4%
12 Romania 485 1.4%
14 Lebanon 390 1.2%
15 Democratic Republic of the Congo 270 0.8%

Recent immigration[edit]

The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 9,325 people who immigrated to New Brunswick between 2011 and 2016.

Recent immigrants to New Brunswick by place of birth (2011 to 2016)[19]
Rank Country Population # % of recent immigrants
1 China 1,390 14.9%
2 Syria 1,145 12.3%
3 Philippines 925 9.9%
4 South Korea 600 6.4%
5 United States 580 6.2%
6 Vietnam 500 5.4%
7 France 295 3.2%
8 India 265 2.8%
9 Iran 255 2.7%
10 Romania 245 2.6%
11 United Kingdom 245 2.6%
12 Israel 200 2.1%
13 Democratic Republic of the Congo 155 1.7%
14 Lebanon 130 1.4%
15 Ukraine 100 1.1%

Interprovincial migration[edit]

Net cumulative interprovincial migration per Province from 1997 to 2017, as a share of population of each Provinces

New Brunswick has typically experienced less emigration than its size and economic situation would suggest, probably because of the low rate of emigration of its francophone population.[citation needed]

Interprovincial migration in New Brunswick
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2008–09 11,268 11,505 −237
2009–10 10,883 10,312 571
2010–11 10,167 10,325 −158
2011–12 10,044 11,850 −1,806
2012–13 8,517 11,807 −3,290
2013–14 9,055 12,572 −3,517
2014–15 9,184 11,974 −2,790
2015–16 10,248 11,361 −1,113
2016–17 10,136 9,702 434
2017–18 10,709 10,228 481
2018–19 11,945 11,339 606

Source: Statistics Canada

See also[edit]

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]

  1. ^ "French use declines at home and work as francophone numbers drop". CBC. 31 March 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  2. ^ "A scenic tour of New Brunswick's East Coast". WestJet Magazine. 2013-08-21. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  3. ^ Belshaw, John Douglas (2015). "10.2 Demographics". Canadian History: Pre-Confederation. BCCampus.
  4. ^ Population urban and rural, by province and territory (New Brunswick) Archived 2006-12-31 at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada, 2005.
  5. ^ Canada's population Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  6. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  7. ^ Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  8. ^ Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  9. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - New Brunswick [Province] and Nova Scotia [Province] - Language". statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  10. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory, excluding institutional residents (2011 Census) (New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario)". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  11. ^ "2014–2015 Annual Report, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages of New Brunswick" (PDF). p. 39.
  12. ^ "New Brunswick still debating language issues after 50 years of bilingualism | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  13. ^ "Liberals, PCs show fissures over bilingualism controversy". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  14. ^ a b Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census)
  15. ^ "Study: The literacy skills of New Brunswick francophones". Statistics Canada. 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
  16. ^ "96F0030XIE2001015 - Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  17. ^ a b "NHSNewBrunswick2011". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  18. ^ "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), New Brunswick, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
  19. ^ "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), New Brunswick, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".