Demographics of North Korea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Demographics of North Korea
North Korea single age population pyramid 2020.png
North Korea population pyramid in 2020
Population25.55 million (2018)
Density199.54 inhabitants / sq. km. (2008)
Growth rate0.84% (1993–2008)
Birth rate14.35 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.39 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Life expectancy71.65 years (2021 est.)
 • male67.79 years (2021 est.)
 • female75.74 years (2021 est.)
Fertility rate1.91 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Infant mortality rate22.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years23.19% (2008)
15–64 years68.09% (2008)
65 and over8.72% (2008)
Sex ratio
Total0.95 males/1.00 female (2008)
At birth1.04 males/1.00 female (2008)
Under 151.05 males/1.00 female (2008)
65 and over0.51 males/1.00 female (2008)
Major ethnicKorean (99.998%)
Minor ethnicChinese, Japanese, Russian[citation needed]
OfficialKorean (official)
Population of Korea 1910-2015

The demographics of North Korea are determined through national censuses and international estimates. The Central Bureau of Statistics of North Korea conducted the most recent census in 2008, where the population reached 24 million inhabitants.[1] The population density is 199.54 inhabitants per square kilometre, and the 2014 estimated life expectancy is 69.81 years. In 1980, the population rose at a near consistent, but low, rate (0.84% from the two censuses). Since 2000, North Korea's birth rate has exceeded its death rate; the natural growth is positive. In terms of age structure, the population is dominated by the 15–64-year-old segment (68.09%). The median age of the population is 32.9 years, and the gender ratio is 0.95 males to 1.00 female. Since the early 1990s, the birth rate has been fairly stable, with an average of 2 children per woman, down from an average of 3 in the early 1980s.[2]

According to The World Factbook, North Korea is racially homogeneous and contains a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese.[3] The 2008 census listed two nationalities: Korean (99.998%) and Other (0.002%). Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910, in which the Korean Peninsula was occupied by Japanese. In 1945, when Japan was defeated in World War II, Korea was divided into two occupied zones: North occupied by the Soviet Union and the South by the United States. Negotiations on unification failed, and in 1948 two separate countries were formed: North and South Korea.

Korean is the official language of North Korea. The World Factbook states "traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo" in regards to religion, but also states "autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom".[3] As of 2008, 8.86% of the population older than 5 years old have attained academic degrees.[clarification needed] In 2000, North Korea spent 38.2% of its expenditures on education, social insurance, and social security. Estimates show that, in 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $1,800. The most significant sources of employment were machine building and manufacturing of metallurgical products, military products, and textiles. In 2006, the unemployment rate was between 14.7% and 36.5%. The 2008 census enumerated 5,887,471 households, averaging 3.9 persons per house. Average urbanization rate was 60.3% in 2011.

During the North Korean famine of 1994–1998 somewhere between 240,000 and 3,500,000 North Koreans died from starvation or hunger-related illnesses, with the deaths peaking in 1997.[4][5] A 2011 U.S. Census Bureau report put the likely number of excess deaths during 1993 to 2000 at from 500,000 to 600,000.[6]

History of reporting demographics[edit]

Historical population of North Korea
YearPop.±% p.a.
1940 8,510,000—    
1944 9,250,000+2.11%
1946 9,260,000+0.05%
1949 9,620,000+1.28%
1953 9,360,000−0.68%
1960 10,790,000+2.05%
1963 11,570,000+2.35%
1993 21,213,478+2.04%
2008 24,052,231+0.84%
Note: North Korea was liberated in 1945 and formally declared a country in 1948.[7]
Source: Nick Eberstadt,[8] Central Bureau of Statistics[9][10]
Pyongyang apartment blocks in September 2008.

Until the release of official data in 1989, the 1963 edition of the North Korea Central Yearbook was the last official publication to disclose population figures.[11] After 1963 demographers used varying methods to estimate the population.[11] They either totaled the number of delegates elected to the Supreme People's Assembly (each delegate representing 50,000 people before 1962 and 30,000 people afterward) or relied on official statements that a certain number of persons, or percentage of the population, was engaged in a particular activity.[11] Thus, on the basis of remarks made by President Kim Il-sung in 1977 concerning school attendance, the population that year was calculated at 17.2 million persons.[12] During the 1980s, health statistics, including life expectancy and causes of mortality, were gradually made available to the outside world.[12]

In 1989 the Central Bureau of Statistics released demographic data to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to secure the UNFPA's assistance in holding North Korea's first nationwide census since the establishment of the DPRK in 1946.[12] Although the figures given to the United Nations (UN) might have been purposely distorted, it appears that in line with other attempts to open itself to the outside world, the North Korean regime has also opened somewhat in the demographic realm.[12] Although the country lacks trained demographers, accurate data on household registration, migration, and births and deaths are available to North Korean authorities.[12]

According to the United States scholar Nicholas Eberstadt and demographer Judith Banister, vital statistics and personal information on residents are kept by agencies on the ri, or ni (, : village, the local administrative unit) level in rural areas and the dong (, : district or block) level in urban areas.[12]

The next census was scheduled for 2018, but was cancelled.[13]

Size and growth rate[edit]

In their 1992 monograph, The Population of North Korea, Eberstadt and Banister use the data given to the UNFPA and make their own assessments.[12] They place the total population at 21.4 million persons in mid-1990, consisting of 10.6 million males and 10.8 million females.[12][14] This figure is close to an estimate of 21.9 million persons for mid-1988 cited in the 1990 edition of the Demographic Yearbook published by the UN.[12][15] Korean Review, a book by Pang Hwan-ju published by the Foreign Languages Publishing House in 1987, gives a figure of 19.1 million persons for 1986.[12][16]

Male-female ratio[edit]

Young Korean woman walking in Pyongyang

The figures disclosed by the government reveal an unusually low proportion of males to females: in 1980 and 1987, the male-to-female ratios were 86.2 to 100, and 84.2 to 100, respectively.[12] Low male-to-female ratios are usually the result of a war, but these figures were lower than the sex ratio of 88.3 males per 100 females recorded for 1953, the last year of the Korean War.[12] The male-to-female ratio would be expected to rise to a normal level with the passage of years, as happened between 1953 and 1970, when the figure was 95.1 males per 100 females.[12] After 1970, however, the ratio declined. Eberstadt and Banister suggest that before 1970 male and female population figures included the whole population, yielding ratios in the ninetieth percentile, but that after that time the male military population was excluded from population figures.[12]

Based on the figures provided by the Central Statistics Bureau, Eberstadt and Banister estimate that the actual size of the "hidden" male North Korean military had reached 1.2 million by 1986 and that the actual male-to-female ratio was 97.1 males to 100 females in 1990.[17] If their estimates are correct, 6.1 percent of North Korea's total population was in the military,[17] numerically the world's fourth largest military force as of 2021.[citation needed]

A survey in 2017 found that the famine had skewed North Korea's demography, impacting particularly on male infants. Women aged 20–24 made up 4% of the population, while men in the same age group made up only 2.5%.[18]

Growth rate[edit]

The annual population growth rate in 1960 was 2.7 percent, rising to a high of 3.6 percent in 1970, and falling to 1.9 percent in 1975.[17] This fall reflected a dramatic decline in the fertility rate: the average number of children born to women decreased from 6.5 in 1966 to 2.5 in 1988.[17] Assuming the data is reliable, reasons for falling growth rates and fertility rates probably include late marriage, urbanization, limited housing space, and the expectation that women would participate equally in work hours in the labor force.[17] The experience of other socialist countries suggests that widespread labor force participation by women often goes hand-in-hand with more traditional role expectations; in other words, they are still responsible for housework and childrearing.[17] The high percentage of males age 17 to 26 may have contributed to the low fertility rate.[17]

According to Eberstadt and Banister's data, the annual population growth rate in 1991 was 1.9 percent.[17] However, the CIA World Factbook estimated that North Korea's annual population growth rate was 1.0% in 1991 and that it has since declined to 0.4% by 2009.[3]

Promoting population growth[edit]

The North Korean government seems to perceive its population as too small in relation to that of South Korea.[17] In its public pronouncements, Pyongyang has called for accelerated population growth and encouraged large families.[17] According to one Korean American scholar who visited North Korea in the early 1980s, the country has no birth control policies; parents are encouraged to have as many as six children.[17] The state provides tagaso (nurseries) to lessen the burden of childrearing for parents and offers a 77-day paid leave after childbirth.[17]

Eberstadt and Banister suggest, however, that authorities at the local level make contraceptive information readily available to parents and that intrauterine devices are the most commonly adopted birth control method.[17] An interview with a former North Korean resident in the early 1990s revealed that such devices are distributed free at clinics.[17]

Population structure and projections[edit]

Population pyramid of North Korea
Population pyramid of North Korea as of the 1st National Census on December 31, 1993

Demographers determine the age structure of a given population by dividing it into five-year age-groups and arranging them chronologically in a pyramidlike structure that "bulvges" or recedes in relation to the number of persons in a given age cohort.[17] Many poor, developing countries have a broad base and steadily tapering higher levels, which reflects a large number of births and young children but much smaller age cohorts in later years as a result of relatively short life expectancies.[19] North Korea does not entirely fit this pattern; data reveal a "bulge" in the lower ranges of adulthood. In 1991, life expectancy at birth was approximately 66 years for males, almost 73 for females.[19]

It is likely that annual population growth rates will increase, as well as difficulties in employing the many young men and women entering the labor force in a socialist economy already suffering from stagnant growth.[19] Eberstadt and Banister project that the population will stabilize (that is, cease to grow) at 34 million persons in 2045 and will then experience a gradual decline.[20]

Settlement patterns and urbanization[edit]

North Korea's population is concentrated in the plains and lowlands.[20] The least populated regions are the mountainous Chagang and Yanggang provinces adjacent to the Chinese border.[20] The largest concentrations of population are in North Pyongan and South Pyongan provinces, in the municipal district of Pyongyang, and in South Hamgyong Province, which includes the Hamhung-Hungnam urban area.[20] Eberstadt and Banister calculate the average population density at 167 persons per square kilometer, ranging from 1,178 persons per square kilometer in Pyongyang Municipality to 44 persons per square kilometer in Yanggang Province.[20] By contrast, South Korea had an average population density of 425 persons per square kilometer in 1989.[20]

Like South Korea, North Korea has experienced significant urban migration since the end of the Korean War.[20] Official statistics reveal that 59.6 percent of the total population was classified as urban in 1987.[20] This figures compares with only 17.7 percent in 1953.[20] It is not entirely clear, however, what standards are used to define urban populations.[20] Eberstadt and Banister suggest that although South Korean statisticians do not classify settlements of under 50,000 as urban, their North Korean counterparts include settlements as small as 20,000 in this category.[20] And, in North Korea, people who engage in agricultural pursuits inside municipalities sometimes are not counted as urban.[20]

Urbanization in North Korea seems to have proceeded most rapidly between 1953 and 1960, when the urban population grew between 12 and 20 percent annually.[20] Subsequently, the increase slowed to about 6 percent annually in the 1960s and between 1 and 3 percent from 1970 to 1987.[20]

In 1987, North Korea's largest cities were Pyongyang, with approximately 2.3 million inhabitants; Hamhung, 701,000; Chongjin, 520,000; Nampo, 370,000; Sunchon, 356,000; and Sinuiju, 289,000.[20] In 1987, the total national population living in Pyongyang was 11.5 percent.[20] The government restricts and monitors migration to cities and ensures a relatively balanced distribution of population in provincial centers in relation to Pyongyang.[20]

Largest cities or towns in North Korea
Rank Name Administrative division Pop. Rank Name Administrative division Pop.
1 Pyongyang Pyongyang Capital City 3,255,288 11 Sunchon South Pyongan 297,317 Chongjin
2 Hamhung South Hamgyong 768,551 12 Pyongsong South Pyongan 284,386
3 Chongjin North Hamgyong 667,929 13 Haeju South Hwanghae 273,300
4 Nampo South Pyongan Province 366,815 14 Kanggye Chagang 251,971
5 Wonsan Kangwon 363,127 15 Anju South Pyongan 240,117
6 Sinuiju North Pyongan 359,341 16 Tokchon South Pyongan 237,133
7 Tanchon South Hamgyong 345,875 17 Kimchaek North Hamgyong 207,299
8 Kaechon South Pyongan 319,554 18 Rason Rason Special Economic Zone 196,954
9 Kaesong North Hwanghae 308,440 19 Kusong North Pyongan 196,515
10 Sariwon North Hwanghae 307,764 20 Hyesan Ryanggang 192,680

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs[21]

Period Births Deaths Difference Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Natural Increase Total Fertility Rate Infant Mortality Rate
1950 - 1955 230,000 114,000 116,000 23,8 11,8 12,0 2,70 90,5
1955 - 1960 372,000 109,000 263,000 36,2 10,6 25,6 3,80 75,9
1960 - 1965 381,000 106,000 275,000 32,8 9,1 23,7 3,41 66,9
1965 - 1970 490,000 105,000 385,000 36,9 7,9 29,0 4,09 56,3
1970 - 1975 458,000 92,000 365,000 30,2 6,1 24,1 3,72 44,1
1975 - 1980 317,000 83,000 233,000 19,0 5,0 14,0 2,58 35,2
1980 - 1985 388,000 92,000 296,000 21,6 5,1 16,5 2,93 29,9
1985 - 1990 389,000 105,000 284,000 20,0 5,4 14,6 2,45 26,1
1990 - 1995 450,000 124,000 326,000 21,5 5,9 15,5 2,40 24,3
1995 - 2000 443,000 219,000 225,000 19,8 9,8 10,1 2,20 54,9
2000 - 2005 379,000 209,000 170,000 16,3 9,0 7,3 2,05 28,5
2005 - 2010 352,000 231,000 120,000 14,6 9,6 5,0 2,05 27,4

Births and deaths[22] [23]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2008 24,052,231 345,630 216,616 129,014 14.4 9.0 5.4 2.00
2009 24,062,306
2010 24,186,621 1.95
2011 24,308,004
2012 24,427,381
2013 24,545,342
2014 24,662,482
2015 24,779,375 1.93
2016 24,896,551
2017 25,014,216
2018 25,132,287
2019 25,250,377
2020 1.91

Life expectancy

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[24]

Period Life expectancy in
Period Life expectancy in
1950–1955 37.6 1985–1990 68.6
1955–1960 49.9 1990–1995 70.0
1960–1965 51.6 1995–2000 63.5
1965–1970 57.2 2000–2005 68.1
1970–1975 61.7 2005–2010 68.4
1975–1980 65.0 2010–2015 70.8
1980–1985 67.1

Total and percent distribution of population by single year of age (census 2008)[edit]

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics[10]

Age group Population Male Female Percent
0-14 5.578.174 2.850.503 2.727.671 23,2
15-64 16.377.409 8.159.653 8.217.756 68,2
65+ 2.096.648 711.682 1.384.966 8,7
Number of children 0-14 Number of women 15-49 Proportion
5.578.174 6.479.605 0,86088

Koreans living overseas[edit]

Large-scale emigration from Korea began around 1904 and continued until the end of World War II.[20] During the Japanese colonial occupation (1910–1945), many Koreans emigrated to , China (particularly Northeast China), the Soviet Union, Hawaii, and the contiguous United States.[25] People from Korea's northern provinces went primarily to Manchuria, China, and Siberia; many of those from the southern provinces went to Japan.[25] Most emigrants left for economic reasons because employment opportunities were scarce; many Korean farmers had lost their land after the Japanese colonial government introduced a system of private land tenure, imposed higher land taxes, and promoted the growth of an absentee landlord class charging exorbitant rents.[25]

In the 1980s, more than 4 million ethnic Koreans lived outside the peninsula. The largest group, about 1.7 million people, lived in China (see Koreans in China); most had assumed Chinese citizenship.[25] Approximately 1 million Koreans, almost exclusively from South Korea, lived in North America (see Korean Americans).[25] About 389,000 ethnic Koreans resided in the former Soviet Union (see Koryosaram and Sakhalin Koreans).[25] One observer noted that Koreans have been so successful in running collective farms in Soviet Central Asia that being Korean is often associated by other citizens with being rich.[25] As a result, there is growing antagonism against Koreans.[25] Smaller groups of Koreans are found in Central America and South America (85,000), the Middle East (62,000), Europe (40,000), Asia (27,000), and Africa (25,000).[25]

Many of Japan's approximately 680,000 Koreans have below average standards of living.[25] This is partly because of discrimination by the Japanese. Many resident Koreans, loyal to North Korea, remain separate from, and often hostile to, the Japanese social mainstream.[25] The pro-North Korean Chongryon (General Association of Korean Residents in Japan) initially was more successful than the pro-South Korean Mindan (Association for Korean Residents in Japan) in attracting adherents.[25] However, the widening disparity between the political and economic conditions of the two Koreas has since made Mindan the larger and certainly the less politically controversial faction.[citation needed] In addition, third- and fourth-generation Zainichi Chosenjin have largely given up active participation or loyalty to the Chongryon ideology.[citation needed] Reasons stated for this increased disassociation include widespread mainstream tolerance of Koreans by Japanese in recent years, greatly reducing the need to rely on Chongryon and the increasing unpopularity of Kim Jong-il even among loyal members of Chongryon.[citation needed]

Between 1959 and 1982, Chongryon encouraged the repatriation of Korean residents in Japan to North Korea.[25] More than 93,000 Koreans left Japan, the majority (80,000 persons) in 1960 and 1961.[25] Thereafter, the number of repatriates declined, apparently because of reports of hardships suffered by their compatriots.[25] Approximately 6,637 Japanese wives accompanied their husbands to North Korea, of whom about 1,828 retained Japanese citizenship in the early 1990s.[25] Pyongyang had originally promised that the wives could return home every two or three years to visit their relatives.[25] In fact, however, they are not allowed to do so, and few have had contact with their families in Japan.[25] In normalization talks between North Korean and Japanese officials in the early 1990s, the latter urged unsuccessfully that the wives be allowed to make home visits.[26] According to a defector, himself a former returnee, many petitioned to be returned to Japan and in response were sent to political prison camps. Japanese research puts the number of Zainichi Korean returnees condemned to prison camps at around 10,000.[27][28]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population: 25,115,311 (July 2016 est.)

Age structure
0–14 years: 20.97% (male 2,678,638/female 2,588,744)
15–24 years: 15.88% (male 2,009,360/female 1,977,942)
25–54 years: 44.22% (male 5,567,682/female 5,537,077)
55–64 years: 9.19% (male 1,090,739/female 1,218,406)
65 years and over: 9.74% (male 840,003/female 1,606,720) (2016 est.)

Population growth rate
1.02% (1991 est.)
0.31% (1996 est.)
0.87% (2006 est.)
0.42% (2009 est.)
0.53% (2016 est.)

Birth rate
20.01 births/1,000 population (1991 est.)
17.58 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)
14.61 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
14.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
14.60 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate
8.94 deaths/1,000 population (1991 est.)
9.52 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)
7.29 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
7.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
9.30 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0–14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 70.4 years
male: 66.6 years
female: 74.5 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate
2.09 children born/woman (2006 est.)
1.94 children born/woman (2010 est.)
1.96 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.91 children born/woman (2021 est.)

noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups
racially homogeneous: Koreans; small Chinese community, a few ethnic Japanese, Singaporeans, ethnic Thai, ethnic Indian, ethnic African, Americans and ethnic Vietnamese

Religion: no statistics available; predominantly Cheondoism (see "religion in North Korea")

Language: Korean

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean using the Korean script Hangul
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2015 est.)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). "Demographic changes in Democratic People's Republic of Korea: 1993-2008". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
  2. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas (2014). "Fertility levels and trends in North Korea". Population-E. 69 (4): 433–445. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  3. ^ a b c d "Korea, North". CIA World Factbook. 2016.
  4. ^ Noland, Marcus, Sherman Robinson and Tao Wang, Famine in North Korea: Causes and Cures Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine, Institute for International Economics.
  5. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
  6. ^ Daniel Goodkind; Loraine West; Peter Johnson (28 March 2011). A Reassessment of Mortality in North Korea, 1993–2008. Annual meeting of the Population Association of America March 31-April 2, 2011. Washington, D.C. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. p. 3. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  7. ^ "North Korea Profile". BBC News. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  8. ^ Eberstadt, Nick (2010). Policy and Economic Performance in Divided Korea During the Cold War Era: 1945–91. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 9780844742748.
  9. ^ Adlakha, Arjun; West, Loraine A. (October 1997). "Analysis of Democratic People's Republic of Korea 1993 Population Census Data and Population Projections" (PDF). International Programs Center, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census. OCLC 630153397. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  10. ^ a b "DPR Korea 2008 Population Census: National Report" (PDF). Pyongyang: Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
  11. ^ a b c Savada 1994, p. 55.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Savada 1994, p. 56.
  13. ^ Fensom, Anthony (2019-11-19). "Kim Jong-Un Has a Population Problem". The National Interest. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  14. ^ Eberstadt & Banister 1992, p. xiii.
  15. ^ Demographic Yearbook. United Nations. 1990.
  16. ^ Pang Hwan Ju (1987). Korean Review. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 247384226.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Savada 1994, p. 57.
  18. ^ Miles, Tom (21 June 2018). "Tackling North Korea's chronically poor sewage 'not rocket science': U.N." Reuters.
  19. ^ a b c Savada 1994, p. 58.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Savada 1994, p. 59.
  21. ^ Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Statistics Division, United Nations. 2 January 2018. p. 13.
  23. ^ "Statistics Korea: North Korea Statistics". Statistics Korea. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  24. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Savada 1994, p. 60.
  26. ^ Savada 1994, p. 61.
  27. ^ Spy's escape from North Korean 'hell'. Archived 2006-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ N. Korean defector says best to leave North alone for now.