Demographics of Oman

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Demographics of Oman
Oman single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Oman
Population3,764,348 (2022 est.)
Growth rate1.84% (2022 est.)
Birth rate22.11 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate3.23 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy76.9 years
 • male74.96 years
 • female78.93 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate2.7 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate14.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years30.15%
65 and over3.68%
Sex ratio
Total1.17 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
65 and over0.79 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityOmani
Language
OfficialArabic

This is a demography of the population of Oman including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 50% of the population in Oman lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; about 200,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region; and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz.

Since 1970, the government has given high priority to education in order to develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor in the country's economic and social progress. In 1986, Oman's first university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. Other post secondary institutions include a law school, technical college, banking institute, teachers' training college, and health sciences institute. Some 200 scholarships are awarded each year for study abroad.

Nine private colleges exist, providing two-year post secondary diplomas. Since 1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to meet the needs of a growing population. Under the reformed system, four public regional universities were created, and incentives are provided by the government to promote the upgrading of the existing nine private colleges and the creation of other degree-granting private colleges.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Oman, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Census results[edit]

[1] Total population Omani population Expatriate population
1993 2,000,000 1,465,000 (73.3%) 535,000 (26.7%)
2003 2,340,815 1,781,558 (76.1%) 559,257 (23.9%)
2010 2,773,479 1,957,336 (70.6%) 816,143 (29.4%)
2014 4,092,000 2,303,000 (56.3%) 1,789,000 (43.7%)
2016 4,550,538 2,462,768 (54.1%) 2,082,478 (46.1%)
2020 5,106,458 2,994,601 (59.98%) 1,997,763 (40.02%)

UN estimates[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950456,000—    
1960557,000+22.1%
1970732,000+31.4%
19801,181,000+61.3%
19901,868,000+58.2%
20002,264,000+21.2%
20102,782,000+22.9%
20205,106,458+83.6%
Source:[2]
[3] Total population (thousands) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 456 42.3 54.6 3.0
1955 501 43.6 53.2 3.2
1960 557 44.6 52.1 3.2
1965 631 45.6 51.2 3.3
1970 732 46.4 50.4 3.2
1975 898 46.1 50.9 3.0
1980 1 181 45.6 51.8 2.6
1985 1 539 46.0 51.6 2.4
1990 1 868 45.6 52.1 2.3
1995 2 232 40.3 57.5 2.2
2000 2 264 36.7 60.8 2.5
2005 2 430 32.1 65.1 2.8
2010 2 782 27.2 70.3 2.5
2015 4 321 32.1 65.1 2.8
2020 5 106 27.2 70.3 2.5

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2009) (Estimates):[4]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 1 971 115 1 202 802 3 173 917 100
0-4 139 614 132 530 272 144 8,57
5-9 124 776 120 250 245 026 7,72
10-14 129 964 124 646 254 610 8,02
15-19 145 215 139 611 284 826 8,97
20-24 238 483 148 965 387 448 12,21
25-29 327 686 147 717 475 403 14,98
30-34 247 107 120 429 367 536 11,58
35-39 192 483 79 617 272 100 8,57
40-44 149 090 58 112 207 202 6,53
45-49 103 908 41 522 145 430 4,58
50-54 83 057 30 530 113 587 3,58
55-59 40 488 19 402 59 890 1,89
60-64 23 538 16 192 39 730 1,25
65-69 11 811 9 000 20 811 0,66
70-74 7 721 7 212 14 933 0,47
75-79 3 303 3 514 6 817 0,21
80+ 2 871 3 553 6 424 0,20
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 394 354 377 426 771 780 24,32
15-64 1 551 055 802 097 2 353 152 74,14
65+ 25 706 23 279 48 985 1,54
Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (Estimates)
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 332 687 1 290 314 3 623 001 100
0-4 164 406 158 435 322 841 8,91
5-9 132 469 127 235 259 704 7,17
10-14 111 287 105 301 216 588 5,98
15-19 128 311 119 875 248 186 6,85
20-24 262 201 147 485 409 686 11,31
25-29 438 633 160 772 599 405 16,54
30-34 335 104 131 241 466 345 12,87
35-39 234 343 96 312 330 655 9,13
40-44 177 171 63 301 240 472 6,64
45-49 122 574 47 241 169 815 4,69
50-54 89 917 39 602 129 519 3,57
55-59 56 448 28 380 84 828 2,34
60-64 28 338 20 629 48 967 1,35
65-69 17 199 15 561 32 760 0,90
70-74 13 925 12 439 26 364 0,73
75-79 9 475 7 373 16 848 0,47
80+ 10 882 9 113 19 995 0,55
unknown 4 19 23 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 408 162 390 971 799 133 22,06
15-64 1 873 040 854 838 2 727 878 75,29
65+ 51 481 44 486 95 967 2,65
Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 12.XII.2020): [5]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 739 954 1 731 194 4 471 148 100
0–4 225 585 217 574 443 159 9.91
5–9 214 408 205 923 420 331 9.40
10–14 164 249 158 269 322 518 7.21
15–19 128 650 123 805 252 455 5.65
20–24 178 099 126 838 304 937 6.82
25–29 364 479 167 905 532 384 11.91
30–34 426 671 185 002 611 673 13.68
35–39 355 022 159 996 515 018 11.52
40–44 245 069 122 600 367 669 8.22
45–49 162 792 78 866 241 658 5.40
50–54 107 609 52 247 159 856 3.58
55–59 67 579 39 990 107 569 2.41
60–64 43 899 32 405 76 304 1.71
65-69 21 548 21 790 43 338 0.97
70-74 14 117 15 524 29 641 0.66
75-79 9 414 10 427 19 841 0.44
80-84 6 369 6 459 12 828 0.29
85-89 2 813 3 176 5 989 0.13
90-94 1 066 1 462 2 528 0.06
95-99 319 597 916 0.02
100+ 197 339 536 0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 604 242 581 766 1 186 008 26.53
15–64 2 079 869 1 089 654 3 169 523 70.89
65+ 55 843 59 774 115 617 2.59

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

Period[6] Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1 Life expectancy (years)
1950   25 000   16 000   8 000 53.7 35.7 18.1 7.25 277.0 29.7
1951   25 000   16 000   9 000 53.8 35.4 18.4 7.25 274.3 30.0
1952   25 000   17 000   9 000 53.8 35.0 18.7 7.25 270.4 30.5
1953   26 000   17 000   9 000 53.8 34.6 19.2 7.25 266.4 31.0
1954   26 000   17 000   10 000 53.8 34.2 19.6 7.25 263.2 31.44
1955   27 000   17 000   10 000 53.8 33.8 20.0 7.25 259.6 31.92
1956   27 000   17 000   10 000 53.7 33.4 20.4 7.25 256.2 32.37
1957   27 000   17 000   11 000 53.8 33.0 20.8 7.25 252.1 32.86
1958   28 000   17 000   11 000 53.8 32.4 21.4 7.25 248.0 33.48
1959   28 000   17 000   12 000 53.8 31.9 21.9 7.25 243.9 34.07
1960   29 000   16 000   12 000 53.7 30.5 23.2 7.25 234.0 35.45
1961   29 000   16 000   13 000 53.5 29.2 24.3 7.25 225.0 36.82
1962   30 000   16 000   14 000 53.1 27.9 25.2 7.25 216.1 38.19
1963   30 000 15 000   15 000 52.8 26.8 26.0 7.26 207.9 39.42
1964   31 000   15 000   16 000 52.4 25.6 26.8 7.26 199.8 40.68
1965   31 000   15 000   16 000 52.0 24.5 27.5 7.27 191.9 41.89
1966   31 000   14 000   17 000 51.5 23.4 28.1 7.28 184.1 43.07
1967   32 000   14 000   18 000 51.0 22.3 28.7 7.28 176.5 44.29
1968   32 000   14 000   19 000 50.6 21.2 29.4 7.29 168.9 45.53
1969   33 000   13 000   20 000 50.2 20.2 30.0 7.29 161.3 46.68
1970   34 000   13 000   21 000 49.9 19.4 30.6 7.31 154.1 47.68
1971   34 000   13 000   22 000 49.8 18.4 31.4 7.35 146.8 48.93
1972   35 000   13 000   23 000 49.9 17.8 32.1 7.41 139.2 49.57
1973   37 000   12 000   24 000 50.1 16.9 33.3 7.50 132.0 50.86
1974   38 000   12 000   26 000 50.5 16.0 34.5 7.62 124.8 52.10
1975   40 000   12 000   29 000 51.6 15.2 36.4 7.75 117.5 53.30
1976   43 000   12 000   31 000 52.2 14.1 38.2 7.86 110.3 55.22
1977   45 000   12 000   34 000 52.8 13.4 39.4 7.94 103.4 56.26
1978   48 000   11 000   37 000 53.0 12.4 40.6 7.99 95.8 57.71
1979   51 000   11 000   40 000 53.2 11.5 41.7 8.04 88.6 59.15
1980   54 000   11 000   43 000 53.4 10.7 42.7 8.10 81.6 60.45
1981   57 000   11 000   46 000 53.2 9.9 43.3 8.13 74.9 61.65
1982   60 000   10 000   49 000 52.8 9.1 43.7 8.10 68.2 62.96
1983   62 000   10 000   52 000 51.9 8.3 43.6 8.02 62.1 64.22
1984   64 000   10 000   55 000 50.7 7.6 43.1 7.90 56.3 65.25
1985   66 000   9 000   57 000 49.3 7.0 42.4 7.76 51.1 66.27
1986   66 000   9 000   57 000 46.5 6.4 40.1 7.58 46.4 67.01
1987   66 000   9 000   58 000 43.8 5.8 38.0 7.37 42.1 67.89
1988   66 000   8 000   58 000 41.3 5.3 36.0 7.14 38.4 68.58
1989   66 000   8 000   58 000 38.8 4.9 33.9 6.87 35.0 69.16
1990   65 000   8 000   57 000 36.6 4.5 32.0 6.61 31.9 69.78
1991   65 000   8 000   57 000 34.6 4.3 30.3 6.34 29.1 70.19
1992   64 000   8 000   56 000 32.6 4.1 28.6 6.05 26.5 70.66
1993   64 000   8 000   56 000 30.9 3.8 27.0 5.76 24.2 71.17
1994   63 000   8 000   55 000 29.3 3.7 25.5 5.47 22.1 71.39
1995   61 000   8 000   54 000 28.2 3.5 24.6 5.19 20.3 71.99
1996   61 000   8 000   53 000 27.5 3.5 24.0 4.90 18.7 72.19
1997   60 000   8 000   53 000 26.8 3.4 23.4 4.62 17.3 72.42
1998   60 000   8 000   53 000 26.3 3.3 23.0 4.34 16.1 72.97
1999   60 000   8 000   52 000 25.8 3.2 22.5 4.13 15.0 73.18
2000   58 000   7 000   51 000 24.8 3.2 21.6 3.89 14.0 73.47
2001   57 000   7 000   50 000 24.0 3.1 21.0 3.69 13.1 73.81
2002   56 000   7 000   49 000 23.3 3.0 20.2 3.50 12.4 73.87
2003   55 000   7 000   48 000 22.7 3.0 19.8 3.35 11.8 74.14
2004   55 000   7 000   48 000 22.2 2.9 19.3 3.20 11.3 74.33
2005   54 000   7 000   46 000 21.4 2.9 18.5 3.05 10.9 74.40
2006   53 000   7 000   46 000 20.7 2.9 17.8 2.92 10.6 74.48
2007   53 000   8 000   46 000 20.5 3.0 17.6 2.81 10.6 74.46
2008   56 000   8 000   48 000 21.1 3.0 18.2 2.81 10.3 74.61
2009   60 000   8 000   52 000 22.3 3.0 19.3 2.84 10.1 74.68
2010   64 000   7 000   57 000 23.4 2.6 20.8 2.94 10.0 76.27
2011   70 000   8 000   62 000 22.6 2.5 20.2 2.94 9.9 76.61
2012   75 000   8 000   67 000 21.9 2.3 19.6 2.93 9.8 77.06
2013   81 000   9 000   72 000 21.6 2.3 19.3 2.95 9.7 77.25
2014   85 000   9 000   76 000 21.3 2.2 19.1 2.96 9.6 77.45
2015   88 000   9 000   79 000 21.3 2.2 19.1 2.96 9.6 77.69
2016   90 000   9 000   81 000 20.8 2.2 18.6 2.95 9.6 77.92
2017   92 000   10 000   82 000 20.3 2.2 18.1 2.94 9.5 77.92
2018   92 000   10 000   82 000 19.8 2.2 17.6 2.88 9.5 77.97
2019   90 000   10 000   80 000 19.3 2.2 17.1 2.78 9.5 78.00
2020   87 000   14 000   73 000 18.8 3.0 15.8 2.69 9.4 74.76
2021   83 000   17 000   66 000 18.4 3.8 14.6 2.62 9.3 72.54
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Births and deaths[7]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2006 2,577,062 49,494 5,484 44,010 19.20 2.10 17.10 2.660
2007 2,743,499 52,500 6,810 45,690 19.10 2.48 16.62 2.589
2008 2,867,428 58,250 7,415 50,835 20.30 2.59 17.71 2.607
2009 3,173,917 64,735 7,098 57,637 20.40 2.24 18.16 2.669
2010 2,773,479 65,528 6,974 58,554 23.30 2.67 20.63 2.974
2011 3,295,298 67,922 7,667 60,255 20.60 2.33 18.27 2.853
2012 3,623,001 72,867 7,884 64,983 20.10 2.18 17.92 2.818
2013 3,855,206 79,417 7,669 71,748 20.60 1.99 18.61 2.882
2014 3,992,893 82,981 7,819 75,162 21.90 1.96 19.94 2.900
2015 4,159,102 86,286 8,167 78,119 19.30 1.96 17.34 2.903
2016 4,414,051 88,346 8,828 79,518 20.00 2.00 18.00 2.888
2017 4,559,963 90,371 8,861 81,510 20.50 1.90 18.60 2.895
2018 4,601,706 89,071 8,979 80,092 19.36 1.90 17.46 2.858
2019 4,617,927 86,819 8,581 78,238 18.80 1.86 16.94 2.689
2020 4,481,042 84,405 10,589 73,816 18.80 2.40 16.40 2.664
2021 4,527,446 82,224 12,649 69,575 18.16 2.79 15.37 2.604

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the CIA, Oman's population primarily consists of Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), and African ethnic groups.[8]

Parts of Asia and Africa were part of Oman.

Omani society is largely tribal.[9][10] Oman has three known types of identities. Two of these identities are 'tribalism' and 'Ibadism'; the third identity is linked to 'maritime trade'. The first two identities are widespread in the interior of Oman; these identities are closely tried to tradition, as a result of lengthy periods of isolation. The third identity, which pertains to Muscat and the coastal areas of Oman, is an identity that has become embodied in business and trade. The third identity is generally seen to be more open and tolerant towards others. Thus, tension between socio-cultural groups in Omani society exists. More important is the existence of social inequality between these three groups.[10] Gwadar, a region of Balochistan in Pakistan, was a Colony of Oman for more than a century. In 1958, Pakistan bought Gwadar from Oman for US$22.4 million, and hence many Omanis have Pakistani descent.[11]

Migration[edit]

Because of the combination of a relatively small local Omani population and a fast-growing oil-driven economy, Oman has attracted many migrants. At the 2014 census the total expatriate population was 1,789,000 or 43.7% of the population.[12] Most migrants are males from India (465,660 for both sexes), Bangladesh (107,125) or Pakistan (84,658). Female migrant workers are mainly from Indonesia (25,300), the Philippines (15,651) or Sri Lanka (10,178). Migrants from Arab countries account for 68,986 migrants (Egypt 29,877, Jordan 7,403, Sudan 6,867, UAE 6,426, Iraq 4,159, Saudi Arabia 725, Bahrain 388, Qatar 168, other 12,683) and other Asian countries for 12,939 migrants. There were 8,541 migrants from Europe, 1,540 from the United States and 15,565 from other countries.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[13]

Age structure

0-14 years: 30.1% (male 528,554/female 502,272)
15-24 years: 18.69% (male 335,764/female 304,207)
25-54 years: 43.8% (male 864,858/female 635,006)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 71,477/female 62,793)
65 years and over: 3.49% (male 58,561/female 60,894) (2017 est.)

Median age

total: 25.6 years
male: 26.6 years
female: 24.2 years (2017 est.)

Birth rate

24 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

2.03% (2017 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 84.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanisation: 5.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.7 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 77.7 years (2017 est

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

27% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

9.7% (2014)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Religion[edit]

Islam 85.9% (official; 45% Ibadi Muslims, 45% Sunni Muslims and 5% Shia Muslims[14]), Christianity 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Judaism <0.1, Other 1%, Unaffiliated 0.2%[15]

Languages[edit]

Arabic (official), Bangla, English, Hindi, Malayalam, Balochi, Swahili, Urdu, Sindhi, Gujarati, Jadgali, Achomi, Shehri, Tamil and other Indian languages

Literacy[edit]

definition: Literacy has been described as the ability to read for knowledge and write coherently and think critically about the written word.
total population: 91.1%
male: 93.6%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)

Overseas Omani people[edit]

Today several thousand Omani-born people have emigrated abroad. The figures are shown below (only countries with more than 100 Omani-born residents are listed).[16]

Country Omani population
United Kingdom United Kingdom 2,024
United States United States 390
Canada Canada 260
Australia Australia 148
Japan Japan 24

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sultanate of Oman Ministry of National Economy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision".
  3. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Demographic Yearbook". United Nations Statistics Division.[not specific enough to verify]
  5. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  6. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  7. ^ "Population - DATA PORTAL".
  8. ^ "Oman". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  9. ^ Miller, Judith (28 January 2009). "Creating Modern Oman: An Interview with Sultan Qabus". {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  10. ^ a b Al-Azri, Khalid M. (2013). Social and Gender Inequality in Oman: The Power of Religious and Political Tradition. p. 40. ISBN 9780415672412. Omani society largely remains attached to the pre-1970 tribal structure.
  11. ^ "Arab legacy lingers as Pakistan's Gwadar grows from tiny fishing town into port city". 29 April 2019.
  12. ^ Preliminary Results of the Oman Census 2010 Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from "Oman". World Factbook (2022 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2017 edition)
  14. ^ "Oman - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  15. ^ "Middle East OMAN". CIA The World Factbook. 14 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2008-09-21.

External links[edit]

Government[edit]