Demographics of Oman
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Oman, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
About 50% of the population in Oman lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; about 200,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region; and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz. Some 900,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Morocco, Jordan, and the Philippines.
Since 1970, the government has given high priority to education in order to develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor in the country's economic and social progress. In 1986, Oman's first university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. Other post secondary institutions include a law school, technical college, banking institute, teachers' training college, and health sciences institute. Some 200 scholarships are awarded each year for study abroad.
Nine private colleges exist, providing two-year post secondary diplomas. Since 1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to meet the needs of a growing population. Under the reformed system, four public regional universities were created, and incentives are provided by the government to promote the upgrading of the existing nine private colleges and the creation of other degree-granting private colleges.
- 1 Population
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Ethnic groups
- 4 Migration
- 5 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 6 Overseas Omani people
- 7 References
- 8 External links
|Total population||Omani population||Expatriate population|
|1993||2,000,000||1,465,000 (73.3%)||535,000 (26.7%)|
|2003||2,340,815||1,781,558 (76.1%)||559,257 (23.9%)|
|2010||2,773,479||1,957,336 (70.6%)||816,143 (29.4%)|
|2014||4,092,000||2,303,000 (56.3%)||1,789,000 (43.7%)|
|Total population (thousands)||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950-1955||23 000||13 000||11 000||48.9||26.2||22.7||7.25||214.1|
|1955-1960||26 000||13 000||13 000||49.1||23.9||25.2||7.25||194.1|
|1960-1965||29 000||13 000||17 000||49.3||21.3||28.0||7.25||171.4|
|1965-1970||34 000||12 000||21 000||49.3||18.2||31.2||7.31||145.4|
|1970-1975||40 000||12 000||28 000||49.1||14.5||34.6||7.41||114.7|
|1975-1980||53 000||12 000||41 000||51.2||11.5||39.7||8.10||87.6|
|1980-1985||67 000||11 000||55 000||48.9||8.4||40.6||8.32||64.4|
|1985-1990||74 000||10 000||64 000||43.3||5.7||37.6||7.85||42.5|
|1990-1995||68 000||8 000||60 000||33.1||4.0||29.1||6.27||31.4|
|1995-2000||60 000||8 000||52 000||26.7||3.4||23.2||4.46||24.4|
|2000-2005||50 000||7 000||43 000||21.5||3.1||18.4||3.01||15.3|
|2005-2010||50 000||10 000||40 000||19.1||3.7||15.3||2.52||9.4|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Omani society is largely tribal. Oman has three known types of identities. Two of these identities are 'tribalism and Ibadism', the third identity is linked to 'maritime trade'. The first two identities are widespread in the interior of Oman, these identities are closely tried to tradition, as a result of lengthy periods of isolation. The third identity, which pertains to Muscat and the coastal areas of Oman, is an identity that has become embodied in business and trade. The third identity is generally seen to be more open and tolerant towards others. Thus, tension between socio-cultural groups in Omani society exists. More importantly, is the existence of social inequality between these three groups.
Because of the combination of a relatively small Omani population and a fast-growing oil-driven economy, Oman has attracted many migrants. At the 2010 census the total expatriate population was 816,000 or 29.4% of the population. Most migrants are males from India (465,660 for both sexes), Bangladesh (107,125) or Pakistan (84,658). Female migrant workers are mainly from Indonesia (25,300), the Philippines (15,651) or Sri Lanka (10,178). Migrants from Arab countries account for 68,986 migrants (Egypt 29,877, Jordan 7,403, Sudan 6,867, UAE 6,426, Iraq 4,159, Saudi Arabia 725, Bahrain 388, Qatar 168, other 12,683) and other Asian countries for 12,939 migrants. There were 8,541 migrants from Europe, 1,540 from the United States and 15,565 from other countries.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.46 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.16 years
male: 74.87 years
female: 76.55 years (2010 est.)
About 78% of the population is urban.
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Kiswahili, Urdu, Lawati (Khojki), Gujarati, Zadjali, Ajami, Kamzari, Jibbali (Qarawi): Shehri, Mehri, Habyoti, Bathari, Hikmani, Harsusi, Malayalam, Tamil and other Indian languages
definition: Literacy has been described as the ability to read for knowledge and write coherently and think critically about the written word.
total population: 75.8%
female: 67.2% (2003 est.)
Overseas Omani people
Today several thousand Omani-born people have emigrated abroad. The figures are shown below (only countries with more than 100 Omani-born residents are listed).
- Sultanate of Oman Ministry of National Economy
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- "Oman". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- "Creating Modern Oman: An Interview with Sultan Qabus".
- "Social and Gender Inequality in Oman: The Power of Religious and Political Tradition". p. 40.
Omani society largely remains attached to the pre-1970 tribal structure.
- Preliminary Results of the Oman Census 2010
- The World Factbook - Oman
- "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
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