Demographics of Panama
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Panama, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Panama's population was 3,678,000 in 2010, compared to 860,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 29%. 64.5% of the population were aged between 15 and 65, with 6.6% of the population being 65 years or older.
|Province||Capital city||Population(2010 Est.)|
|Bocas del Toro||Bocas del Toro||118,405|
|Los Santos||Las Tablas||90,984|
|Panamá||Ciudad de Panamá||1,796,674|
|Kuna de Madugandí||N/D||N/D|
|Kuna Yala||El Porvenir||37,545|
|Kuna de Wargandí||N/D||N/D|
The culture, customs, and language of Panama are predominantly Caribbean Spanish. In 2010 the population was 65% Mestizo (mixed white, Native American), 9.2% Black/mulattoes, 6.7% White and 12.3% Native Americans.
Afro-Panamanian groups include West Indies/Caribbean (esp. Afro-Caribbean) nationalities, in which thousands of Barbadian and Jamaican workers played a role in the construction of the Panama Canal. There has also been immigration of Arabs and Asians: in particular Chinese, Lebanese, Palestinians, South Asians (from India and Pakistan) and Syrians.
|Census 1990||Census 2000||Census 2010|
|Census 1990||Census 2000||Census 2010|
Panama has a considerable populations of Chinese origin. The first Chinese immigrated to Panama from southern China to help build the Panama Railroad in the 19th century. There followed several waves of immigrants whose descendants number around 50,000. Starting in the 1970s, a further 80,000 have immigrated from various parts of China.
Afro-Panamanians first arrived during the colonial era. They are intermixed in the general population or live in small Afro-Panamanian communities along the Atlantic Coast and in villages within the Darién jungle. Most of the people in Darien are fishermen or small-scale farmers growing crops such as bananas, rice and coffee as well as raising livestock. Other Afro-Panamanians descend from later migrants from the Caribbean who came to work on railroad-construction projects, commercial agricultural enterprises, and (especially) the canal. Important Afro-Caribbean community areas include towns and cities such as Colón, Cristobal and Balboa, in the former Canal Zone, as well as the Río Abajo area of Panama City. Another region with a large Afro-Caribbean population is the province of Bocas del Toro on the Caribbean coast just south of Costa Rica.
Most of the Panamanian population of West Indian descent owe their presence in the country to the monumental efforts to build the Panama Canal in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Three-quarters of the 50,000 workers who built the canal were Afro Caribbean migrants from the British West Indies. Thousands of Afro-Caribbean workers were recruited from Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad.
Many languages, including seven indigenous languages, are spoken in Panama, although Spanish is the official and dominant language. English is sometimes spoken by many professionals and those working in the business or governmental sectors of society.
The majority of Panamanians are Christian; most are Roman Catholics as a result centuries of Spanish colonial influence. Other faiths exist in Panama by the country's tolerance and freedom of religion, there are large Protestant, Jewish, Bahá'í, Muslim and Hindu religious groups in Panama.
- Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 17% and other religions about 5%.
Registration of vital events is in Panama not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.
|1950-1955||38 000||11 000||27 000||41.4||12.0||29.5||5.76||92||56.8||55.9||57.8|
|1955-1960||44 000||11 000||33 000||41.7||10.6||31.1||5.87||80||59.5||58.6||60.5|
|1960-1965||50 000||11 000||39 000||40.9||9.2||31.6||5.79||68||62.1||61.1||63.3|
|1965-1970||55 000||12 000||44 000||38.8||8.1||30.7||5.41||58||64.3||63.2||65.6|
|1970-1975||59 000||11 000||48 000||36.1||7.0||29.2||4.88||48||66.7||65.1||68.5|
|1975-1980||61 000||11 000||50 000||32.5||5.9||26.6||4.19||39||69.2||67.2||71.5|
|1980-1985||62 000||11 000||51 000||29.5||5.4||24.1||3.63||34||71.0||68.6||73.7|
|1985-1990||64 000||12 000||53 000||27.3||5.1||22.3||3.24||29||72.4||69.6||75.4|
|1990-1995||67 000||13 000||54 000||25.5||4.9||20.6||2.96||26||73.6||70.8||76.5|
|1995-2000||71 000||14 000||57 000||24.6||4.8||19.8||2.87||24||74.6||72.2||77.2|
|2000-2005||74 000||15 000||59 000||23.1||4.8||18.3||2.76||20||75.6||73.0||78.3|
|2005-2010||75 000||17 000||58 000||21.3||4.9||16.4||2.62||17||76.4||73.6||79.5|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
Births and deaths 
|Year||Population||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase||TFR|
|2009||68 364||15 498||52 866||19,0||2,5|
|2010||3 405 813||67 955||16 542||51 413||18,6||2,4|
|2011||73 292||16 367||56 925||19,7||2,5|
|2012||75 486||17 350||58 136||19,9||2,5|
|2013||73 804||17 767||56 037||19,2|
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
- "CIA - The World Factbook -- Panama". CIA. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
-  Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censo (INEC)
- Jackson, Eric (May 2004). "Panama's Chinese community celebrates a birthday, meets new challenges". The Panama News 10 (9). Retrieved November 7, 2007.
- "President Chen's State Visit to Panama". Government Information Office, Republic of China. October 2003. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
- "Panama : Afro-Panamanians". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved June 26, 2010.