Demographics of Peru

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This article is about the residents or nationals of Peru. For other uses, see Peruvian (disambiguation).
Population map of Peru (regional).

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Peru, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Peru is a multiethnic country, which means that it is home to people of many different historical backgrounds. Therefore, it is a multicultural country as well. Since it is a multiethnic society, Peruvian people usually treat their nationality as a citizenship instead of an ethnicity. The Peruvian census does not contain information about ethnicity so only rough estimates are available.


Ages pyramid of Perú in 2007

According to the 2015 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 31,377,00 in 2010, compared to only 7,728,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 27.9%, 65.3% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.8% was 65 years or older .[1]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 7728 41.6 55.0 3.5
1955 8787 42.1 54.5 3.4
1960 10062 43.0 53.6 3.5
1965 11608 43.9 52.5 3.5
1970 13341 43.8 52.6 3.5
1975 15230 43.1 53.3 3.6
1980 17359 41.8 54.5 3.7
1985 19545 40.3 55.9 3.8
1990 21827 38.5 57.5 4.0
1995 24039 36.3 59.3 4.4
2000 25915 34.3 60.8 4.9
2005 27610 31.6 62.8 5.6
2010 29374 29.3 64.5 6.2
2015 31377 27.9 65.3 6.8

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Peru not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [1]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 394000 179000 215000 47.8 21.7 26.1 6.95 164
1955-1960 446000 187000 259000 47.3 19.8 27.5 6.95 152
1960-1965 506000 191000 315000 46.7 17.6 29.1 6.95 138
1965-1970 552000 195000 357000 44.3 15.7 28.6 6.70 128
1970-1975 57700 182000 395000 40.4 12.7 27.7 6.00 111
1975-1980 623000 177000 446000 38.3 10.9 27.4 5.40 99
1980-1985 628000 167000 461000 34.0 9.1 24.9 4.65 82
1985-1990 654000 161000 493000 31.6 7.8 23.8 4.10 68
1990-1995 658000 157000 501000 28.7 6.9 21.8 3.57 48
1995-2000 635000 152000 483000 25.4 6.1 19.3 3.10 39
2000-2005 615000 150000 465000 23.0 5.6 17.4 2.80 30
2005-2010 608000 158000 450000 21.4 5.5 15.9 2.60 21
2010-2015 619000 171000 448000 20.4 5.6 14.8 2.50 16
2015-2020 605000 181000 424000 18.7 5.6 13.1 2.35 13
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[2]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1950-55 47.1 6.9
1955-60 48.8 6.9
1960-1965 46.3 6.9
1965-70 43.6 6.6
1970-1975 40.5 6.0
1975-1980 38.0 5.4
1980-1985 36.7 5.0
1985-1990 34.3 4.5
1986 4.12 (2.64) 6.34 (3.66)
1991-1992 27.8 3.5 (2.0) 23.5 2.8 (1.7) 38.7 6.2 (3.0)
1996 27.4 3.5 (2.2) 24.2 2.8 (1.9) 33.5 5.6 (3.1)
2000 22 2.9 (1.8) 19 2.2 (1.5) 27 4.3 (2.5)
2004-2006 19.2 2.6 (1.7) 17.3 2.1 (1.5) 22.6 3.7 (2.2)
2007-2008 18.6 2.5 (1.6) 16.8 2.1 (1.5) 22.2 3.7 (2.0)
2009 19.9 2.6 (1.8) 18.7 2.3 (1.7) 22.8 3.6 (2.1)
2010 19.0 2.5 (1.8) 17.6 2.2 (1.6) 22.3 3.5 (2.1)
2011 19.7 2.6 (1.8) 18.5 2.3 (1.7) 22.5 3.5 (2.1)
2012 19.6 2.6 (1.8) 18.5 2.3 (1.7) 22.3 3.5 (2.1)
2013 18.4 2.4 (1.7) 17.1 2.1 (1.6) 22.3 3.4 (2.1)
2014 19.1 2.5 (1.8) 18.3 2.3 (1.7) 21.7 3.3 (2.2)

Metropolitan areas[edit]

The metropolitan areas of Peru have been formed from the urban growth of Peruvian cities more populated and they are formed by the integration of two or more municipalities.[3] The most populated Peruvian metropolises by districts are:[4] Lima,[5] Trujillo,[6] Chiclayo[7] and Arequipa.[8]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the amalgamation of different cultures and ethnicities over thousands of years. Amerindians inhabited the land for over ten millennia before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century; their cultures and influence represent the foundation of today’s Peru.

As a result of European contact and conquest, the population of the area now known as Peru decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600000 in 1620.[9] This happened mostly because of the unintended spread of germs and infectious diseases. In fact, the spread of smallpox greatly weakened the Inca empire, even before the Spanish arrival. The Amerindians did not have as much natural immunity to the disease as did the Europeans who had been exposed to smallpox for roughly two centuries.[10] For this reason, several Amerindian populations were decimated. Furthermore, the disease killed Inca ruler Wayna Capac, triggering a civil war in the Inca empire that preceded the conquest efforts the Spaniards. Thus, the conquest was facilitated by the weakness of the Inca empire which was recovering from both a civil war and epidemics of unknown diseases.

Peruvian girls

However, other reasons for the decrease of Amerindian population include violence during the conquest followed by the breakdown of the Inca social system and famine. The Amerindian population suffered further decrease as the Spanish exploited an Inca communal labor system called mita for mining purposes, thus killing thousands in forced labor.

Spaniards arrived in large numbers under colonial rule. After the independence, there has been a gradual European immigration from Austria, England, France, Germany, Italy, Croatia and Spain.[11] Polynesians also came to the country lured to work in the Guano islands during the boom years of this commodity around the 1860s. Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers in the sugar plantations of the north coast and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.[12] Other immigrant groups include Arabs, South Asians, Japanese and Americans from the United States.[citation needed]

Mestizos compose about 45%[13] of the total population. The term traditionally denotes Amerindian and European ancestry (mostly Spaniard ancestry and to a lesser degree, Italian). This term, was part of the caste classification during colonial times, whereby people of exclusive Spanish descend but born in the colonies were called criollos, people of mixed Amerindian and Spanish descend were called mestizos, those of African and Spanish descend were called mulatos and those of Amerindian and African descend were called zambos. Nowadays, these terms have racist connotations.

Most Peruvian mestizos are of Amerindian and European descent, but other ethnic backgrounds (such as Asian, Middle Eastern and African) are also present, in varying degrees, in some segments of the mestizo population. Most mestizos are urban dwellers and show stronger European inheritance in regions like Lima Region, La Libertad Region, Callao Region, Pasco Region, Cajamarca Region, Piura Region, Lambayeque Region, and Arequipa Region.

Amerindians constitute around 32%[14][15] of the total population. The two major indigenous or ethnic groups are the Quechuas (belonging to various cultural subgroups), followed by the Aymaras, mostly found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the indigenous population who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua or Aymara, and have vibrant cultural traditions, some of which were part of the Inca Empire. Dozens of indigenous cultures are also dispersed throughout the country beyond the Andes Mountains in the Amazon basin. This region is rapidly becoming urbanized. Important urban centers include Iquitos, Nauta, Puerto Maldonado, Pucallpa and Yurimaguas. This region is home to numerous indigenous peoples, though they do not constitute a large proportion of the total population. Examples of indigenous peoples residing in eastern Peru include the Shipibo, Urarina,[16] Cocama, and Aguaruna, to name just a few.

European descendants constitute around 20%[13] of the total population.[17] They are descendants of the Spanish colonizers and other Europeans such as Italians, British, French, Germans, Jews and Croatians (see also Croats) who arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries. The majority of them live also in the largest cities (like mestizos), usually in the North and Center of Peru: Lima, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Cajamarca and San Martin. The only southern city with a significant white population is Arequipa. Recently, Peru has seen a migration of American retirees and businessmen come to settle in the country, due to lower cost of living and economic booms in the 1990s and 2000s, though Peru experiences busts in between.[citation needed]

Chinatown in Lima

There is also a large presence of Asian Peruvians, primarily Chinese and Japanese along with recent arrived Koreans and other Asian immigrants, that constitutes 3% of the population, which in proportion to the overall population is the second largest of any Latin American nation, after Panama. Peru has the second largest population of people of Japanese descent in Latin America after Brazil and the largest population of Chinese descent in Latin America. Historic communities inhabited by people of Chinese descent are found throughout the Peruvian upper Amazon, including cities such as Yurimaguas, Nauta, Iquitos and the north central coast (Lambayeque and Trujillo). In contrast to the Japanese community in Peru, the Chinese appear to have intermarried much more since they came to work in the rice fields during the Viceroyalty and to replace the African slaves, during the abolition of slavery itself. Despite the presence of Peruvians of Asian heritage being quite recent, in the past decade they have made significant advancements in business and political fields; a past president (Alberto Fujimori), several past cabinet members, and one member of the Peruvian congress are of Japanese or Chinese origin. Small numbers of Arab Peruvians, mostly of Lebanese and Syrian origin, and Palestinians also reside, as well a small Hindustani and Pakistani community.[citation needed]

El Señor de los Milagros Procession

The remaining is constituted by Afro-Peruvians, a legacy of Peru's history as an importer of slaves during the colonial period. Today also mulattos (mixed African and European) and zambos (mixed African and Amerindian) constitute an important part of the population as well, especially in Piura, Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and Ica regions. The Afro-Peruvian population is concentrated mostly in coastal cities south of Lima, such as that of those found in the Ica Region, in cities like Cañete, Chincha, Ica, Nazca and Acarí in the border with the Arequipa Region. Another large but poorly promoted segment of Afro-Peruvian presence is in the Yunga regions (west and just below the Andean chain of northern Peru), (i.e., Piura and Lambayeque), where sugarcane, lemon, and mango production are still of importance. Important communities are found all over the Morropón Province, such as in the city of Chulucanas. One of them is Yapatera, a community in the same city, as well as smaller farming communities like Pabur or La Matanza and even in the mountainous region near Canchaque. Further south, the colonial city of Zaña or farming towns like Capote and Tuman in Lambayeque are also important regions with Afro-Peruvian presence.

Socioeconomic and cultural indicators are increasingly important as identifiers. For example, Peruvians of Amerindian descent who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture also are beginning to consider themselves "mestizo". With economic development, access to education, intermarriage, and large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, a more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along the relatively more prosperous coast. Peruvians view themselves as a racially mixed people: a "half indigenous, a third European, a sixth African and one part Asiatic" composition as a "melting pot" recipe for a Peruvian stew.[citation needed]

Most of Peru's population (about 50% percent) lives in the Costa (coastal area), while 36% live in the Sierra (the Andes) and only 12% in the Selva or Amazon rain forest[citation needed]. Almost one third of the nation's population lives in the Lima and Callao Metropolitan Area[citation needed]. Lima is home to over 8 million Peruvians, one of South America's largest urban areas, it includes the neighboring community of Callao that's grown fast and expanded since the 1960s.


According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and, Amerindian languages such as Quechua, Aymara and other such indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Today, Spanish is spoken by some 83.9% Spanish is used by the government and the media and in education and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin.

Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socioeconomic divide between the coast's mestizo-Hispanic culture and the more diverse, traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional customs, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the mestizo-Hispanic culture.

Amerindian woman with child

According to official sources, the use of Spanish has increased while the knowledge and use of indigenous languages has decreased considerably during the last four decades (1960–2000). At the beginning of the 1960s some 39% of the total Peruvian population were registered as speakers of indigenous languages, but by the 1990s the figures show a considerable decline in the use of Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages, when only 28% is registered as Quechua-speaking (16% of whom are reported to be bilingual in Spanish) and Spanish-speakers increased to 72%.

For 2005, government figures place Spanish as being spoken by 80.3% of the population, but among Amerindian languages another decrease is registered. Of the indigenous languages, Quechua remains the most spoken, and even today is used by some 16.2% of the total Peruvian population, or a third of Peru's total indigenous population. The number of Aymara-speakers and other indigenous languages is placed at 3%, and foreign languages 0.2%.

The drastic decline in use and knowledge of indigenous languages is largely attributed to the recent demographic factors. The urbanization and assimilation of Peru's Amerindian plurality into the Hispanic-mestizo culture, as well as the new socioeconomic factors associated with class structure have given privilege to the use of Spanish at the expense of the Amerindian languages which were spoken by the majority of the population less than a century ago.

The major obstacle to a more widespread use of the Quechua language is the fact that multiple dialects of this language exist. Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, was originally and remains essentially an oral language. Therefore, there is a lack of modern media which use it: for example books, newspapers, software, magazines, technical journals, etc. However, non-governmental organizations as well as state sponsored groups are involved in projects to edit and translate major works into the Quechua language; for instance, in late 2005 a version of Don Quixote was presented in Quechua. There has also been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken.

The percentage of native speakers of Quechua who are illiterate has been decreasing lately, as 86.87% of the Peruvian population is literate. More encouraging, nationwide literacy rate of youth aged 15 to 24 years is high, and considered an achievement in Peruvian educational standards.[citation needed]


Peruvian school children with an OLPC XO-1 laptop

Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory. The system is highly centralized, with the Ministry of Education appointing all public school teachers. Although 83% of Peru's students attend public schools at all levels, over 15% percent (usually the upper-classes) attend private schools if their parents can afford to pay for the tuition.

School enrollment has been rising sharply for years, due to a widening educational effort by the government and a growing school-age population. The illiteracy (2008) rate is estimated at 7.1% (10.6% for women), 19.0% in rural areas and 3.7% in urban areas [2]. Quechua is mostly an oral language, so in some cases, in rural areas, people do not speak Spanish and therefore do not know how to read or write. Elementary and secondary school enrollment is about 7.7 million. Peru's 74 universities (1999), 39% public and 61% private institutions, enrolled about 322000 students in 1999.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Planeamiento Urbano - Perú: Áreas metropolitanas (Pag. 3)" (PDF). 
  4. ^ INEI (ed.). "Peru: Estimated population by sex according to Departamento, province and district 2012 -2015 - INEI" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved September 20, 2012. 
  5. ^ INEI (ed.). "Lima metropolitan area". 
  6. ^ Plandemetru - Trujillo municipality (ed.). "Plan de desarrollo metropolitano de Trujillo - Plandemetru" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Arequipa municipality (ed.). "Plan director de Arequipa" (PDF). 
  9. ^ Noble David Cook, Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620, p. 114.
  10. ^ The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs
  11. ^ Mario Vázquez, "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru", pp. 79–81.
  12. ^ Magnus Mörner, Race mixture in the history of Latin America, p. 131.
  13. ^ a b Universia, Poblacion de Peru
  14. ^
  15. ^ The Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  16. ^ Dean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5 [1]
  17. ^ Poblacion-De-Peru