Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2014 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
Largest cities and towns in Poland (over 20,000 citizens; 2010 data)
Alternative map

The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

According to the 2011 census by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2011 Poland had a population of 38,538,447[1], which translates into an average population density of 123 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009, it was expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographic picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Like many developed nations, Poland is aging. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it may be 51 by 2050.[2] As the population is aging, it also started to decline in the 1990's mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration which impacted the economy, however this has started to change. The number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1.31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Central Europe, but has started to improve in recent years.[3][4]

Historical population[edit]

Population of Poland 1900-2010

For many centuries, until the end of World War II in 1945, the population of Poland included many significant ethnic minorities.

Twentieth century[edit]

The population of Poland decreased by about six million due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust and German occupation during World War II (1939-1945), and Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous areas in Europe (next to the populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic) as a result of radically altered borders and population expulsions at the end of and after the war. The post-war population movements were accompanied by two waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish populations (1944-1946) from the pre-war territories of Eastern Poland, which today form parts of Lithuania, of Belarus and of Ukraine, the transfer of ethnic Ukrainians back to the USSR (1944-1946), and the expulsion of Germans (1945-1950) to Germany from German provinces which fell into the Soviet Zone of Occupation and which the Soviets then awarded to the communist government in Poland.

Recent trends[edit]

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6 to 7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[5]

In the 21st century many Poles migrated following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004 and the opening of the EU's labor market; with approximately 2 million (primarily young) Poles taking up jobs abroad.[6]

Vital statistics[edit]

  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3 (2014)

Total Fertility Rate from 1800 to 1920[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[7]

Years 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.28 6.26 6.25 6.23 6.22 6.2 6.19 6.17 6.16 6.14 6.12
Years 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.11 6.09 6.08 6.06 6.05 6.03 6.03 6.16 6.3 6.03
Years 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.3 6.03 5.76 5.49 6.83 6.16 6.3 6.22 6.14 6.06
Years 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.98 5.9 6.43 6.83 5.9 6.3 6.57 6.03 6.43 6.57
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.16 6.43 6.3 6.03 5.36 5.49 5.09 4.82 5.49 5.63
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.63 5.49 5.63 5.36 4.82 5.36 5.76 6.3 6.57 6.57
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.43 6.97 6.57 6.2 5.83 5.46 5.09 5.63 5.63 6.16
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.76 5.49 5.76 5.76 5.49 5.49 5.23 5.23 5.36 5.23
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.09 5.23 5.23 5.09 5.36 5.36 5.36 5.49 5.76 5.63
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.63 5.36 5.63 5.9 5.9 5.76 5.63 5.49 5.49 5.49
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.36 5.36 5.09 5.09 4.96 5.09 5.09 4.96 4.96 4.82
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 4.69 4.56 4.69 4.82 3.89 3.62 3.22 3.22 4.42 4.69

Vital statistics from 1921 to 1945[edit]

[8][9][10]

Year [11] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][7]
1921 27 224 000 890 400 568 300 322 100 32.7 20.9 11.8 4.4
1922 27 846 000 983 100 554 600 482 500 35.3 19.9 15.4 4.73
1923 28 480 000 1 014 700 493 800 520 900 35.6 17.3 18.3 4.82
1924 29 007 000 1 000 100 519 200 480 900 34.5 17.9 16.6 4.69
1925 29 475 000 1 036 600 492 200 544 400 35.2 16.7 18.5 4.74
1926 29 906 000 989 100 532 700 456 400 33.1 17.8 15.3 4.44
1927 30 302 000 958 733 525 633 433 100 31.6 17.3 14.3 4.23
1928 30 693 000 990 993 504 207 486 786 32.3 16.4 15.9 4.29
1929 31 084 000 994 101 518 929 475 172 32.0 16.7 15.3 4.26
1930 31 490 000 1 022 811 488 417 534 394 32.5 15.5 17.0 4.33
1931 31 935 000 964 573 493 703 470 870 30.2 15.5 14.7 4.05
1932 32 394 000 934 663 486 548 448 115 28.9 15.0 13.8 3.87
1933 32 823 000 868 675 466 210 402 465 26.5 14.2 12.3 3.55
1934 33 223 000 881 615 479 684 401 931 26.5 14.4 12.1 3.56
1935 33 616 000 876 667 470 998 405 669 26.1 14.0 12.1 3.5
1936 34 020 000 892 320 482 633 409 687 26.2 14.2 12.0 3.51
1937 34 441 000 856 064 481 594 374 470 24.9 14.0 10.9 3.34
1938 34 849 000 849 873 479 602 370 271 24.4 13.8 10.6 3.26
Years 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[7]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 3.23 3.21 3.18 3.16 3.13 3.11 3.08

After World War II[edit]

[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17][7][18]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates Life expectancy (males) Life expectancy (females) Share of births outside marriage Immigration Emigration Net external migration
1946 23 777 000 570 000 335 000 235 000 24.0 14.1 9.9 3.06
1947 23 970 000 630 000 271 000 359 000 26.3 11.3 15.0 3.51
1948 23 980 000 704 772 268 000 436 772 29.4 11.2 18.2 3.93
1949 24 410 000 725 061 284 000 441 061 29.7 11.6 18.1 3.94
1950 24 824 000 763 108 288 685 474 423 30.7 11.6 19.1 3,705 56,07 61,68
1951 25 271 000 783 597 312 314 471 283 31.0 12.4 18.6 3,745 55,11 60,67
1952 25 753 000 778 962 286 730 492 232 30.2 11.1 19.1 3,670 57,59 63,07
1953 26 255 000 779 000 266 527 512 473 29.7 10.2 19.5 3,605 59,58 65,05
1954 26 761 000 778 054 276 406 501 648 29.1 10.3 18.7 3,580 59,8 65,06
1955 27 281 000 793 847 261 576 532 271 29.1 9.6 19.5 3,605 60,82 66,19
1956 27 815 000 779 835 249 606 530 229 28.0 9.0 19.1 3,605 62,29 67,52
1957 28 310 000 782 319 269 137 513 182 27.6 9.5 18.1 3,485 61,2 66,7
1958 28 770 000 752 600 241 435 511 165 26.2 8.4 17.8 3,355 63,08 68,57
1959 29 240 000 722 928 252 430 470 498 24.7 8.6 16.1 3,215 62,71 68,3
1960 29 561 000 669 485 224 167 445 318 22.6 7.6 15.1 2,98 64,94 70,6
1961 29 965 000 627 624 227 759 399 865 20.9 7.6 13.3 2,83 64,91 70,78
1962 30 324 000 599 505 239 199 360 306 19.8 7.9 11.9 2,72 64,53 70,49
1963 30 691 000 588 235 230 072 358 163 19.2 7.5 11.7 2,70 65,41 71,52
1964 31 161 000 562 855 235 919 326 936 18.1 7.6 10.5 2,57 65,78 71,6
1965 31 496 000 546 362 232 421 313 941 17.3 7.4 10.0 2,52 66,58 72,4
1966 31 698 000 530 307 232 945 297 362 16.7 7.3 9.4 2,33 66,87 72,85
1967 31 944 000 520 383 247 705 272 678 16.3 7.8 8.5 2,30 66,44 72,61
1968 32 426 000 524 174 244 115 280 059 16.2 7.5 8.6 2,24 67,04 73,55
1969 32 555 000 531 135 262 823 268 312 16.3 8.1 8.2 2,20 66,5 73,09
1970 32 526 000 545 973 266 799 279 174 16.8 8.2 8.6 2,22 66,62 73,33 5,0
1971 32 805 000 562 341 283 702 278 639 17.1 8.6 8.5 2,25 66,13 73,25
1972 33 068 000 575 725 265 250 310 475 17.4 8.0 9.4 2,24 67,32 74,17
1973 33 363 000 598 559 277 188 321 371 17.9 8.3 9.6 2,24 67,15 74,3
1974 33 691 000 621 080 277 085 343 995 18.4 8.2 10.2 2,26 67,8 74,64
1975 34 022 000 643 772 296 896 346 876 18.9 8.7 10.2 2,27 67,02 74,26 4,7
1976 34 362 000 670 140 304 057 366 083 19.5 8.8 10.7 2,31 66,92 74,55
1977 34 698 000 662 582 312 956 349 626 19.1 9.0 10.1 2,33 66,49 74,5
1978 35 010 000 666 336 325 104 341 232 19.0 9.3 9.7 2,30 66,36 74,53
1979 35 257 000 688 293 323 048 365 245 19.5 9.2 10.4 2,39 66,79 74,91 4,8
1980 35 578 000 692 798 350 203 342 595 19.5 9.8 9.6 2,42 66,01 74,44
1981 35 902 000 678 696 328 923 349 773 18.9 9.2 9.7 2,34 67,1 75,24
1982 36 227 000 702 351 334 869 367 482 19.4 9.2 10.1 2,38 67,24 75,2
1983 36 571 000 720 756 349 388 371 368 19.7 9.6 10.2 2,41 67,04 75,16
1984 36 914 000 699 041 364 883 334 158 18.9 9.9 9.1 2,36 66,84 74,97
1985 37 203 000 677 576 381 458 296 118 18.2 10.3 8.0 2,33 66,5 74,81 5,0
1986 37 456 000 634 748 376 316 258 432 16.9 10.0 6.9 2,21 66,76 75,13
1987 37 664 000 605 492 378 365 227 127 16.1 10.0 6.0 2,15 66,81 75,2
1988 37 862 000 587 741 370 821 216 920 15.5 9.8 5.7 2,12 67,15 75,67
1989 37 963 000 562 530 381 173 181 357 14.8 10.0 4.8 2,08 66,76 75,45
1990 38 119 000 545 817 390 343 155 474 14.3 10.2 4.1 2,04 66,23 75,24 6,2
1991 38 245 000 547 719 405 716 142 003 14.3 10.6 3.7 2,05 65,88 75,06 6,6
1992 38 365 000 515 214 394 729 120 485 13.4 10.3 3.1 1,91 66,47 75,48 7,2
1993 38 459 000 494 310 392 259 102 051 12.9 10.2 2.7 1,86 67,17 75,81 8,2
1994 38 544 000 481 285 386 398 94 887 12.5 10.0 2.5 1,78 67,5 76,08 9,0
1995 38 588 000 443 109 386 084 57 025 11.5 10.0 1.5 1,65 67,62 76,39 9,5
1996 38 618 000 428 203 385 496 42 707 11.1 10.0 1.1 1,58 68,12 76,57 10,2
1997 38 650 000 412 635 380 201 32 434 10.7 9.8 0.8 1,52 68,45 76,99 11,0
1998 38 666 000 395 619 375 354 20 265 10.2 9.7 0.5 1,44 68,87 77,34 11,6
1999 38 654 000 382 002 381 415 587 9.9 9.9 0.0 1,37 68,83 77,49 11,7
2000 38 649 000 378 348 368 028 10 320 9.8 9.5 0.3 1,35 69,74 78 12,1
2001 38 248 000 368 205 363 220 4 985 9.6 9.5 0.1 1,32 70,21 78,38 13,1
2002 38 231 000 353 765 359 486 -5 721 9.3 9.4 -0.1 1,25 70,42 78,78 14,4
2003 38 205 000 351 072 365 230 -14 158 9.2 9.6 -0.4 1,22 70,52 78,9 15,8
2004 38 183 000 356 131 363 522 -7 391 9.3 9.5 -0.2 1,23 70,67 79,23 17,1
2005 38 166 000 364 383 368 285 -3 902 9.5 9.6 -0.1 1,24 70,81 79,4 18,5
2006 38 141 000 374 244 369 686 4 558 9.8 9.7 0.1 1,27 70,93 79,62 18,9
2007 38 121 000 387 873 377 226 10 647 10.2 9.9 0.3 1,31 70,96 79,74 19,5
2008 38 126 000 414 499 379 399 35 100 10.9 10.0 0.9 1,39 71,26 79,96 19,9
2009 38 152 000 417 589 384 940 32 649 10.9 10.1 0.9 1,40 71,53 80,05 20,2
2010 38 530 000 413 300 378 500 34 800 10,7 9,8 0,9 1,41 72,1 80,59 20,6
2011 38 538 000 388 400 375 500 12 900 10,1 9,7 0,3 1,33 72,44 80,9 21,2
2012 38 533 000 387 858 384 788 3 070 10,1 10,0 0,1 1,33 72,71 80,98 22,3
2013 38 496 000 369 600 387 300 -17 700 9,6 10,1 -0,5 1,29 73,1 81,1 23,4
2014 38 479 000 375 160 376 467 -1 307 9,7 9,8 -0,1 1,32 73,75 81,61 24,2
2015 38 437 000 369 308 394 921 -25 613 9,6 10,3 -0,7 1,32 73,58 81,57 24,6 12 330 28 080 -15 750
2016 38 433 000 382 257 388 009 -5 752 9,9 10,1 -0,2 1,39 73,94 81,94 25,0 13 500 12 000 1 500
2017 38 434 000 401 982 402 852 -870 10,5 10,5 -0,0 1,46 13 324 11 888 1 436

Current vital statistics[edit]

[19] [20]

Number of births from January-June 2017 =Increase 200,000 (10,4‰)

Number of births from January-June 2018 =Decrease 193,700 (10,1‰)

Number of deaths from January-June 2017 =Negative increase 210,800 (11,0‰)

Number of deaths from January-June 2018 =Negative increase 215,200 (11,2‰)

Natural increase from January-June 2017 =Increase -10,700 (-0,6‰)

Natural increase from January-June 2018 =Decrease -21,500 (-1,1‰)

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 61.4 1985–1990 70.7
1955–1960 65.9 1990–1995 71.2
1960–1965 68.3 1995–2000 72.7
1965–1970 69.8 2000–2005 74.6
1970–1975 70.3 2005–2010 75.6
1975–1980 70.4 2010–2015 77.0
1980–1985 70.7

Source: UN World Population Prospects[21]

Structure of the population[edit]

[22][23]

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (estimates, excluding civilian aliens within the country, but including civilian nationals temporarily outside the country) :
Age group Male Female Total %
Total 18 651 441 19 882 348 38 533 789 100
0-4 1 058 874 1 005 069 2 063 943 5,36
5-9 945 643 897 723 1 843 366 4,78
10-14 974 509 925 506 1 900 015 4,93
15-19 1 158 367 1 108 267 2 266 634 5,88
20-24 1 394 761 1 341 393 2 736 154 7,10
25-29 1 623 072 1 575 546 3 198 618 8,30
30-34 1 602 736 1 558 622 3 161 358 8,20
35-39 1 470 751 1 432 822 2 903 573 7,54
40-44 1 231 083 1 209 751 2 440 834 6,33
45-49 1 196 548 1 192 952 2 389 500 6,20
50-54 1 369 258 1 414 996 2 784 254 7,23
55-59 1 404 141 1 522 140 2 926 281 7,59
60-64 1 163 935 1 350 684 2 514 619 6,53
65-69 675 573 861 584 1 537 157 3,99
70-74 529 739 776 722 1 306 461 3,39
75-79 424 407 720 249 1 144 656 2,97
80-84 278 428 566 126 844 554 2,19
85-89 115 213 311 388 426 601 1,11
90-94 28 565 91 223 119 788 0,31
95-99 4 614 18 265 22 879 0,06
100+ 224 1 320 1 544 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 979 026 2 828 298 5 807 324 15,07
15-64 13 615 652 13 707 173 27 322 825 70,91
65+ 2 056 763 3 346 877 5 403 640 14,02
Structure of the population (30.06.2015) (estimates) :
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 18 607 417 19 847 159 38 454 576 100
0-4 982 639 928 662 1 911 301 4.97
5-9 1 047 830 996 205 2 044 035 5.32
10-14 924 671 877 780 1 802 451 4.69
15-19 1 028 884 979 585 2 008 469 5.22
20-24 1 257 703 1 209 498 2 467 201 6.42
25-29 1 464 438 1 417 040 2 881 478 7.49
30-34 1 647 147 1 602 930 3 250 077 8.45
35-39 1 561 396 1 522 202 3 083 598 8.02
40-44 1 354 899 1 329 476 2 684 375 6.98
45-49 1 166 358 1 160 878 2 327 236 6.05
50-54 1 211 294 1 238 398 2 449 692 6.37
55-59 1 386 303 1 489 816 2 876 119 7.48
60-64 1 256 035 1 443 985 2 700 020 7.0
65-69 917 893 1 147 725 2 065 618 5.37
70-74 501 311 716 224 1 217 535 3.17
75-79 426 059 715 629 1 141 688 2.97
80-84 287 908 573 415 861 323 2.24
85+ 184 649 497 711 682 360 1.77
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 955 140 2 802 647 5 757 787 14.97
15-64 13 334 457 13 393 808 26 728 265 69.51
65+ 2 317 820 3 650 704 5 968 524 15.52

Demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[24]

  • One birth every 2 minutes
  • One death every 1 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 8 minutes
  • One net migrant every 53 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[25]

Population
38,476,269 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 14.76% (male 2,919,353/female 2,757,923)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 2,113,358/female 2,003,033)
25-54 years: 43.48% (male 8,447,418/female 8,283,757)
55-64 years: 14.21% (male 2,586,097/female 2,880,031)
65 years and over: 16.86% (male 2,560,847/female 3,924,452) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)
0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.35 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 215th
Median age
total: 40.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 47th
male: 39 years
female: 42.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate
-0.13% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 206th
Birth rate
9.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 202th
Death rate
10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 118th
Mother's mean age at first birth
27.4 years (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 182th
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 67th
male: 73.9 years
female: 81.8 years (2017 est.)
total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 20.8%. Country comparison to the world: 62th
male: 20.7%
female: 20.9% (2015 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
Population distribution

Population concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk

Ethnic groups

Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)

Languages

Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3% note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)

Religions

Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)

Nationalities[edit]

97.10% of the people of Poland claim sole or partial Polish nationality, and 98.19% declare that they speak Polish at home (2011). Among minority groups, the largest numbers of respondents claimed Silesian nationality , followed by Kashubian , German , Ukrainian , Vietnamese , Belarusian and Russians [26] The statistics on Ukrainians do not include recently arrived migrant workers, which a report by the National Bank of Poland estimated at around 1 million in 2015.[27]

Largest metropolitan and urban areas[edit]

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [28] Eurostat LUZ [29] Ministry of Regional Development[30] United Nations [31] Demographia.com[32] Citypopulation.de[33] Scientific study by T. Markowski[34] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [35]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[36](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town[edit]

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
1 Warsaw Masovian 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627
6 Gdańsk Pomeranian 461,334 456,658 456,967
7 Szczecin Western Pomeranian 415,399 409,068 405,606
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomeranian 373,804 363,468 356,177
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450
10 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826
11 Białystok (Demographics) Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324
13 Częstochowa Silesian 251,436 245,030 238,042
14 Radom Masovian 229,699 225,810 222,496
15 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638
16 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312
17 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804
18 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472
19 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913
20 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617
21 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227
22 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463
23 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008
24 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410
26 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386
27 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431
28 Płock Masovia 128,361 127,224 126,061
29 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049
30 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710
31 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394
32 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197
33 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 138,512 117,699
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757
41 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665

Demographics by voivodeship[edit]

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Ethnic groups[edit]

Map of at least 10% non-Polish areas
Population background % Population[37]
European 98.6 37,962,000
European Union 98.2 37,813,000
     Ethnic Polish (including Silesians and Kashubians) 97.7 37,602,000
     Other EU member states (primarily German) 0.5 211,000
European Other (primarily Ukrainian and Belarusian) 0.4 149,000
Other background (primarily Vietnamese and Chechen) <0.1 29,000
Mixed or unspecified background 1.4 521,000
Total population 100 38,512,000

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 91%, Orthodox 1%, Other 2%, atheist/non-believer/agnostic 5%, not stated 1% (Eurobarometer 2012)[38]

Languages[edit]

Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.

References[edit]

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  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
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  36. ^ Data of polycentric Silesian metropolitan area
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External links[edit]