Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2014 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
Largest cities and towns in Poland (over 20,000 citizens; 2010 data)
Alternative map
Population density in Poland by powiat (county).

The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950 24,824,018—    
1960 29,614,201+19.3%
1970 32,639,258+10.2%
1980 35,539,720+8.9%
1990 37,960,653+6.8%
2000 38,556,693+1.6%
2010 38,321,789−0.6%
2020 37,846,611−1.2%
Source: United Nations Population Division[1]

According to the 2011 census by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2011 Poland had a population of 38,538,447,[2] which translates into an average population density of 123 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 37th most populous country in the world (8th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). In 2018, the average life expectancy was 77.9 years; 74.1 for men and 82 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographic picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Like many developed nations, Poland is ageing. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it may be 51 by 2050.[3] As the population is ageing, it also started to decline in the 1990s mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration overseas which impacted the local economy; however this has started to change, with the Polish government encouraging citizens to return to Poland with increased wage incentives. The number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1.31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Central Europe, but has started to increase in recent years.[4][5]

Historical population[edit]

Population of Poland 1900-2010

For many centuries, until the end of World War II in 1945, the population of Poland included many significant ethnic minorities.

Twentieth century[edit]

The population of Poland decreased by about six million due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust and German occupation during World War II (1939-1945), and Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous areas in Europe (next to the populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic) as a result of radically altered borders and population expulsions at the end of and after the war. The post-war population movements were accompanied by waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish populations (1944–1946) from Poland's pre-war eastern territories which were incorporated into the Soviet Union, the expulsion of ethnic Ukrainians to the USSR (1944–1946), Operation Vistula (1947), and the expulsion of Germans (1945–1950) from former German provinces awarded to Poland.

Recent trends[edit]

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6 to 7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[6]

In the 21st century many Poles migrated following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004 and the opening of the EU's labor market; with approximately 2 million (primarily young) Poles taking up jobs abroad.[7]

Vital statistics[edit]

Total fertility rate by Polish regions in 2014 (Eurostat)
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

[8][9][10]

Total Fertility Rate from 1800 to 1920[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[11]

Years 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.28 6.26 6.25 6.23 6.22 6.2 6.19 6.17 6.16 6.14 6.12
Years 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.11 6.09 6.08 6.06 6.05 6.03 6.03 6.16 6.3 6.03
Years 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.3 6.03 5.76 5.49 6.83 6.16 6.3 6.22 6.14 6.06
Years 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.98 5.9 6.43 6.83 5.9 6.3 6.57 6.03 6.43 6.57
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.16 6.43 6.3 6.03 5.36 5.49 5.09 4.82 5.49 5.63
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.63 5.49 5.63 5.36 4.82 5.36 5.76 6.3 6.57 6.57
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 6.43 6.97 6.57 6.2 5.83 5.46 5.09 5.63 5.63 6.16
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.76 5.49 5.76 5.76 5.49 5.49 5.23 5.23 5.36 5.23
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.09 5.23 5.23 5.09 5.36 5.36 5.36 5.49 5.76 5.63
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.63 5.36 5.63 5.9 5.9 5.76 5.63 5.49 5.49 5.49
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 5.36 5.36 5.09 5.09 4.96 5.09 5.09 4.96 4.96 4.82
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 4.69 4.56 4.69 4.82 3.89 3.62 3.22 3.22 4.42 4.69

Vital statistics from 1921 to 1938[edit]

Birth and death rates in Poland between 1921 and 1938

[8][9][12]

Year [13] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][11]
1921 27,224,000 890,400 568,300 322,100 32.7 20.9 11.8 4.40
1922 27,846,000 983,100 554,600 482,500 35.3 19.9 15.4 4.73
1923 28,480,000 1,014,700 493,800 520,900 35.6 17.3 18.3 4.82
1924 29,007,000 1,000,100 519,200 480,900 34.5 17.9 16.6 4.69
1925 29,475,000 1,036,600 492,200 544,400 35.2 16.7 18.5 4.74
1926 29,906,000 989,100 532,700 456,400 33.1 17.8 15.3 4.44
1927 30,302,000 958,733 525,633 433,100 31.6 17.3 14.3 4.23
1928 30,693,000 990,993 504,207 486,786 32.3 16.4 15.9 4.29
1929 31,084,000 994,101 518,929 475,172 32.0 16.7 15.3 4.26
1930 31,490,000 1,022,811 488,417 534,394 32.5 15.5 17.0 4.33
1931 31,935,000 964,573 493,703 470,870 30.2 15.5 14.7 4.05
1932 32,394,000 934,663 486,548 448,115 28.9 15.0 13.8 3.87
1933 32,823,000 868,675 466,210 402,465 26.5 14.2 12.3 3.55
1934 33,223,000 881,615 479,684 401,931 26.5 14.4 12.1 3.56
1935 33,616,000 876,667 470,998 405,669 26.1 14.0 12.1 3.50
1936 34,020,000 892,320 482,633 409,687 26.2 14.2 12.0 3.51
1937 34,441,000 856,064 481,594 374,470 24.9 14.0 10.9 3.34
1938 34,849,000 849,873 479,602 370,271 24.4 13.8 10.6 3.26
Years 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[11]
Total Fertility Rate in Poland 3.23 3.21 3.18 3.16 3.13 3.11 3.08

After World War II[edit]

[14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19][11][20][21]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates Life expectancy (males) Life expectancy (females) Share of births outside marriage Immigration Emigration Net external migration
1946 23,777,000 570,000 335,000 235,000 24.0 14.1 9.9 3.06
1947 23,970,000 630,000 271,000 359,000 26.3 11.3 15.0 3.51
1948 23,980,000 704,772 268,000 436,772 29.4 11.2 18.2 3.93
1949 24,410,000 725,061 284,000 441,061 29.7 11.6 18.1 3.94
1950 24,824,000 763,108 288,685 474,423 30.7 11.6 19.1 3.71 56.07 61.68
1951 25,271,000 783,597 312,314 471,283 31.0 12.4 18.6 3.75 55.11 60.67
1952 25,753,000 778,962 286,730 492,232 30.2 11.1 19.1 3.67 57.59 63.07
1953 26,255,000 779,000 266,527 512,473 29.7 10.2 19.5 3.61 59.58 65.05
1954 26,761,000 778,054 276,406 501,648 29.1 10.3 18.7 3.58 59.80 65.06
1955 27,281,000 793,847 261,576 532,271 29.1 9.6 19.5 3.61 60.82 66.19
1956 27,815,000 779,835 249,606 530,229 28.0 9.0 19.1 3.61 62.29 67.52
1957 28,310,000 782,319 269,137 513,182 27.6 9.5 18.1 3.49 61.20 66.70
1958 28,770,000 752,600 241,435 511,165 26.2 8.4 17.8 3.36 63.08 68.57
1959 29,240,000 722,928 252,430 470,498 24.7 8.6 16.1 3.22 62.71 68.30
1960 29,561,000 669,485 224,167 445,318 22.6 7.6 15.1 2.98 64.94 70.60
1961 29,965,000 627,624 227,759 399,865 20.9 7.6 13.3 2.83 64.91 70.78
1962 30,324,000 599,505 239,199 360,306 19.8 7.9 11.9 2.72 64.53 70.49
1963 30,691,000 588,235 230,072 358,163 19.2 7.5 11.7 2.70 65.41 71.52
1964 31,161,000 562,855 235,919 326,936 18.1 7.6 10.5 2.57 65.78 71.60
1965 31,496,000 546,362 232,421 313,941 17.3 7.4 10.0 2.52 66.58 72.40
1966 31,698,000 530,307 232,945 297,362 16.7 7.3 9.4 2.33 66.87 72.85
1967 31,944,000 520,383 247,705 272,678 16.3 7.8 8.5 2.30 66.44 72.61
1968 32,426,000 524,174 244,115 280,059 16.2 7.5 8.6 2.24 67.04 73.55
1969 32,555,000 531,135 262,823 268,312 16.3 8.1 8.2 2.20 66.50 73.09
1970 32,526,000 545,973 266,799 279,174 16.8 8.2 8.6 2.22 66.62 73.33 5.0
1971 32,805,000 562,341 283,702 278,639 17.1 8.6 8.5 2.25 66.13 73.25
1972 33,068,000 575,725 265,250 310,475 17.4 8.0 9.4 2.24 67.32 74.17
1973 33,363,000 598,559 277,188 321,371 17.9 8.3 9.6 2.24 67.15 74.30
1974 33,691,000 621,080 277,085 343,995 18.4 8.2 10.2 2.26 67.80 74.64
1975 34,022,000 643,772 296,896 346,876 18.9 8.7 10.2 2.27 67.02 74.26 4.7
1976 34,362,000 670,140 304,057 366,083 19.5 8.8 10.7 2.31 66.92 74.55
1977 34,698,000 662,582 312,956 349,626 19.1 9.0 10.1 2.33 66.49 74.50
1978 35,010,000 666,336 325,104 341,232 19.0 9.3 9.7 2.30 66.36 74.53
1979 35,257,000 688,293 323,048 365,245 19.5 9.2 10.4 2.39 66.79 74.91 4.8
1980 35,578,000 692,798 350,203 342,595 19.5 9.8 9.6 2.42 66.01 74.44
1981 35,902,000 678,696 328,923 349,773 18.9 9.2 9.7 2.34 67.10 75.24
1982 36,227,000 702,351 334,869 367,482 19.4 9.2 10.1 2.38 67.24 75.20
1983 36,571,000 720,756 349,388 371,368 19.7 9.6 10.2 2.41 67.04 75.16
1984 36,914,000 699,041 364,883 334,158 18.9 9.9 9.1 2.36 66.84 74.97
1985 37,203,000 677,576 381,458 296,118 18.2 10.3 8.0 2.33 66.50 74.81 5.0
1986 37,456,000 634,748 376,316 258,432 16.9 10.0 6.9 2.21 66.76 75.13
1987 37,664,000 605,492 378,365 227,127 16.1 10.0 6.0 2.15 66.81 75.20
1988 37,862,000 587,741 370,821 216,920 15.5 9.8 5.7 2.12 67.15 75.67
1989 37,963,000 562,530 381,173 181,357 14.8 10.0 4.8 2.08 66.76 75.45
1990 38,119,000 545,817 390,343 155,474 14.3 10.2 4.1 2.04 66.23 75.24 6.2
1991 38,245,000 547,719 405,716 142,003 14.3 10.6 3.7 2.05 65.88 75.06 6.6
1992 38,365,000 515,214 394,729 120,485 13.4 10.3 3.1 1.91 66.47 75.48 7.2
1993 38,459,000 494,310 392,259 102,051 12.9 10.2 2.7 1.86 67.17 75.81 8.2
1994 38,544,000 481,285 386,398 94,887 12.5 10.0 2.5 1.78 67.50 76.08 9.0
1995 38,588,000 443,109 386,084 57,025 11.5 10.0 1.5 1.65 67.62 76.39 9.5
1996 38,618,000 428,203 385,496 42,707 11.1 10.0 1.1 1.58 68.12 76.57 10.2
1997 38,650,000 412,635 380,201 32,434 10.7 9.8 0.8 1.52 68.45 76.99 11.0
1998 38,666,000 395,619 375,354 20,265 10.2 9.7 0.5 1.44 68.87 77.34 11.6
1999 38,654,000 382,002 381,415 587 9.9 9.9 0.0 1.37 68.83 77.49 11.7
2000 38,649,000 378,348 368,028 10,320 9.8 9.5 0.3 1.35 69.74 78.00 12.1
2001 38,248,000 368,205 363,220 4,985 9.6 9.5 0.1 1.32 70.21 78.38 13.1
2002 38,218,531 353,765 359,486 -5,721 9.3 9.4 -0.1 1.25 70.40 78.80 14.4 6,587 24,532 -17,945
2003 38,190,608 351,072 365,230 -14,158 9.2 9.6 -0.4 1.22 70.50 78.90 15.8 7,048 20,813 -13,765
2004 38,173,835 356,131 363,522 -7,391 9.3 9.5 -0.2 1.23 70.70 79.20 17.1 9,495 18,877 -9,382
2005 38,157,055 364,383 368,285 -3,902 9.5 9.6 -0.1 1.24 70.80 79.40 18.5 9,364 22,242 -12,878
2006 38,125,479 374,244 369,686 4,558 9.8 9.7 0.1 1.27 70.90 79.60 18.9 10,802 46,936 -36,134
2007 38,115,641 387,873 377,226 10,647 10.2 9.9 0.3 1.31 71.00 79.70 19.5 14,995 35,480 -20,485
2008 38,135,876 414,499 379,399 35,100 10.9 10.0 0.9 1.39 71.30 80.00 19.9 15,275 30,140 -14,865
2009 38,167,329 417,589 384,940 32,649 10.9 10.1 0.9 1.40 71.50 80.10 20.2 17,424 18,620 -1,196
2010 38,529,866 413,300 378,478 34,822 10.7 9.8 0.9 1.38 72.10 80.60 20.6 15,246 17,360 -2,114
2011 38,538,447 388,416 375,501 12,915 10.1 9.7 0.3 1.30 72.40 80.90 21.2 15,524 19,858 -4,334
2012 38,533,299 387,858 384,788 3,070 10.1 10.0 0.1 1.30 72.70 81.00 22.3 14,583 21,200 -6,617
2013 38,495,659 369,576 387,312 -17,736 9.6 10.1 -0.5 1.26 73.10 81.10 23.4 12,199 32,103 -19,904
2014 38,478,602 375,160 376,467 -1,307 9.7 9.8 -0.1 1.29 73.80 81.60 24.2 12,330 28,080 -15,750
2015 38,437,239 369,308 394,921 -25,613 9.6 10.3 -0.7 1.29 73.60 81.60 24.6 12,330 28,080 -15,750
2016 38,432,992 382,257 388,009 -5,752 9.9 10.1 -0.2 1.36 73.90 81.90 25.0 13,475 11,970 1,505
2017 38,433,558 401,982 402,852 -870 10.5 10.5 -0.0 1.46 74.00 81.80 24.1 13,324 11,888 1,436
2018 38,411,148 388,178 414,200 -26,022 10.1 10.8 -0.7 1.44 73.80 81.70 26.4 15,461 11,849 3,612
2019 38,382,576 374,954 409,709 -34,755 9.8 10.7 -0.9 1.42 16,909 10,726 6,183

Current vital statistics[edit]

[22]

Number of births from January-August 2019 = Decrease 252,500 (9.9‰)

Number of births from January-August 2020 = Decrease 240,900 (9.4‰)

Number of deaths from January-August 2019 = Positive decrease 274,600 (10.7‰)

Number of deaths from January-August 2020 = Negative increase 276,600 (10.8‰)

Natural increase from January-August 2019 = Decrease -22,200 (-0.9‰)

Natural increase from January-August 2020 = Decrease -35,700 (-1.4‰)

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 61.4 1985–1990 70.7
1955–1960 65.9 1990–1995 71.2
1960–1965 68.3 1995–2000 72.7
1965–1970 69.8 2000–2005 74.6
1970–1975 70.3 2005–2010 75.6
1975–1980 70.4 2010–2015 77.0
1980–1985 70.7

Source: UN World Population Prospects[23]

Structure of the population[edit]

[24][25]

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (estimates, excluding civilian aliens within the country, but including civilian nationals temporarily outside the country) :
Age group Male Female Total %
Total 18 651 441 19 882 348 38 533 789 100
0-4 1 058 874 1 005 069 2 063 943 5,36
5-9 945 643 897 723 1 843 366 4,78
10-14 974 509 925 506 1 900 015 4,93
15-19 1 158 367 1 108 267 2 266 634 5,88
20-24 1 394 761 1 341 393 2 736 154 7,10
25-29 1 623 072 1 575 546 3 198 618 8,30
30-34 1 602 736 1 558 622 3 161 358 8,20
35-39 1 470 751 1 432 822 2 903 573 7,54
40-44 1 231 083 1 209 751 2 440 834 6,33
45-49 1 196 548 1 192 952 2 389 500 6,20
50-54 1 369 258 1 414 996 2 784 254 7,23
55-59 1 404 141 1 522 140 2 926 281 7,59
60-64 1 163 935 1 350 684 2 514 619 6,53
65-69 675 573 861 584 1 537 157 3,99
70-74 529 739 776 722 1 306 461 3,39
75-79 424 407 720 249 1 144 656 2,97
80-84 278 428 566 126 844 554 2,19
85-89 115 213 311 388 426 601 1,11
90-94 28 565 91 223 119 788 0,31
95-99 4 614 18 265 22 879 0,06
100+ 224 1 320 1 544 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 979 026 2 828 298 5 807 324 15,07
15-64 13 615 652 13 707 173 27 322 825 70,91
65+ 2 056 763 3 346 877 5 403 640 14,02
Structure of the population (30.06.2015) (estimates) :
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 18 607 417 19 847 159 38 454 576 100
0-4 982 639 928 662 1 911 301 4.97
5-9 1 047 830 996 205 2 044 035 5.32
10-14 924 671 877 780 1 802 451 4.69
15-19 1 028 884 979 585 2 008 469 5.22
20-24 1 257 703 1 209 498 2 467 201 6.42
25-29 1 464 438 1 417 040 2 881 478 7.49
30-34 1 647 147 1 602 930 3 250 077 8.45
35-39 1 561 396 1 522 202 3 083 598 8.02
40-44 1 354 899 1 329 476 2 684 375 6.98
45-49 1 166 358 1 160 878 2 327 236 6.05
50-54 1 211 294 1 238 398 2 449 692 6.37
55-59 1 386 303 1 489 816 2 876 119 7.48
60-64 1 256 035 1 443 985 2 700 020 7.0
65-69 917 893 1 147 725 2 065 618 5.37
70-74 501 311 716 224 1 217 535 3.17
75-79 426 059 715 629 1 141 688 2.97
80-84 287 908 573 415 861 323 2.24
85+ 184 649 497 711 682 360 1.77
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 955 140 2 802 647 5 757 787 14.97
15-64 13 334 457 13 393 808 26 728 265 69.51
65+ 2 317 820 3 650 704 5 968 524 15.52

Demographic statistics[edit]

Breslaw's Age Pyramid in 1691 according to Edmund Halley
Birth and death rates of Poland in 1950-2008
Population pyramid of Poland in 2017

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[26]

  • One birth every 2 minutes
  • One death every 1 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 7 minutes
  • One net migrant every 53 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[21]

Population
38,420,687 (July 2018 est.)
38,476,269 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 14.8% (male 2,924,077 /female 2,762,634)
15-24 years: 10.34% (male 2,040,043 /female 1,932,009)
25-54 years: 43.44% (male 8,431,045 /female 8,260,124)
55-64 years: 13.95% (male 2,538,566 /female 2,819,544)
65 years and over: 17.47% (male 2,663,364 /female 4,049,281) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 14.76% (male 2,919,353/female 2,757,923)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 2,113,358/female 2,003,033)
25-54 years: 43.48% (male 8,447,418/female 8,283,757)
55-64 years: 14.21% (male 2,586,097/female 2,880,031)
65 years and over: 16.86% (male 2,560,847/female 3,924,452) (2017 est.)
0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
Median age
total: 41.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 44th
male: 39.4 years
female: 42.8 years (2018 est.)
total: 40.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 47th
male: 39 years
female: 42.4 years (2017 est.)
total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)
Birth rate
9.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 202nd
9.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 29th
10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.36 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 214th
Population growth rate
-0.16% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 206th
-0.13% (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 124th
Mother's mean age at first birth
27.4 years (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 182nd
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 43.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.9 years
male: 74.1 years
female: 82 years (2018 est.)
total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 60.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 17.7%. Country comparison to the world: 74th
male: 17.4%
female: 18% (2016 est.)
total: 20.8%
male: 20.7%
female: 20.9% (2015 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
Population distribution

Population concentrated in the southern area around Krakow and the central area around Warsaw and Lodz, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk

Ethnic groups

Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)

Languages

Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3% note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)

Religions

Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentecostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)

Nationalities[edit]

97.10% of the people of Poland claim sole or partial Polish nationality, and 98.19% declare that they speak Polish at home (2011). Among minority groups, the largest numbers of respondents claimed Silesian nationality, followed by Kashubian, German, Ukrainian and Belarusian.[27] The statistics on Ukrainians do not include recently arrived migrant workers, which a report by the National Bank of Poland estimated at around 1 million in 2015.[28]

Largest metropolitan and urban areas[edit]

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [29] Eurostat LUZ [30] Ministry of Regional Development[31] United Nations [32] Demographia.com[33] Citypopulation.de[34] Scientific study by T. Markowski [pl][35] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [36]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[37](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town[edit]

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
Inhabitants
December 31, 2019
1 Warsaw Masovian 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398 1,790,658
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183 779,115
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098 679,941
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996 642,869
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627 534,813
6 Gdańsk Pomeranian 461,334 456,658 456,967 470,907
7 Szczecin Western Pomeranian 415,399 409,068 405,606 401,907
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomeranian 373,804 363,468 356,177 348,190
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450 339,784
10 Białystok Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198 297,554
11 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826 292,774
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324 246,348
13 Częstochowa Silesian 251,436 245,030 238,042 220,433
14 Radom Masovian 229,699 225,810 222,496 211,371
15 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312 201,447
16 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638 199,974
17 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227 196,208
18 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804 194,852
19 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472 178,603
20 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913 172,360
21 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463 171,979
22 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008 170,663
23 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617 165,263
24 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 138,512 117,699 141,222
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410 138,098
26 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950 137,360
27 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710 128,035
28 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386 127,590
29 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394 123,609
30 Płock Masovian 128,361 127,224 126,061 119,425
31 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431 119,373
32 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049 119,317
33 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197 111,356
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914 109,883
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635 108,470
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697 107,807
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948 107,048
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664 100,246
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892 99,350
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757 94,368
41 Jaworzno Silesia 96,791 95,771 94,831 91,115
42 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665 90,681
43 Jastrzębie-Zdrój Silesia 96,821 94,716 92,622 88,743
44 Nowy Sącz Lesser Poland 84,421 84,487 84,537 83,794
45 Jelenia Góra Lower Silesia 88,866 86,503 84,023 79,061
46 Siedlce Masovian 76,686 77,051 76,303 78,185
47 Mysłowice Silesia 75,642 75,063 75,501 74,618
48 Konin Greater Poland 82,177 80,471 78,670 73,522
49 Piła Greater Poland 75,197 74,720 74,550 73,139
50 Piotrków Trybunalski Łódź 80,923 78,954 77,669 73,090

Demographics by voivodeship[edit]

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Immigration[edit]

Immigration to Poland has only picked up recently after 2014, when unemployment started falling and more workforce was needed. Most migration is temporary, with workers arriving for 3 to 12 months and then returning home with the earned money. Some of them stay long enough to acquire permanent and long-term stay permits (table below), but the actual amount of migrants in Poland is far higher. On June 4th GUS published an estimate[38] of foreigners residing in Poland as of 31st December 2019, which amounted to 2,106,101 people, the biggest groups being citizens of Ukraine (1,351,418), Belarus (105,404), Germany (77,073), Moldova (37,338), Russia (37,030), India (33,107), Georgia (27,917), Vietnam (27,386), Turkey (25,049), China (23,838) and 360,541 people representing all other nationalities.

Foreign population in Poland in 2019.


Largest groups of foreign residents[39]
Nationality Population (2020)
 Ukraine 233,828
 Belarus 27,929
European Union Germany 21,019
 Russia 12,815
 Vietnam 11,699
 India 10,174
European Union Italy 8,485
 China 8,234
 Georgia 6,860
 United Kingdom 6,336
European Union Spain 5,889
European Union France 5,690
European Union Bulgaria 5,362
 Turkey 4,948
European Union Romania 4,450
 Armenia 3,366
 Moldova 3,030
 United States 2,593
European Union Netherlands 2,505
European Union Sweden 2,477
European Union Lithuania 2,390
European Union Czech Republic 2,313
   Nepal 2,257
European Union Slovakia 2,240
European Union Hungary 2,196
Work permits issued each year by country of citizenship[40]
Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 Ukraine 5,400 9,504 12,894 18,669 20,295 20,416 26,315 50,465 106,223 192,547 238,334 330,495
 Belarus 1,325 1,669 1,937 1,725 1,949 2,004 1,834 2,037 4,870 10,518 19,233 27,130
   Nepal 181 838 2,110 1,202 486 525 402 596 1,211 7,075 19,912 9,175
 Moldova 1,218 601 675 1,017 616 699 1,027 1,488 2,844 3,792 6,035 8,341
 India 733 1,164 1,189 1,055 1,090 1,300 1,242 1,425 1,772 3,938 8,362 8,063
 Georgia 109 143 94 157 174 203 225 88 142 398 2,752 7,438
 Bangladesh 54 213 676 680 233 314 283 319 721 2,412 8,341 6,986
 Philippines 197 413 349 277 181 227 246 179 249 733 2,057 6,317
 Uzbekistan 356 295 434 619 958 948 1,060 1,433 836 1,409 2,634 6,309
 Vietnam 1,200 2,577 2,245 2,504 2,302 2,230 2,369 732 439 658 1,313 3,367
 Azerbaijan 19 37 45 55 78 96 103 116 193 1,336 3,302 3,183
 Turkey 941 1,422 1,468 1,187 1,063 967 689 550 672 1,228 1,481 2,936
 Russia 420 540 491 549 719 822 654 579 1,008 1,433 1,903 2,862
 Indonesia 37 65 72 77 88 100 94 75 111 148 352 2,023
 China 2,040 4,536 6,209 5,854 3,247 3,089 2,133 1,288 1,205 1,179 1,473 1,935
 South Korea 596 624 635 550 508 520 301 153 150 219 720 1,838
 Kazakhstan 40 45 27 31 104 118 126 74 112 321 803 1,689
 Tajikistan 18 6 36 91 51 45 103 59 98 353 868 1,323
 Kyrgyzstan 17 24 58 28 36 68 133 42 19 81 654 1,283
 Pakistan 39 187 119 184 366 233 274 184 187 427 1,065 911
 Serbia 77 139 203 164 188 274 613 650 804 878 930 911
 Sri Lanka 10 59 80 54 39 47 16 42 42 73 302 835
 Kosovo 0 1 294 46 24 3 40 24 88 640 522 740
 Thailand 210 561 286 284 258 308 211 212 291 348 376 625
 United States 365 407 442 484 481 545 505 544 391 405 479 560
 Ethiopia 4 7 4 10 14 4 2 1 0 17 328 505
 Mongolia 218 271 136 122 108 71 52 51 36 139 261 499
 Brazil 53 119 79 120 109 154 97 113 247 354 458 458
 Armenia 441 619 448 457 457 448 363 140 156 181 281 433
 Egypt 44 153 290 314 238 168 155 134 127 172 246 364
Others 1,660 2,101 2,597 2,242 2,684 2,132 1,996 1,993 2,150 2,214 2,991 5,204
Total 18,022 29,340 36,622 40,808 39,144 39,078 43,663 65,786 127,394 235,626 328,768 444,738

Most immigrants are hired using short-term work registrations, which are an easier way for employers to hire foreigners, than work permits, and only apply to workers from 6 former CIS countries.[41][42]

Work registrations by country of citizenship
Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 Ukraine 142,960 180,133 169,490 239,646 223,671 217,571 372,946 762,700 1,262,845 1,714,891 1,446,304 1,475,923
 Belarus 12,606 4,860 3,623 4,370 7,636 5,194 4,017 5,599 23,400 58,046 62,805 66,045
 Georgia - - 453 1,774 1,384 2,343 2,103 1,366 1,698 11,126 28,008 45,137
 Moldova - 2,747 5,912 13,024 9,421 9,248 6,331 9,575 20,650 31,465 36,742 39,414
 Russia 1,147 674 595 963 1,624 1,260 1,227 1,939 3,937 6,150 6,718 11,262
 Armenia - - - - - - 774 1,043 1,597 2,786 1,648 2,302
Total 156,713 188,414 180,073 259,777 243,736 235,616 387,398 782,222 1,314,127 1,824,464 1,582,225 1,640,083

Since January 2018, employers may hire foreigners on a seasonal work permit, used specifically for agricultural and tourism-related work.[43] In 2019, 63,5% of hired foreigners were women, 44% were under 35 years old, and most worked in Poland from 31 to 90 days. The vast majority of migrants comes from Ukraine, as well as Belarus, Moldova, Georgia and Russia, since the law doesn't require the employer to look for potential Polish workers before hiring a foreigner from said countries.

Work permits by country of citizenship[44]
Country 2018 2019
 Ukraine 119,926 129,683
 Belarus 607 659
 Moldova 359 380
 Georgia 199 302
 Russia 45 79
 Philippines 15 78
 Uzbekistan 3 66
 Mongolia 17 42
   Nepal 192 33
 India 38 27
Others 35 97
Total 121,436 131,446

Ethnic groups[edit]

Map of at least 10% non-Polish areas
Population background % Population[45]
European 98.6 37,962,000
European Union 98.2 37,813,000
     Ethnic Polish (including Silesians and Kashubians) 97.7 37,602,000
     Other EU member states (primarily German) 0.5 211,000
European Other (primarily Ukrainian and Belarusian) 0.4 149,000
Other background (primarily Vietnamese and Chechen) 0.1 29,000
Mixed or unspecified background 1.4 521,000
Total population 100 38,512,000

Religions[edit]

Religion in Poland in 2015 conducted by the Central Statistical Office (GUS)[46]

  Catholicism (92.9%)
  Protestant (0.2%)
  No religion (3.1%)
  Unanswered (2.7%)
  Other religion (0.1%)

Languages[edit]

Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]