Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2010 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.

The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

According to estimates produced by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2007 Poland had a population of 37,115,000, which translates into an average population density of 122 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009 it is expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographic picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Poland is aging rapidly. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it will be 51 by 2050.[1] As the population is aging, it has also started to decline mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration which is impacting the economy. The number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1.31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Eastern Europe.[2][3]

Historical population[edit]

Population of Poland 1900-2010
For more details on this topic, see Historical demography of Poland.

For many centuries, until the end of World War II, the Polish population was composed of many significant ethnic minorities. The population of Poland decreased due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust, and became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in Europe as a result of radically altered borders after the war. The subsequent repatriations were accompanied by two waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish population from the prewar territories of Eastern Poland, which today are divided between Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, the transfer of ethnic Ukrainians back to USSR, and the Germans to Germany from lands ceded to Poland after the Yalta Conference.

At present[edit]

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6–7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[4]

A recent large migration of Poles took place following Poland's accession to the European Union and opening of the EU's labor market; with an approximate number of 2 million primarily young Poles taking up jobs abroad.[5]

Vital statistics [6][7][8][edit]

Before WW II[edit]

Year [9] Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1921 27 224 890 400 568 300 322 100 32.7 20.9 11.8
1922 27 846 983 100 554 600 482 500 35.3 19.9 15.4
1923 28 480 1 014 700 493 800 520 900 35.6 17.3 18.3
1924 29 007 1 000 100 519 200 480 900 34.5 17.9 16.6
1925 29 475 1 036 600 492 200 544 400 35.2 16.7 18.5
1926 29 906 989 100 532 700 456 400 33.1 17.8 15.3
1927 30 302 958 733 525 633 433 100 31.6 17.3 14.3
1928 30 693 990 993 504 207 486 786 32.3 16.4 15.9
1929 31 084 994 101 518 929 475 172 32.0 16.7 15.3
1930 31 490 1 022 811 488 417 534 394 32.5 15.5 17.0
1931 31 935 964 573 493 703 470 870 30.2 15.5 14.7
1932 32 394 934 663 486 548 448 115 28.9 15.0 13.8
1933 32 823 868 675 466 210 402 465 26.5 14.2 12.3
1934 33 223 881 615 479 684 401 931 26.5 14.4 12.1
1935 33 616 876 667 470 998 405 669 26.1 14.0 12.1
1936 34 020 892 320 482 633 409 687 26.2 14.2 12.0
1937 34 441 856 064 481 594 374 470 24.9 14.0 10.9
1938 34 849 849 873 479 602 370 271 24.4 13.8 10.6

After WW II[edit]

[10] [11] [12]

Current vital statistics[edit]

[13][dead link]

Number of births from January to September 2014 = Increase 286.000

Number of births from January to September 2015 = Decrease 284.000

Number of deaths from January to September 2014 = Decrease 278.000

Number of deaths from January to September 2015 = Increase 289.000

Natural increase from January to September 2014 = Increase 7.000

Natural increase from January to September 2015 = Decrease -5.000

Structure of the population [14][edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (Estimates, excluding civilian aliens within the country, but including civilian nationals temporarily outside the country) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 18 651 441 19 882 348 38 533 789 100
0-4 1 058 874 1 005 069 2 063 943 5,36
5-9 945 643 897 723 1 843 366 4,78
10-14 974 509 925 506 1 900 015 4,93
15-19 1 158 367 1 108 267 2 266 634 5,88
20-24 1 394 761 1 341 393 2 736 154 7,10
25-29 1 623 072 1 575 546 3 198 618 8,30
30-34 1 602 736 1 558 622 3 161 358 8,20
35-39 1 470 751 1 432 822 2 903 573 7,54
40-44 1 231 083 1 209 751 2 440 834 6,33
45-49 1 196 548 1 192 952 2 389 500 6,20
50-54 1 369 258 1 414 996 2 784 254 7,23
55-59 1 404 141 1 522 140 2 926 281 7,59
60-64 1 163 935 1 350 684 2 514 619 6,53
65-69 675 573 861 584 1 537 157 3,99
70-74 529 739 776 722 1 306 461 3,39
75-79 424 407 720 249 1 144 656 2,97
80-84 278 428 566 126 844 554 2,19
85-89 115 213 311 388 426 601 1,11
90-94 28 565 91 223 119 788 0,31
95-99 4 614 18 265 22 879 0,06
100+ 224 1 320 1 544 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 979 026 2 828 298 5 807 324 15,07
15-64 13 615 652 13 707 173 27 322 825 70,91
65+ 2 056 763 3 346 877 5 403 640 14,02

Poles in the United Kingdom[edit]

The 2011 UK Census recorded 579,121 Polish-born residents in England, 18,023 in Wales, 55,231 in Scotland, and 19,658 in Northern Ireland.

Polish-born in UK 688,000 (2013 ONS estimate).

Unofficial estimates have put the number of Poles living in the UK higher, at up to one million.

Births to Polish-Born in England and Wales[edit]

[15]

Births to Polish-Born mother:

Place of birth of father 2014 Number, %, Rank 2013 Number, %, Rank 2012 Number, %, Rank 2011 Number, %, Rank 2010 Number, %, Rank 2009 Number, %, Rank 2008 Number, %, Rank 2007 Number, %, Rank 2006 Number, %, Rank 2005 Number, %, Rank
All births to Polish-Born mother 22 122 (3,2%) (1) 21 275 (3,0%) (1) 21 156 (2,9%) (1) 20 495 (2,8%) (1) 19 762 (2,7%) (1) 18 159 (2,6%) (2) 16 101 (2,3%) (2) 11 952 (1,7%) (3) 6 620 (1%) (4) 3 403 (0,5%) (9)
Europe 19 626 (88,72%) 18 944 (89,04%) 18 779 (88,76%) 18 370 (89,63%) 17 571 (88,91%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Poland 15 854 (71,67%) 15 432 (72,54%) 15 446 (73,01%) 15 313 (74,72%) 14 847 (75,13%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
United Kingdom 2 692 (12,17%) 2 564 (12,05%) 2 436 (11,51%) 2 191 (10,69%) 1 954 (9,89%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Rest New EU 388 (1,75%) 327 (1,54%) 294 (1,39%) 285 (1,39%) 247 (1,25%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Rest EU 414 (1,87%) 377 (1,77%) 339 (1,60%) 331 (1,62%) 278 (1,41%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Rest of Europe 278 (1,26%) 244 (1,15%) 264 (1,25%) 250 (1,22%) 245 (1,24%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Africa 70 (3,17%) 689 (3,24%) 686 (3,24%) 651 (3,18%) 669 (3,39%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
North Africa 194 (0,88%) 169 (0,79%) 155 (0,73%) 161 (0,79%) 152 (0,77%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Western Africa 246 (1,11%) 238 (1,12%) 255 (1,21%) 233 (1,14%) 222 (1,12%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Central Africa 38 (0,17%) 38 (0,18%) 39 (0,18%) 30 (0,15%) 48 (0,24%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Eastern Africa 114 (0,52%) 125 (0,59%) 109 (0,52%) 133 (0,65%) 133 (0,67%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Southern Africa 109 (0,49%) 116 (0,55%) 125 (0,59%) 93 (0,45%) 111 (0,56%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
The Americas and the Caribbean 233 (1,05%) 193 (0,91%) 199 (0,94%) 173 (0,84%) 161 (0,81%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
North America 58 (0,26%) 31 (0,15%) 32 (0,15%) 31 (0,15%) 23 (0,12%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Central America 8 (0,04%) 14 (0,07%) 6 (0,03%) 9 (0,04%) 9 (0,05%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
South America 117 (0,53%) 97 (0,46%) 95 (0,45%) 89 (0,43%) 85 (0,43%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Caribbean 50 (0,23%) 51 (0,24%) 66 (0,31%) 44 (0,21%) 44 (0,22%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Middle East and Asia 749 (3,39%) 580 (2,73%) 610 (2,88%) 489 (2,39%) 534 (2,70%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Middle East 215 (0,97%) 180 (0,85%) 208 (0,98%) 178 (0,87%) 217 (1,10%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Central Asia 4 (0,02%) 7 (0,03%) 4 (0,02%) 2 (0,01%) 3 (0,02%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Eastern Asia 10 (0,05%) 12 (0,06%) 12 (0,06%) 9 (0,04%) 9 (0,05%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Southern Asia: 489 (2,21%) 362 (1,70%) 360 (1,70%) 271 (1,32%) 283 (1,43%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
India 196 (0,89%) 135 (0,63%) 138 (0,65%) 112 (0,55%) 100 (0,51%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Pakistan 175 (0,79%) 139 (0,65%) 109 (0,52%) 79 (0,39%) 94 (0,48%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Bangladesh 29 (0,13%) 27 (0,13%) 23 (0,11%) 13 (0,06%) 17 (0,09%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
South East Asia 31 (0,14%) 19 (0,09%) 26 (0,12%) 29 (0,14%) 22 (0,11%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Antarctica and Oceania 59 (0,27%) 51 (0,24%) 47 (0,22%) 43 (0,21%) 45 (0,23%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Australasia 59 (0,27%) 47 (0,22%) 47 (0,22%) 40 (0,20%) 42 (0,21%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Other Oceania 0 4 (0,02%) 0 3 (0,01%) 3 (0,02%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T
Not stated 753 (3,40%) 818 (3,84%) 835 (3,95%) 769 (3,75%) 782 (3,96%) N/T N/T N/T N/T N/T

% - of all births in England and Wales (All births to Polish-Born mother) or percent of births depending on the place of birth of father; Rank - amongs other non-UK born mothers, N/T - not stated

Births to Polish-Born father:

Place of birth of mother 2014 Number, %, Rank 2013 Number, %, Rank 2012 Number, %, Rank 2011 Number, %, Rank 2010 Number, %, Rank 2009 Number, %, Rank 2008 Number, %, Rank
All births to Polish-Born fathers 16 950 (2,6%) (2) 16 436 (2,5%) (2) 16 432 (2,3%) (2) 16 150 (2,2%) (2) 15 619 (2,2%) (2) 14 574 (2,1%) (2) 12 697 (1,8%) (2)
Europe 16 683 (98,42%) 16 182 (98,45%) 16 193 (98,55%) 15 946 (98,74%) 15 422 (98,74%) N/T N/T
Poland 15 854 (93,53%) 15 432 (93,89%) 15 446 (94,00%) 15 313 (94,82%) 14 847 (95,06%) N/T N/T
United Kingdom 387 (2,28%) 332 (2,02%) 333 (2,03%) 301 (1,86%) 268 (1,72%) N/T N/T
Rest New EU 288 (1,70%) 284 (1,73%) 274 (1,67%) 224 (1,39%) 205 (1,31%) N/T N/T
Rest EU 86 (0,51%) 72 (0,44%) 71 (0,43%) 52 (0,32%) 54 (0,35%) N/T N/T
Rest of Europe 68 (0,40%) 62 (0,38%) 69 (0,42%) 56 (0,35%) 48 (0,31%) N/T N/T
Africa 78 (0,46%) 75 (0,46%) 83 (0,51%) 69 (0,43%) 64 (0,41%) N/T N/T
North Africa 7 (0,04%) 9 (0,05%) 1 (0,01%) 4 (0,02%) 3 (0,02%) N/T N/T
Western Africa 26 (0,15%) 13 (0,08%) 20 (0,12%) 18 (0,11%) 21 (0,13%) N/T N/T
Central Africa 5 (0,03%) 5 (0,03%) 6 (0,04%) 5 (0,03%) 1 (0,01%) N/T N/T
Eastern Africa 21 (0,12%) 30 (0,18%) 35 (0,21%) 25 (0,15%) 25 (0,16%) N/T N/T
Southern Africa 19 (0,11%) 18 (0,11%) 21 (0,13%) 16 (0,10%) 14 (0,09%) N/T N/T
The Americas and the Caribbean 60 (0,35%) 69 (0,42%) 60 (0,37%) 54 (0,33%) 60 (0,38%) N/T N/T
North America 4 (0,02%) 7 (0,04%) 7 (0,04%) 9 (0,06%) 11 (0,07%) N/T N/T
Central America 2 (0,01%) 4 (0,02%) 2 (0,01%) 6 (0,04%) 4 (0,03%) N/T N/T
South America 45 (0,27%) 49 (0,30%) 41 (0,25%) 31 (0,19%) 35 (0,22%) N/T N/T
Caribbean 9 (0,05%) 9 (0,05%) 10 (0,06%) 8 (0,05%) 10 (0,06%) N/T N/T
Middle East and Asia 125 (0,74%) 106 (0,64%) 90 (0,55%) 77 (0,48%) 69 (0,44%) N/T N/T
Middle East 8 (0,05%) 6 (0,04%) 8 (0,05%) 3 (0,02%) 3 (0,02%) N/T N/T
Central Asia 7 (0,04%) 0 3 (0,02%) 5 (0,03%) 6 (0,04%) N/T N/T
Eastern Asia 34 (0,20%) 32 (0,19%) 28 (0,17%) 23 (0,14%) 24 (0,15%) N/T N/T
Southern Asia: 14 (0,08%) 21 (0,13%) 11 (0,07%) 13 (0,08%) 7 (0,05%) N/T N/T
India 10 (0,06%) 14 (0,09%) 4 (0,02%) 7 (0,04%) 6 (0,04%) N/T N/T
Pakistan 1 (0,01%) 2 (0,01%) 3 (0,02%) 0 0 N/T N/T
Bangladesh 1 (0,01%) 0 1 (0,01%) 0 0 N/T N/T
South East Asia 62 (0,37%) 45 (0,27%) 40 (0,24%) 33 (0,20%) 29 (0,19%) N/T N/T
Antarctica and Oceania 4 (0,02%) 4 (0,02%) 5 (0,03%) 4 (0,02%) 4 (0,03%) N/T N/T
Australasia 4 (0,02%) 4 (0,02%) 5 (0,03%) 4 (0,02%) 4 (0,03%) N/T N/T
Other Oceania 0 0 0 0 0 N/T N/T
Not stated 0 0 1 (0,01%) 0 0 N/T N/T

% - of all births in England and Wales (All births to Polish-Born fathers) or percent of births depending on the place of birth of mother; Rank - amongs other non-UK born fathers, N/T - not stated

Nationalities[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Ethnic minorities in Poland.

96.5% of the people of Poland claim Polish nationality, and 97.9% declare that they speak Polish at home (2010).

Largest metropolitan and urban areas[edit]

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [16] Eurostat LUZ [17] Ministry of Regional Development[18] United Nations [19] Demographia.com[20] Citypopulation.de[21] Scientific study by T. Markowski[22] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [23]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[24](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town[edit]

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
1 Warsaw Masovia 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627
6 Gdańsk Pomerania 461,334 456,658 456,967
7 Szczecin Western Pomerania 415,399 409,068 405,606
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomerania 373,804 363,468 356,177
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450
10 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826
11 Białystok (Demographics) Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324
13 Częstochowa Silesia 251,436 245,030 238,042
14 Radom Masovia 229,699 225,810 222,496
15 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638
16 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312
17 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804
18 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472
19 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913
20 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617
21 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227
22 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463
23 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008
24 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410
26 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386
27 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431
28 Płock Masovia 128,361 127,224 126,061
29 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049
30 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710
31 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394
32 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197
33 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 118,115 117,699
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757
41 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665

Demographics by voivodeship[edit]

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total asylum seekers admitted

13,780 (2010) applications, mostly from the Russian Federation (99% Chechen),[25] Georgia, Armenia and Ukraine.[26]

Age structure

0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Population background  % Population[27]
European 98.6 37,962,000
European Union 98.2 37,813,000
     Ethnic Polish (including Silesians and Kashubians) 97.7 37,602,000
     Other EU member states (primarily German) 0.5 211,000
European Other (primarily Ukrainian and Belarusian) 0.4 149,000
Other background (primarily Vietnamese and Chechens <0.1 29,000
Mixed or unspecified background 1.4 521,000
Total population 100 38,512,000

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 91%, Orthodox 1%, Other 2%, atheist/non-believer/agnostic 5%, not stated 1% (Eurobarometer 2012)[28]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Poland
Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/opinion/2012/06/14/poland-aging-and-the-economy Poland: Aging and the Economy
  2. ^ "Poland Total fertility rate". Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  3. ^ http://euromonitor.typepad.com/.a/6a01310f54565d970c017ee868aacf970d-pi
  4. ^ Wyniki wstepne spisu powszechnego 2011, Central Statistical Office (Poland).
  5. ^ http://wiadomosci.onet.pl/swiat/sueddeutsche-zeitung-polska-przezywa-najwieksza-fale-emigracji-od-100-lat/yrtt0"Sueddeutsche Zeitung": Polska przeżywa największą falę emigracji od 100 lat
  6. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750-1975.
  7. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybsets/1948%20DYB.pdf United nations. Demographic Yearbook 1948
  8. ^ Central Statistical Office of Poland
  9. ^ "Démographie des pays développés". Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  10. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/ludnosc/ludnosc/struktura-ludnosci-do-2013-r-,16,1.html
  11. ^ http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/5840_rocznik_demograficzny_PLK_HTML.htm
  12. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/download/gfx/portalinformacyjny/pl/defaultaktualnosci/5470/1/1/7/poz_ex1950-2012.xls
  13. ^ file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/z06_info_i_polrocze_2015_zakladki.pdf
  14. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  15. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/parents--country-of-birth--england-and-wales/2014/stb-pcb-2014.html
  16. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  17. ^ Eurostat, Urban Audit database, accessed on 2009-03-12. Data for 2004.
  18. ^ "Koncepcja przestrzennego zagospodarowania kraju" - Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, 2003
  19. ^ World Urbanization Prospects - United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs / Population Division, The 2003 Revision (data of 2000)
  20. ^ Demographia.com - World Urban Areas
  21. ^ Thomas Brinkoff, Principal Agglomerations of the World, accessed on 2009-03-12. Data for 2009-01-01.
  22. ^ Funkcje Metropolitalne Pięciu Stolic Województw Wschodnich
  23. ^ "Społeczne i polityczne zróżnicowanie aglomeracji w Polsce" - Paweł Swianiewicz, Urszula Klimska; University of Warsaw 2005
  24. ^ Data of polycentric Silesian metropolitan area
  25. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Home - Welcome to UNHCR Central Europe website!". Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  26. ^ UNHRC Asylum Trends 2007-2009
  27. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  28. ^ Discrimination in the European Union in 2012 - T98 and T99.

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