Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2010 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
Largest cities and towns in Poland (over 20,000 citizens; 2010 data)
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The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

According to the 2011 census by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2011 Poland had a population of 38,538,447[1], which translates into an average population density of 123 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009, it was expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographic picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Poland is aging rapidly. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it will be 51 by 2050.[2] As the population is aging, it has also started to decline mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration which is impacting the economy. The number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1.31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Central Europe.[3][4]

Historical population[edit]

Population of Poland 1900-2010

For many centuries, until the end of World War II, the Polish population was composed of many significant ethnic minorities. The population of Poland decreased by about six million due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust and brutal occupation during World War II, and became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in Europe (next to populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic) as a result of radically altered borders after the war. The subsequent repatriations were accompanied by two waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish population from the prewar territories of Eastern Poland, which today are divided between Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, the transfer of ethnic Ukrainians back to USSR, and the Germans to Germany from lands ceded to Poland after the Yalta Conference.

At present[edit]

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6–7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[5]

A recent large migration of Poles took place following Poland's accession to the European Union and opening of the EU's labor market; with an approximate number of 2 million primarily young Poles taking up jobs abroad.[6]

Vital statistics[edit]

Total fertility rate by Polish regions in 2014 (Eurostat)
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

[7][8][9]

Before WW II[edit]

After WW II[edit]

[11] [12] [13] [14]

Current vital statistics[edit]

[15]

Number of births from January to July 2016 =Increase 216 900 (9,7‰)

Number of births from January to July 2017 =Increase 235 100 (10,5‰)

Number of deaths from January to July 2016 =Positive decrease 225 700 (10,1‰)

Number of deaths from January to July 2017 =Negative increase 242 000 (10,8‰)

Natural increase from January to July 2016 =Increase -8 700 (-0,4‰)

Natural increase from January to July 2017 =Increase -6 900 (-0,3‰)

Structure of the population[edit]

[16][17]

Nationalities[edit]

97.10% of the people of Poland claim sole or partial Polish nationality, and 98.19% declare that they speak Polish at home (2011). Among minority groups, the largest numbers of respondents claimed Silesian nationality (847,000), followed by Kashubian (233,000), German (148,000), and Ukrainian (51,000).[18] The statistics on Ukrainians do not include recently arrived migrant workers, which a report by the National Bank of Poland estimated at around 1 million in 2015.[19]

Largest metropolitan and urban areas[edit]

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [20] Eurostat LUZ [21] Ministry of Regional Development[22] United Nations [23] Demographia.com[24] Citypopulation.de[25] Scientific study by T. Markowski[26] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [27]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[28](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town[edit]

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
1 Warsaw Masovian 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627
6 Gdańsk Pomeranian 461,334 456,658 456,967
7 Szczecin Western Pomeranian 415,399 409,068 405,606
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomeranian 373,804 363,468 356,177
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450
10 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826
11 Białystok (Demographics) Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324
13 Częstochowa Silesian 251,436 245,030 238,042
14 Radom Masovian 229,699 225,810 222,496
15 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638
16 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312
17 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804
18 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472
19 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913
20 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617
21 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227
22 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463
23 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008
24 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410
26 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386
27 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431
28 Płock Masovia 128,361 127,224 126,061
29 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049
30 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710
31 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394
32 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197
33 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 118,115 117,699
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757
41 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665

Demographics by voivodeship[edit]

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Demographic statistics[edit]

Age structure

0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Map of at least 10% non-Polish areas
Population background  % Population[29]
European 98.6 37,962,000
European Union 98.2 37,813,000
     Ethnic Polish (including Silesians and Kashubians) 97.7 37,602,000
     Other EU member states (primarily German) 0.5 211,000
European Other (primarily Ukrainian and Belarusian) 0.4 149,000
Other background (primarily Vietnamese and Chechen) <0.1 29,000
Mixed or unspecified background 1.4 521,000
Total population 100 38,512,000

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 91%, Orthodox 1%, Other 2%, atheist/non-believer/agnostic 5%, not stated 1% (Eurobarometer 2012)[30]

Languages[edit]

Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ludność w gminach według stanu w dniu 31.12.2011 r. - bilans opracowany w oparciu o wyniki NSP 2011". Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Poland: Aging and the Economy". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "Poland Total fertility rate". Indexmundi.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "Russia experiences baby boom". Euromonitor.typepad.com. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  5. ^ [1] Archived 2016-02-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ ""Sueddeutsche Zeitung": Polska przeżywa największą falę emigracji od 100 lat". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  7. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750-1975.
  8. ^ "United Nations : Demographic Yearbook 1948" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  10. ^ "Démographie des pays développés". Ined.fr. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-25. Retrieved 2014-05-24. 
  14. ^ "Informacja o sytuacji społeczno-gospodarczej kraju w 2016 r.". Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  15. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/inne-opracowania/informacje-o-sytuacji-spoleczno-gospodarczej/biuletyn-statystyczny-nr-82017,4,67.html
  16. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  17. ^ "Ludność. Stan i struktura ludności oraz ruch naturalny w przekroju terytorialnym. Stan w dniu 30 VI 2015 r.". Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  18. ^ "Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski - NSP 2011". Stat.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-01-31. 
  19. ^ "Obywatele Ukrainy pracujący w Polsce – raport z badania" (PDF). Nbp.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  20. ^ "Project 1.4.3". Web.archive.org. 28 July 2009. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  22. ^ ["Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2016-01-19. 
  23. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects" (PDF). United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs / Population Division, The 2003 Revision (data of 2000). Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  24. ^ "World Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia.com. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  25. ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  27. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  28. ^ Data of polycentric Silesian metropolitan area
  29. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  30. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 

External links[edit]