Demographics of Portugal

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Historical population
YearPop.±%
1422 1,043,274—    
1527 1,262,376+21.0%
1636 1,100,000−12.9%
1736 2,143,368+94.9%
1770 2,850,444+33.0%
1776 3,352,310+17.6%
1801 2,931,930−12.5%
1811 2,876,602−1.9%
1838 3,200,000+11.2%
1849 3,411,454+6.6%
1864 4,188,419+22.8%
1878 4,550,699+8.6%
1890 5,049,729+11.0%
YearPop.±%
1900 5,423,132+7.4%
1911 5,969,056+10.1%
1920 6,032,991+1.1%
1930 6,825,883+13.1%
1940 7,722,152+13.1%
1950 8,510,240+10.2%
1960 8,851,240+4.0%
1970 8,648,369−2.3%
1981 9,833,041+13.7%
1991 9,862,540+0.3%
2001 10,356,117+5.0%
2011 10,562,178+2.0%
2021 10,347,892−2.0%
Population pyramid of Portugal in 2019
Source: INE 2021[1][2][3] *Estimate; 1422, 1527 and 1636 only Adult male population.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Portugal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

As April 2021, Portugal had 10,347,892 inhabitants.

Portugal is a fairly linguistically and religiously homogeneous country. Ethnically the Portuguese people form 95% of the total population in Portugal. The Portuguese people are mainly a combination of ancient paleolithic populations, and the proto-Celtic, Celtic and Iberian tribes, para-Celtic Lusitanians. Some other groups, like the Romans, Germanic (Visigoths, Suevi, Buri, Alans and Vandals) and later the Moorish (Berber), Sephardic Jewish, and the French also passed through the country.

Today, Ukrainians, Moldovans, Romanians, Russians, Bulgarians, Brazilians, Venezuelans and members of PALOP countries (Portuguese-speaking African countries) are the immigrants and form the major foreign communities in the country.[4] Portuguese is spoken throughout the country, with only the villages of Miranda do Douro's Mirandese language recognised as a locally co-official language.

Total fertility rate from 1850 to 1899[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[5]

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Portugal 4.5 4.47 4.44 4.41 4.38 4.35 4.33 4.3 4.27 4.24 4.21
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Portugal 4.18 4.15 4.12 4.09 4.1 4.11 4.12 4.14 4.15 4.16
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Portugal 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.2 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.23 4.22
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Portugal 4.91 4.19 4.18 4.17 4.16 4.15 4.38 4.3 4.38 4.24
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Portugal 4.16 4.06 4.15 3.86 3.9 3.9 3.95 3.93 3.89

Vital statistics since 1900[edit]

[6][7][8][9] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][5][10][11][12]
1900 5,410,000 165,245 110,330 54,915 30.5 20.3 10.2 3.96
1901 5,460,000 170,773 114,130 56,643 31.3 20.9 10.4 4.07
1902 5,490,000 176,029 108,378 67,651 32.0 19.7 12.4 4.16
1903 5,560,000 183,138 111,685 71,453 33.0 20.1 12.8 4.29
1904 5,600,000 176,726 105,572 71,154 31.6 18.9 12.7 4.11
1905 5,660,000 179,746 112,756 66,990 31.8 20.0 11.8 4.13
1906 5,690,000 182,920 125,243 57,677 32.1 22.0 10.2 4.17
1907 5,730,000 176,417 113,254 63,163 30.7 19.7 11.0 3.99
1908 5,790,000 175,268 115,876 59,392 30.3 20.0 10.2 3.94
1909 5,850,000 174,753 112,421 62,332 29.9 19.2 10.8 3.89
1910 5,890,000 186,953 113,161 73,792 31.7 19.2 12.6 4.12
1911 5,960,000 230,033 130,900 99,133 38.6 22.0 16.6 5.02
1912 5,960,000 207,870 119,578 88,292 34.9 20.1 14.8 4.54
1913 5,970,000 193,906 123,054 70,852 32.5 20.6 11.9 4.22
1914 5,980,000 188,479 115,526 72,953 31.5 19.3 12.0 4.09
1915 5,990,000 195,225 122,513 72,712 32.6 20.5 12.0 4.24
1916 6,000,000 192,780 129,389 63,391 32.1 21.6 10.7 4.17
1917 6,000,000 188,391 134,082 54,309 31.4 22.3 9.0 4.08
1918 6,020,000 178,687 248,978 -70,291 29.7 41.4 -11.6 3.86
1919 6,020,000 166,162 152,856 13,306 27.6 25.4 2.2 3.59
1920 6,040,000 202,908 142,862 60,046 33.6 23.7 9.9 4.37
1921 6,070,000 197,022 126,316 70,706 32.4 20.8 11.7 4.21
1922 6,170,000 203,727 125,747 77,980 33.1 20.4 12.6 4.3
1923 6,240,000 207,172 141,775 65,397 33.2 22.7 10.4 4.32
1924 6,310,000 207,440 126,052 81,388 32.8 20.0 12.8 4.26
1925 6,370,000 208,434 117,413 91,021 32.6 18.4 14.3 4.24
1926 6,470,000 214,633 127,959 86,674 33.5 19.8 13.8 4.36
1927 6,550,000 199,399 123,382 76,017 31.0 18.8 12.2 4.03
1928 6,620,000 211,314 124,088 87,226 31.9 18.7 13.1 4.15
1929 6,720,000 200,874 118,824 82,050 29.9 17.7 12.2 3.89
1930 6,804,000 202,529 116,352 86,177 29.7 17.1 12.8 3.86
1931 6,860,000 204,120 115,225 88,895 29.7 16.8 13.0 3.86
1932 6,968,000 208,062 118,895 89,167 29.9 17.1 12.8 3.89
1933 7,057,000 204,315 120,996 83,319 28.9 17.2 11.8 3.88
1934 7,147,000 203,158 118,539 84,619 28.4 16.6 11.8 3.74
1935 7,237,000 203,943 123,051 80,892 28.2 17.0 11.2 3.59
1936 7,326,000 205,615 119,003 86,612 28.1 16.2 11.8 3.45
1937 7,416,000 198,217 117,291 80,926 26.7 15.8 10.9 3.39
1938 7,506,000 199,467 115,331 84,136 26.6 15.4 11.2 3.34
1939 7,595,000 198,888 116,075 82,813 26.2 15.3 10.9 3.28
1940 7,696,000 187,892 120,486 67,406 24.4 15.7 8.8 3.22
1941 7,750,000 184,336 134,937 49,399 23.8 17.4 6.4 3.12
1942 7,810,000 187,503 126,531 60,972 24.0 16.1 7.8 3.14
1943 7,890,000 198,101 121,887 76,214 25.1 15.3 9.7 3.27
1944 7,960,000 201,373 119,275 82,098 25.3 14.8 10.3 3.28
1945 8,040,000 209,131 115,596 93,535 26.0 14.2 11.6 3.39
1946 8,100,000 205,825 120,800 85,025 25.4 14.9 10.5 3.29
1947 8,180,000 200,488 110,437 90,051 24.5 13.5 11.0 3.14
1948 8,262,000 220,981 107,576 113,405 26.7 13.0 13.7 3.42
1949 8,333,000 212,260 117,499 94,761 25.5 14.1 11.4 3.23
1950 8,405,000 205,163 102,798 102,365 24.4 12.2 12.2 3.1
1951 8,459,000 207,870 105,473 102,397 24.6 12.5 12.1 3.1
1952 8,496,000 211,213 100,486 110,727 24.9 11.8 13.0 3.1
1953 8,534,000 202,135 97,460 104,675 23.7 11.4 12.3 3.1
1954 8,570,000 197,536 95,088 102,448 23.0 11.1 12.0 3.1
1955 8,610,000 209,790 99,472 110,318 24.4 11.6 12.8 3.1
1956 8,647,000 202,667 106,919 95,748 23.4 12.4 11.1 3.11
1957 8,680,000 211,494 101,784 109,710 24.4 11.7 12.6 3.12
1958 8,725,000 212,467 91,891 120,576 24.4 10.5 13.8 3.13
1959 8,826,000 213,062 97,754 115,308 24.3 11.1 13.1 3.15
1960 8,865,000 213,895 95,009 118,886 23.9 10.6 13.3 3.16
1961 8,929,000 217,516 99,590 117,926 24.3 11.1 13.2 3.18
1962 8,994,000 220,200 96,864 123,336 24.4 10.7 13.7 3.18
1963 9,031,000 212,152 98,011 114,141 23.4 10.8 12.6 3.19
1964 9,034,000 217,136 96,878 120,258 23.8 10.6 13.2 3.19
1965 8,999,000 210,299 95,187 115,112 23.0 10.4 12.6 3.18
1966 8,931,000 206,940 100,088 106,852 22.7 11.0 11.7 3.16
1967 8,875,000 202,061 95,816 106,245 22.2 10.5 11.7 3.13
1968 8,837,000 194,962 94,661 100,301 21.4 10.4 11.0 3.09
1969 8,758,000 189,739 101,088 88,651 20.9 11.1 9.7 3.05
1970 8,663,252 180,690 92,854 87,836 20.9 10.7 10.1 2.99
1971 8,624,258 181,243 98,355 82,888 21.0 11.4 9.6 2.99
1972 8,636,603 174,685 90,025 84,660 20.2 10.4 9.8 2.85
1973 8,629,598 172,324 95,239 77,085 20.0 11.0 8.9 2.76
1974 8,879,127 171,979 96,837 75,142 19.4 10.9 8.5 2.69
1975 9,307,815 179,648 97,750 81,898 19.3 10.5 8.8 2.75
1976 9,403,809 186,712 101,843 84,869 19.9 10.8 9.0 2.81
1977 9,507,536 181,064 95,917 85,147 19.0 10.1 9.0 2.68
1978 9,608,959 167,467 96,042 71,425 17.4 10.0 7.4 2.45
1979 9,713,570 160,311 92,566 67,745 16.5 9.5 7.0 2.31
1980 9,818,980 158,309 94,794 63,515 16.1 9.7 6.5 2.25
1981 9,883,670 152,071 95,728 56,343 15.4 9.7 5.7 2.13
1982 9,939,871 151,002 92,379 58,623 15.2 9.3 5.9 2.08
1983 9,975,859 144,296 96,179 48,117 14.5 9.6 4.8 1.96
1984 10,016,605 142,783 96,975 45,808 14.3 9.7 4.6 1.91
1985 10,030,621 130,450 97,085 33,365 13.0 9.7 3.3 1.73
1986 10,034,846 126,715 95,521 31,194 12.6 9.5 3.1 1.67
1987 10,025,215 123,179 95,102 28,077 12.3 9.5 2.8 1.63
1988 10,014,005 122,093 97,844 24,249 12.2 9.8 2.4 1.62
1989 9,995,995 118,483 95,743 22,740 11.9 9.6 2.3 1.58
1990 9,970,441 116,321 102,768 13,553 11.7 10.3 1.4 1.57
1991 9,950,029 116,299 103,882 12,417 11.7 10.4 1.2 1.56
1992 9,954,958 114,924 100,638 14,286 11.5 10.1 1.4 1.54
1993 9,974,391 113,960 105,950 8,010 11.4 10.6 0.8 1.52
1994 10,008,659 109,227 99,232 9,995 10.9 9.9 1.0 1.45
1995 10,043,693 107,097 103,475 3,622 10.7 10.3 0.4 1.41
1996 10,084,196 110,261 106,881 3,380 10.9 10.6 0.3 1.45
1997 10,133,758 112,933 104,778 8,155 11.1 10.3 0.8 1.47
1998 10,186,634 113,384 106,198 7,186 11.1 10.4 0.7 1.48
1999 10,249,022 116,002 107,871 8,131 11.3 10.5 0.8 1.51
2000 10,330,774 120,008 105,364 14,644 11.6 10.2 1.4 1.55
2001 10,394,669 112,774 105,092 7,682 10.8 10.1 0.7 1.45
2002 10,444,592 114,383 106,258 8,125 11.0 10.2 0.8 1.47
2003 10,473,050 112,515 108,795 3,720 10.7 10.4 0.4 1.44
2004 10,494,672 109,298 102,012 7,286 10.4 9.7 0.7 1.41
2005 10,511,988 109,399 107,464 1,935 10.4 10.2 0.2 1.42
2006 10,532,588 105,449 101,990 3,459 10.0 9.7 0.3 1.38
2007 10,553,339 102,492 103,512 -1,020 9.7 9.8 -0.1 1.35
2008 10,563,014 104,594 104,280 314 9.9 9.9 0.0 1.40
2009 10,573,479 99,491 104,434 -4,943 9.4 9.9 -0.5 1.35
2010 10,572,721 101,381 105,954 -4,573 9.6 10.0 -0.4 1.39
2011 10,542,398 96,856 102,848 -5,992 9.2 9.8 -0.6 1.35
2012 10,487,289 89,841 107,612 -17,771 8.6 10.3 -1.7 1.28
2013 10,427,301 82,787 106,554 -23,767 7.9 10.2 -2.3 1.21
2014 10,374,822 82,367 104,843 -22,476 7.9 10.1 -2.2 1.23
2015 10,341,330 85,500 108,539 -23,039 8.3 10.5 -2.2 1.30
2016 10,309,573 87,126 110,573 -23,447 8.5 10.7 -2.3 1.36
2017 10,291,027 86,154 109,758 -23,604 8.4 10.7 -2.3 1.37
2018 10,276,617 87,020 113,051 -26,031 8.5 11.0 -2.5 1.41
2019 10,295,909 86,579 111,793 -25,214 8.4 10.9 -2.4 1.42
2020 10,298,252 84,426 123,358 -38,932 8.2 12.0 -3.8 1.40
2021(c) 10,347,892

(c) = Census

Current vital statistics[edit]

Source:[13]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - June 2020 41,695 60,779 -19,084
January - June 2021 37,506 67,185 -29,679
Difference Decrease -4,189 (-10.05%) Negative increase +6,406 (+10.54%) Decrease -10,595

Maps[edit]

Other demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the World Population Review.[14]

  • One birth every 7 minutes
  • One death every 5 minutes
  • One net migrant every 160 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 14 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Population
10,302,674 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 13.58% (male 716,102 /female 682,582)
15-24 years: 10.94% (male 580,074 /female 547,122)
25-54 years: 41.49% (male 2,109,693 /female 2,164,745)
55-64 years: 13.08% (male 615,925 /female 731,334)
65 years and over: 20.92% (male 860,198 /female 1,294,899) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 44.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 13th
male: 42.7 years
female: 46.5 years (2020 est.)
Birth rate
8.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 221st
Death rate
11.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 25th
Total fertility rate
1.41 children born/woman (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 216th
Net migration rate
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 71st
Population growth rate
+0.1 (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
30.5 years (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 60.3 1985–1990 74.0
1955–1960 62.4 1990–1995 74.9
1960–1965 64.5 1995–2000 76.0
1965–1970 66.4 2000–2005 77.6
1970–1975 68.3 2005–2010 79.3
1975–1980 70.4 2010–2015 80.5
1980–1985 72.5 2015-2019 82.0

Source: UN World Population Prospects[15]

Religions

Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% note: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 219th
male: 3.0 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
Year Deaths/1,000 live births
2000 5.5
2001 5.0
2002 5.0
2003 4.1
2004 3.8
2005 3.5
2006 3.3
2007 3.4
2008 3.3
2009 3.6
2010 2.5
2011
2012 4.6
2017 4.3
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 55.8
youth dependency ratio: 20.3
elderly dependency ratio: 35.5
potential support ratio: 2.8 (2020 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 66.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 96.1%
male: 97.4%
female: 95.1% (2018 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2018)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 20.3%. Country comparison to the world: 66th
male: 19.8%
female: 20.9% (2018 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
24–54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
54–65 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.90 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Urban organization[edit]

Metropolitan areas and agglomerations[edit]

As of 2001 Census, Portugal had two significant agglomerations: Lisbon Metropolitan Region (3.34 million inhabitants) and Northern Littoral Urban-Metropolitan Region (or Porto Metropolitan Agglomeration) with 2.99 million people, the later with a polycentric nature.[16] These broader agglomerations are distinct from the political metropolitan areas of Lisbon and PortoGrande Área Metropolitana de Lisboa (2,8 million) and Grande Área Metropolitana do Porto (1,8 million). Together they hold 43% of the total population.

Population density of Portugal, per km2:
  0–49
  50–99
  100–299
  300–599
  600+
Image City Metropolitan area Subregion Core municipality
Lisboa - Expo98 - Vista Geral.jpg Lisbon 2,846,332[16] 2,042,326 507,220
Porto Ribeira.jpg Porto 1,758,531[16] 1,401,805 237,559

Largest urban areas[edit]

When considering the number of inhabitants in consistent single urban areas, de facto cities in mainland Portugal, per the new with increased density of human-created structures, and excluding suburban and rural areas, Portugal has two cities with about one million inhabitants each (Lisbon and Porto), ten others with more than 50,000 inhabitants and 14 cities with populations between 20,000 and 40,000 inhabitants.[16]

Note: the following table does not include cities in the Portuguese islands of Madeira and Azores in mid-Atlantic Ocean.

City Metropolitan Area Agglomeration
Cities with about 50,000 inh. (2001 Census)
Leiria
Amora Lisbon Metropolitan Region
Portimão
Faro
Évora
Cities with about 40,000 inh. (2001 Census)
Viana do Castelo
Covilhã
Castelo Branco
Santarém Lisbon Metropolitan Region
Alverca do Ribatejo Lisbon Metropolitan Region
Vila Nova de Famalicão Northern Littoral Urban-Metropolitan Region
Figueira da Foz
Guarda
Caldas da Rainha Lisbon Metropolitan Region
Olhão
Santo Tirso Greater Porto Northern Littoral Urban-Metropolitan Region
Vila Real
Póvoa de Santa Iria Greater Lisbon Lisbon Metropolitan Region

Largest cities[edit]

Portugal has 151 localities with city status (cidade). Every city is included into a municipality (município). This is a list of population by city, which means that it refers to the number of inhabitants in the city proper, excluding inhabitants from the same municipality but living outside the urban area of the city in other civil parishes (freguesias) of the municipality. In some cases, the entire municipality and the city proper cover the same territory.[17]

Rank City name Population Metropolitan area Subregion
1 Lisbon 547,631 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
2 Porto 237,584 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
3 Vila Nova de Gaia 186,503 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
4 Amadora 175,135 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
5 Braga 143,532 Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho Cávado
6 Funchal 111,892 Madeira
7 Coimbra 102,455 Greater Metropolitan Area of Coimbra Baixo Mondego
8 Setúbal 90,640 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Península de Setúbal
9 Almada 89,533 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Península de Setúbal
10 Agualva-Cacém 79,805 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
11 Queluz 75,179 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
12 Guimarães 66,912 Ave
13 Viseu 66,143 Dão-Lafões
14 Rio Tinto 64,815 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
15 Aveiro 61,752 Baixo Vouga
16 Odivelas 59,559 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
17 Matosinhos 49,486 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
18 Amora 48,629 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Península de Setúbal
19 Ponta Delgada 46,102 Açores
20 Portimão 45,431 Algarve
21 Faro 44,099 Algarve
22 Leiria 42,745 Pinhal Litoral
23 Póvoa de Varzim 42,396 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
24 Évora 41,159 Alentejo Central
25 Barreiro 40,859 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon Península de Setúbal
26 Maia 40,134 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
27 Ermesinde 38,798 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto Grande Porto
28 Viana do Castelo 38,045 Alto Minho
29 Covilhã 36,226 Cova da Beira
30 Castelo Branco 35,242 Beira Interior Sul

Largest municipalities by population[edit]

The 20 most and the 20 least populated municipalities of Portugal. The metropolitan areas of Lisbon, Porto, Minho and Coimbra are visible.

Denotes the number of inhabitants in the municipality area; area is in km2; only for populations of over 100,000 inhabitants.

Rank Municipality Population Land Area Density Metropolitan area
1 Lisbon 547,631 84.8 6,458 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
2 Sintra 377,837 319.2 1,184 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
3 Vila Nova de Gaia 302,296 170.8 1,770 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
4 Porto 237,584 41.3 5,753 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
5 Cascais 206,429 97.4 2,119 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
6 Loures 205,054 169.3 1,211 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
7 Braga 181,474 183.2 991
9 Matosinhos 175,478 62.2 2,821 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
9 Amadora 175,135 23.8 7,359 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
10 Almada 174,030 70.0 2,486 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
11 Oeiras 172,120 45.7 3,766 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
12 Gondomar 168,027 133.3 1,261 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
13 Seixal 158,269 95.5 1,657 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
14 Guimarães 158,124 241.3 655
15 Odivelas 144,549 26.4 5,475 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
16 Coimbra 143,396 319.0 450
17 Santa Maria da Feira 139,312 215.1 648 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
18 Vila Franca de Xira 136,886 317.7 431 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
19 Maia 135,306 83.7 1,617 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto
20 Vila Nova de Famalicão 133,832 201.7 664
21 Leiria 126,879 564.7 225
22 Setúbal 121,185 171.9 705 Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon
23 Barcelos 120,391 378.9 318
24 Funchal 111,892 75.7 1,478

People[edit]

Nationality[edit]

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Languages[edit]

The main language is Portuguese. Mirandês (the Mirandese language), is also recognised, and has special protection in the area of Miranda do Douro.

Immigration[edit]

Foreign-born naturalised citizens in Portugal by 2001.

In 1992, 1.3% of the population was foreign, by 2007 the number had grown to 4.1% or 435,736 people.[18]

Since the independence of the former African colonies, Portugal saw a steady immigration from Africa, most notably Cape Verde, Angola and Guinea-Bissau, but also São Tomé and Príncipe, Mozambique and former Portuguese India in Asia.

Portugal saw migration waves due to labor shortages since 1999, first from Eastern Europe (1999–2002), in two distinctive groups, a Slav (Ukraine, Russia and Bulgaria) and an East Latin (Romania and Moldavia), that stopped and started declining as the labour market became saturated.

Since 2003, most of the immigrants came from Brazil, China and the Indian subcontinent. Family reunification was seen as important for a successful integration in the country, thus the government eased it, and in 2006, more than 6 in 10 new immigrants were family members of legal foreign residents in the country.[19]

There is also a significant number of elderly Western European residents in search of quality of life, namely from France, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom.

More recently, there is significant migration from the former Portuguese colony of Brazil, as since 2017 more than 30,000 Brazilians emigrate to Portugal annually.

Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2020)[20]
 Brazil 183,993
 United Kingdom 46,238
 Cabo Verde 36,609
European Union Romania 30,052
 Ukraine 28,629
European Union Italy 28,159
 China 26,074
European Union France 24,935
 India 24,550
 Angola 24,449
   Nepal 21,015
 Guinea-Bissau 19,680
European Union Spain 16,981
European Union Germany 16,041
 Sao Tome and Principe 10,706
European Union Netherlands 10,392
 Bangladesh 9,916
 Venezuela 7,741
European Union Bulgaria 6,745
 Pakistan 6,381
Acquisition of Portuguese citizenship
Nationality Population (2020)[21]
 Brazil 20,847
 Israel 20,782
 Cape Verde 5,049
 Angola 2,613
 Ukraine 1,960
 Guinea-Bissau 1,868
 India 1,547
   Nepal 1,542
 Venezuela 1,394
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1,120

Ethnic minorities and persons with disabilities[edit]

Anti-racism laws prohibit and penalize racial discrimination in housing, business, and health services. In 2007 approximately 332,137 legal immigrants live in the country, representing approximately 5% of the population. The country also has a resident Romani (Gypsy) population of approximately 40,000 people.

Discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to health care, or the provision of other state services is illegal. The law mandates access to public buildings and to newly built private buildings for such persons.

Religion[edit]

Religions in Portugal (Census 2011 [pt])[22]

  Catholicism (81.0%)
  Other Christian (3.3%)
  Other religion (0.6%)
  No religion (6.8%)
  No response (8.3%)

The great majority of the Portuguese population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church. Religious observance remains strong in northern areas, with the population of Lisbon and southern areas generally less devout and strongly anticlerical. Religious minorities include a little over 300,000 Protestants and Mormons. There are also about 50,000 Muslims and 10,000 Hindus. Most of them came from Goa, a former Portuguese colony on the west coast of India (Some Muslims also came from former two Portuguese African colonies with important Muslim minorities: Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique). There are also about 1,000 Jews. Portugal is also home to less than 10,000 Buddhists, mostly Chinese from Macau and a few Indians from Goa. Portugal is still one of the most religious countries in Europe, most Portuguese believe with certainty in the Existence of God and religion plays an important role in the life of most Portuguese.[23][24] According to the Pew Research Center, 40% of Portuguese Catholics pray daily.[25]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.62%
male: 99.55%
female: 99.63% (2015)[26]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nuno Valério (coord.), Estatísticas Históricas Portuguesas, Vol. I, pp. 33, 37 e 51. INE, 2001. (PDF: 4,18 MB)
  2. ^ INE, CENSOS 2021 Censos 2021 - Divulgação dos Resultados Preliminares - 2021, 28 July 2021.
  3. ^ INE, Estimativas de População Residente, Portugal, NUTS II, NUTS III e Municípios – 2006, Informação à Comunicação Social, 3 August 2007.
  4. ^ "Portugal Ethnic Groups | Study.com". Study.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  6. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750–1975.
  7. ^ "United Nations. Demographic Yearbook 1948" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Statistics Portugal". Ine.pt. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  9. ^ "PORDATA – População residente: total e por sexo". Pordata.pt. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  10. ^ "2011 WORLD POPULATION DATA SHEET" (PDF). Prb.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  11. ^ "2012 – Negative birth rate decreases further – Portugal – Portuguese American Journal". Portuguese-american-journal.com. 2 January 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b "World Factbook EUROPE : PORTUGAL", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
  13. ^ "Monthly Statistical Bulletin". Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Statistics Portugal. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  14. ^ World Population Review: Portugal Population 2018, 14 June 2018
  15. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d Fernando Nunes da Silva (2005), Alta Velocidade em Portugal, Desenvolvimento Regional, CENSUR, IST Archived 24 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ UMA POPULAÇÃO QUE SE URBANIZA, Uma avaliação recente – Cidades, 2004 Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
  18. ^ População Estrangeira em Território Nacional (PDF) (in Portuguese), SEF, 2008, retrieved 12 September 2008
  19. ^ Imigração: Novos imigrantes legais em Portugal aumentaram 50% em 2006 – OCDE Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine – RTP.pt
  20. ^ https://sefstat.sef.pt/Docs/Rifa2020.pdf
  21. ^ https://sefstat.sef.pt/Docs/Rifa2020.pdf
  22. ^ "Census – Final results : Portugal – 2011". Statistics Portugal. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  23. ^ Portugueses são mais cristãos e vão mais à igreja do que o resto da Europa ocidental
  24. ^ Portugal é dos países onde mais pessoas garantem que Deus existe
  25. ^ Five Centuries After Reformation, Catholic-Protestant Divide in Western Europe Has Faded Pew Research Center.
  26. ^ "Portugal". Uis.unesco.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.