Demographics of Puerto Rico

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Demographics of Puerto Rico
Porto-Rico-demography.png
Population Change Timeline (1961-2003)
Population Density, PR, 2000 (sample).jpg
Population Density
Population (2016) 3,411,307
Male population (2010) 1,785,171
Female population (2010) 1,940,618
Population growth -1.32%
Birth rate 9.8/1,000
Death rate 8.6/1,000
Infant mortality rate 8.24/1,000
Life expectancy 78.29 years
Nationality Puerto Rican
Demographic bureaus 2010 United States Census

The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization especially under the Spanish Empire, slavery and economic migration. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Puerto Rico, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

History of migration[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1765 44,883 —    
1775 70,250 +56.5%
1800 155,426 +121.2%
1815 220,892 +42.1%
1832 350,051 +58.5%
1846 447,914 +28.0%
1860 583,308 +30.2%
1877 731,648 +25.4%
1887 798,565 +9.1%
1899 953,243 +19.4%
1910 1,118,012 +17.3%
1920 1,299,809 +16.3%
1930 1,543,913 +18.8%
1940 1,869,255 +21.1%
1950 2,210,703 +18.3%
1960 2,349,544 +6.3%
1970 2,712,033 +15.4%
1980 3,196,520 +17.9%
1990 3,522,037 +10.2%
2000 3,808,610 +8.1%
2010 3,725,789 −2.2%
2016 3,411,307 −8.4%

Sometime between 400 B.C.E. and 100 A.C.E., the Arawak group of Amerindians inhabited Puerto Rico. Around 600 A.C.E., the Arawak no longer lived on the island, perhaps because they had integrated with another culture, or perhaps because they had been killed by illness.[4] By 1000 A.C.E. indigenous Taíno inhabited the island. They called the island, Borikén (alt. Borinquén), which means "land of the valiant one," [5][4] and later, Puerto Ricans called themselves "Boricua" to embrace their indigenous identity.[6] In the 15th century, the Carib lived on nearby islands and periodically invaded Taíno villages.[4]

Immigration[edit]

Immigration to Puerto Rico

The Spanish conquered the island, assuming government in 1508, colonized it, and assumed hegemony over the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, tribal warfare, and forced labor, so the Spanish began importing large numbers of slaves from Africa. Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women; African and Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mulatto or "mixed" tri-racial ethnicity.

In the late 18th century the number of African slaves began to dwindle on the island. The British ban on slavery resulted in slave raids on Puerto Rico. Many slaves also escaped to neighboring islands.

During the 19th century large numbers of immigrants from Spain, as well as numerous Spaniards living in former Spanish colonies in South America, also arrived in Puerto Rico (See Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico). Although the vast majority of settlers came from Spain, Catholics from France, Ireland, Italy and other European countries were also granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), were allowed to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land and enslaved persons. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s. Puerto Rico's economic boom of the 1950s attracted a considerable number of Jewish families from the U.S. mainland, who were joined after 1959 by an influx of Jewish emigres from Castro's Cuba.[7]

This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century.

Emigration[edit]

Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history as well. Starting in the post-World War II period waves of Puerto Ricans moved to the continental United States, particularly to New York City; Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Camden, New Jersey; Providence, Rhode Island; Springfield; Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; Orlando, Miami and Tampa, Florida; Philadelphia and Reading, Pennsylvania; Washington, D.C., Chicago and Los Angeles, California. This continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined.

Vital statistics[edit]

Puerto Rico's vital statistics 1910–2012[8][9][10][11]
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1910 1 118 37 600 26 600 11 000 33.6 23.8 9.8
1911 1 140 39 100 26 600 12 500 34.3 23.3 11.0
1912 1 150 40 400 26 900 13 500 35.1 23.4 11.7
1913 1 170 42 700 23 200 19 500 36.5 19.8 16.7
1914 1 190 47 400 22 300 25 100 39.8 18.7 21.1
1915 1 210 45 000 25 000 20 000 37.2 20.7 16.5
1916 1 230 43 200 29 400 13 800 35.1 23.9 11.2
1917 1 250 44 300 38 600 5 700 35.4 30.9 4.5
1918 1 260 51 500 38 900 12 600 40.9 30.9 10.0
1919 1 280 46 000 30 300 15 700 35.9 23.7 12.2
1920 1 300 49 900 29 600 20 300 38.4 22.8 15.6
1921 1 320 50 600 29 700 20 900 38.3 22.5 15.8
1922 1 350 50 500 29 400 21 100 37.4 21.8 15.6
1923 1 370 50 700 26 900 23 800 37.0 19.6 17.4
1924 1 400 53 600 27 200 26 400 38.3 19.4 18.9
1925 1 420 52 700 33 200 19 500 37.1 23.4 13.7
1926 1 450 55 500 32 300 23 200 38.3 22.3 16.0
1927 1 470 58 200 33 500 24 700 39.6 22.8 16.8
1928 1 500 52 900 29 700 23 200 35.3 19.8 15.5
1929 1 520 52 300 40 700 11 600 34.4 26.8 7.6
1930 1 544 54 300 31 500 22 800 35.2 20.4 14.8
1931 1 580 71 600 35 200 36 400 45.3 22.3 23.0
1932 1 615 66 400 35 500 30 900 41.1 22.0 19.1
1933 1 647 61 600 36 700 24 900 37.4 22.3 15.1
1934 1 679 65 595 31 684 33 911 39.1 18.9 20.2
1935 1 710 67 585 30 748 36 837 39.5 18.0 21.5
1936 1 743 68 962 34 790 34 172 39.6 20.0 19.6
1937 1 777 67 919 37 132 30 787 38.2 20.9 17.3
1938 1 810 69 823 33 870 35 953 38.6 18.7 19.9
1939 1 844 73 044 32 631 40 413 39.6 17.7 21.9
1940 1 879 72 388 34 477 37 911 38.5 18.3 20.2
1941 1 926 76 130 35 551 40 579 39.5 18.5 21.1
1942 1 973 78 405 32 218 46 187 39.7 16.3 23.4
1943 2 012 77 304 29 065 48 239 38.4 14.4 24.0
1944 2 037 82 534 29 843 52 691 40.5 14.7 25.9
1945 2 070 86 680 28 837 57 843 41.9 13.9 27.9
1946 2 100 88 421 27 517 60 904 42.1 13.1 29.0
1947 2 149 91 305 25 407 65 898 42.5 11.8 30.7
1948 2 187 87 809 26 209 61 600 40.2 12.0 28.2
1949 2 197 85 625 23 389 62 236 39.0 10.6 28.3
1950 2 218 86 038 21 895 64 143 38.8 9.9 27.9
1951 2 210 84 076 22 374 61 702 38.0 10.1 27.9
1952 2 212 80 438 20 480 59 958 36.3 9.3 27.1
1953 2 221 77 754 17 972 59 782 35.0 8.1 26.9
1954 2 233 78 008 16 783 61 225 34.9 7.5 27.4
1955 2 247 79 221 16 243 62 978 35.2 7.2 28.0
1956 2 262 78 177 16 607 61 570 34.5 7.3 27.2
1957 2 279 76 068 16 022 60 046 33.3 7.0 26.3
1958 2 299 76 128 16 099 60 029 33.1 7.0 26.1
1959 2 323 74 933 15 870 59 063 32.2 6.8 25.4
1960 2 356 76 015 15 841 60 174 32.2 6.7 25.5
1961 2 396 75 563 16 361 59 202 31.5 6.8 24.7
1962 2 442 76 677 16 575 60 102 31.3 6.8 24.6
1963 2 491 77 382 17 386 59 996 31.0 7.0 24.0
1964 2 538 78 837 18 556 60 281 31.0 7.3 23.7
1965 2 578 79 586 17 719 61 867 30.8 6.9 24.0
1966 2 609 75 735 17 506 58 229 29.0 6.7 22.3
1967 2 634 70 755 16 780 53 975 26.8 6.4 20.4
1968 2 656 67 989 17 481 50 508 25.5 6.6 19.0
1969 2 680 67 577 17 669 49 908 25.1 6.6 18.6
1970 2 710 67 438 18 080 49 358 24.8 6.7 18.2
1971 2 746 71 114 18 144 52 970 25.8 6.6 19.2
1972 2 787 68 914 19 011 49 903 24.7 6.8 17.9
1973 2 833 68 821 19 257 49 564 24.2 6.8 17.5
1974 2 882 70 082 19 490 50 592 24.3 6.7 17.5
1975 2 932 69 691 19 073 50 618 23.7 6.5 17.2
1976 2 984 72 883 19 893 52 990 24.4 6.7 17.7
1977 3 037 75 151 19 895 55 256 24.7 6.5 18.2
1978 3 090 75 066 19 876 55 190 24.2 6.4 17.8
1979 3 141 73 781 20 390 53 391 23.4 6.5 17.0
1980 3 188 73 060 20 486 52 574 22.9 6.4 16.4
1981 3 230 71 365 21 197 50 168 22.0 6.5 15.5
1982 3 269 69 336 21 522 47 814 21.2 6.6 14.6
1983 3 305 65 742 21 499 44 243 19.8 6.5 13.4
1984 3 338 63 321 21 733 41 588 18.9 6.5 12.4
1985 3 370 63 629 23 194 40 435 18.8 6.9 12.0
1986 3 400 63 551 23 387 40 164 18.6 6.9 11.8
1987 3 429 64 393 23 954 40 439 18.7 7.0 11.8
1988 3 457 64 081 25 123 38 958 18.5 7.2 11.2
1989 3 487 66 692 25 987 40 705 19.1 7.4 11.6
1990 3 518 66 565 26 138 40 407 18.9 7.4 11.5
1991 3 552 64 498 26 321 38 177 18.2 7.4 10.7
1992 3 587 64 471 27 389 37 082 18.0 7.6 10.3
1993 3 623 65 258 28 493 36 765 18.0 7.9 10.1
1994 3 657 64 341 28 428 35 913 17.6 7.8 9.8
1995 3 690 63 502 30 184 33 318 17.2 8.2 9.0
1996 3 719 63 259 29 871 33 388 17.0 8.0 9.0
1997 3 747 64 214 29 119 35 095 17.1 7.8 9.4
1998 3 770 60 518 29 990 30 528 16.1 8.0 8.1
1999 3 787 59 684 29 145 30 539 15.8 7.7 8.1
2000 3 797 59 460 28 550 30 910 15.7 7.5 8.1
2001 3 799 55 982 28 794 27 188 14.7 7.6 7.2
2002 3 795 52 871 28 098 24 773 13.9 7.4 6.5
2003 3 785 50 803 28 356 22 447 13.4 7.5 5.9
2004 3 773 51 239 29 066 22 173 13.6 7.7 5.9
2005 3 761 50 687 29 702 20 985 13.5 7.9 5.6
2006 3 750 48 597 28 206 20 391 13.0 7.5 5.4
2007 3 739 46 642 29 169 17 473 12.5 7.8 4.7 1.64
2008 3 729 45 620 29 050 16 570 11.5 7.8 3.7 1.62
2009 3 719 44 773 29 005 15 768 11.3 7.8 3.5 1.59
2010 3 722 42 153 29 153 13 000 11.3 7.8 3.5 1.62
2011 3 679 41 080 29 742 11 338 11.2 8.1 3.1 1.60
2012 3 634 38 900 29 448 9 228 10.7 8.1 2.5 1.54
2013 3 593 38 986 29 009 9 977 10.9 8.1 2.8 1.47
2014 3 535 34 485 30 224 4 261 9.8 8.5 1.2 1.36
2015 3 474 31 157 28 279 2 878 9.0 8.1 0.9 1.34

Structure of the population[12][edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (Estimates) (Data refer to projections based on the 2010 Population Census) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 1 755 479 1 911 605 3 667 084 100
0-4 107 000 102 597 209 597 5,72
5-9 116 188 109 665 225 853 6,16
10-14 129 722 123 006 252 728 6,89
15-19 138 646 132 250 270 896 7,39
20-24 134 894 131 768 266 662 7,27
25-29 112 981 117 257 230 238 6,28
30-34 115 030 125 281 240 311 6,55
35-39 111 971 121 837 233 808 6,38
40-44 113 223 123 276 236 499 6,45
45-49 114 114 129 441 243 555 6,64
50-54 109 550 127 211 236 761 6,46
55-59 103 031 123 108 226 139 6,17
60-64 96 256 115 745 212 001 5,78
65-69 86 858 104 308 191 166 5,21
70-74 64 745 79 593 144 338 3,94
75-79 46 652 60 431 107 083 2,92
80-84 29 398 41 911 71 309 1,94
85+ 25 220 42 290 68 140 1,86
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 352 910 335 268 688 178 18,77
15-64 1 149 696 1 247 174 2 396 870 65,36
65+ 252 873 329 163 582 036 15,87

Race and ethnic group[edit]

Racial groups - Puerto Rico[13][14][15][16][17]
Year White % Non-White
1802 42.0 58.0
1812 40.8 59.2
1820 39.4 60.6
1830 45.1 54.9
1877 52.3 47.7
1887 53.5 46.5
1897 64.3 35.7
1899 61.8 38.2
1910 64.5 35.5
1920 72.0 28.0
1930 73.3 26.7
1935 75.2 24.8
1940 76.0 24.0
1950 79.7 20.3
2000 80.5 19.5
2010 75.8 24.2
Racial composition of the Puerto Rican
population, by the census, 1802-2010.

Race and origin history[edit]

The first census by the United States in 1899 reported a population of 953,243 inhabitants, 61.8% of them classified as white, 31.9% as mixed, and 6.3% as black.

A strong European immigration wave and large importation of slaves from Africa helped increase the population of Puerto Rico over sixfold during the 19th century. No major immigration wave occurred during the 20th century.[18]

The federal Naturalization Act, signed into law on March 26, 1790, by President Washington stated that immigrants to the United States had to be White according to the definition under the British Common Law, which the United States inherited. The legal definition of Whiteness differed greatly from White Society's informal definition, thus Jews, Gypsies, Middle Eastern Peoples and those of the Indian Subcontinent were before 1917 classified as White for Immigration purposes but not considered White by the society at large. The Naturalization Act of 1870, passed during Reconstruction, allowed for peoples of African descent to become U.S. Citizens but it excluded other nonwhites. The U.S. Supreme Court in the case United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) declared that all nonwhites who were born in the United States were eligible for citizenship via the Citizenship Clause of the 14th Amendment. U.S. Immigration Policy was first restricted toward Chinese with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907 in which Japan voluntarily barred emigration to the United States and the Immigration Act of 1917 or the Asiatic Barred Zone which barred immigrants from all of the Middle East, the Steppes and the Orient, excluding the Philippines which was then a US Colony. European Jews and Gypsies, although of Asiatic Ancestry, were not affected by the Asiatic Barred Zone, as they held European Citizenship. The Johnson-Reed act of 1924 applied only to the Eastern Hemisphere. The Act imposed immigration quotas on Europe, which allowed for easy immigration from Northern and Western Europe, but almost excluded the Mediterranean and Slavic Nations. Africa and Asia were excluded altogether. The Western Hemisphere remained unrestricted to immigrate to the United States. Thus under the Immigration Act of 1924 all Hispanics and Caribbeans could immigrate to the United States, but a White family from Poland or Russia could not immigrate. Puerto Rican Citizenship was created under the Foraker Act, Pub.L. 56–191, 31 Stat. 77 but it wasn't until 1917 that Puerto Ricans were granted full American Citizenship under the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub.L. 64–368, 39 Stat. 951. Puerto Ricans, excluding those of obvious African ancestry, were like most Hispanics formally classified as White under U.S. Law, but this classification did not prevent informal discrimination against them by Anglo-Americans.

Until 1950 the U.S. Bureau of the Census attempted to quantify the racial composition of the island's population, while experimenting with various racial taxonomies. In 1960 the census dropped the racial identification question for Puerto Rico but included it again in the year 2000. The only category that remained constant over time was white, even as other racial labels shifted greatly—from "colored" to "Black", "mulatto" and "other". Regardless of the precise terminology, the census reported that the bulk of the Puerto Rican population was white from 1899 to 2000.[14]

In the late 1700s, Puerto Rico had laws like the Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar where a person of mixed ancestry could be considered legally white so long as they could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had also been legally white. Therefore, people of mixed ancestry with known white lineage were classified as white, the opposite of the "one-drop rule" in the United States.[19]

According to the 1920 Puerto Rico census, 2,505 individuals immigrated to Puerto Rico between 1910 and 1920. Of these, 2,270 were classified as "white" in the 1920 census (1,205 from Spain, 280 from Venezuela, 180 from Cuba, and 135 from the Dominican Republic). During the same 10-year period, 7,873 Puerto Ricans emigrated to the U.S. Of these, 6,561 were listed as "white" on the U.S mainland census, 909 as "Spanish white" and 403 as "black".[20]

According to the 2015 Race and Hispanic Origin estimate (2011-2015 American Community Survey) published by the US Census Bureau, the data for Puerto Rico was as follows in 2015:[21]

  • White alone 2,495,997
  • Black or African American alone 301,519
  • American Indian and Alaska Native alone 11,775
  • Asian alone 10,159
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 129
  • Some Other Race alone 431,443
  • Two or More Races 332,051
  • Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 3,547,288
  • White alone, Not Hispanic or Latino 24,900

Genetic studies[edit]

Puerto Ricans, on average, have genetic contributions from Europeans, West Africans, and Native Americans of approximately 66%, 18%, and 16%, respectively.[25] A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 800 individuals found that patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y-chromosome, showed 66% of Puerto Ricans could trace their ancestry to male European ancestors, 18% could trace it to male African ancestors, and 16% could trace it to male Native American ancestors.[26]

Women in the diaspora[edit]

In a study done on Puerto Rican women (of all races) born on the island but living in New York by Carolina Bonilla, Mark D. Shriver and Esteban Parra in 2004, the ancestry proportions corresponding to the three parental populations were found to be 53.3±2.8% European, 29.1±2.3% West African, and 17.6±2.4% Native American based on autosomal ancestry informative markers. Although autosomal markers tests seem to draw a more broad picture than that of single, gender-based mtDNA and Y-Chromosome tests, the problem with autosomnal DNA is in the archaic categories used: "European", "Sub-Saharan African", "East Asian" & "Native American". "Asian" (South, North or East) & "North African" are not included. These generalised categories may not take into account the complexity of migratory patterns across the Old World. The study also found that, from the women sampled, 98% had European ancestry markers, 87% had African ancestry markers, 84% had Native American ancestry markers, 5% showed only African and European markers, 4% showed mostly Native American and European markers, 2% showed only African markers, and 2% showed mostly European markers.[27]

These findings are consistent with the historical record that the native male Taino population was virtually wiped out shortly after the arrival of the Spanish invaders to the Island.[28]

Religion[edit]

There are many religious beliefs represented in the island with Christianity as the religion indicated by the majority in 2010.

Religious breakdown in Puerto Rico (2010):[29]

Circle frame.svg

Pew Research Center (2010)[30]

  Roman Catholic (69.7%)
  Protestant (25.1%)
  Other Christian (1.9%)
  Other (1.4%)
  Irreligious (1.9%)

Christians[edit]

A recent report providing a full breakdown as to specific religions is not available; the most recent was for 2006.

The Christian Denominational Breakdown was as follows in 2006:[31]


Denomination Adherents
Catholic 1,650,000
Other Pentecostal 229,814
Pentecostal Church of God 100,000
Assemblies of God 56,000
Baptist Convention 35,000
Seventh-day Adventist 31,524
Jehovah's Witnesses 25,778
Church of God (Cleveland) 17,500
Defenders of the Faith 17,500
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 16,084
Disciples of Christ 10,778
United Methodist 10,000
Boriquen Presby Synod 8,300
Christian and Missionary Alliance 6,500
Church of the Nazarene 2,994
Other 130,400

Catholics[edit]

The Roman Catholic Church has been historically the most dominant religion of the majority of Puerto Ricans, with Puerto Rico having the first dioceses in the Americas.[32] This religion was brought by Spanish colonists. The first dioceses in the Americas, including that of Puerto Rico, were authorized by Pope Julius II in 1511.[33] One Pope, John Paul II, visited Puerto Rico in October 1984. All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic Church, most of which are located at the town center or "plaza".

An Associated Press article in March 2014 stated that "more than 70 percent of whom identify themselves as Catholic" but provided no source for this information. (It may have been using the 2010 Pew Research Center data.)[34]

The CIA World Factbook however, reports that 85% of the population of Puerto Rico identifies as Roman Catholic, while 15% identify as Protestant and Other. Neither a date or a source for that information is provided and may not be recent.[35]

In November 2014, a Pew Research report, with the sub-title Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region, indicated that only 56% of Puerto Ricans were Catholic and that 33% were Protestant. This survey was completed between October 2013 and February 2014.[36]

Protestants[edit]

Protestantism was suppressed under the Spanish Catholic regime. For example, the Holy Trinity Anglican church in Ponce, was prevented from ringing its bell until 1898, when American troops landed there.[37] Protestantism increased under American sovereignty, making contemporary Puerto Rico more interconfessional than in previous centuries, although Catholicism continues to be the dominant religion. The first Protestant church, Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad, was established in Ponce by the Anglican Diocese of Antigua in 1872.[38] It was the first non-Roman Catholic Church in the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas.[39][40]

Muslims[edit]

In 2007, there were over 5,000 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0.13% of the population.[41][42] There are eight Islamic mosques spread throughout the island, with most Muslims living in Río Piedras.[43][44] Puerto Rican converts to Islam continues to occur.[45] "Ties between Latinos and Islam are more than just spiritual, but date back to Spanish history. Many people do not realize that Muslims ruled Spain for more than 700 years".[46] And at times not just individuals, but whole families convert. However, lack of Muslim education in the Island forces some Puerto Rican Muslims to migrate to the States.[46] Islam was brought into Puerto Rico mainly via the Palestinian migration of the 1950s and '60s.[47] Thus, today there is a strong Palestinian presence among Muslims in Puerto Rico. "They are economically strong and are thus able to pay for a full-time Imaam".[48]

Jews[edit]

Puerto Rico is also home to the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean with 3,000 Jewish inhabitants.[49] Some Puerto Ricans have converted, not only as individuals but as entire families. Puerto Rico is the only Caribbean island in which the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jewish movements are represented.[7][50]

Other religious practices[edit]

Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented by a handful of advocates. Starting in about 1840, there have been attempts to create a quasi-indigenous Taíno identity in rural areas of Puerto Rico. This trend accelerated among the Puerto Rican community in the mainland United States in the 1960s.[51] In the 2010 U.S. census, 9,399 people are identified as "Taíno."[52]

Various other African religious practices have been present since the arrival of enslaved Africans. In particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santería and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe (sometimes called an African belief system, but rather a way of Bantu lifestyle of Congo origin) find adherence among the few individuals who practice some form of African traditional religion.

Demographic statistics[edit]

Demographics of Puerto Rico, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook unless otherwise indicated.

Population in 2010:

Population in 2016:

Gender:[55]

  • Men: 1,785,171
  • Women: 1,940,618

Age structure:

  • 0–17 years:
  • 24.2% (903,295)
  • '18–24 years:
  • 10.1% (375,175)
  • 25–34 years:
  • 13.2% (492,332)
  • 35–49 years:
  • 19.6% (731,514)
  • 50–64 years:
  • 18.3% (681,505)
  • 65 years and over:
  • 14.6% (541,998)

Infant mortality rate:

  • Total
  • 8.23 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Male
    • Deaths/1,000 live births
  • Female
    • 7.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

  • 'Total population:
  • 78.77 years
  • Male:75.15 years
  • Female: 82.57 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

  • 1.62 children born/woman (2010 est.)

Nationality:[56]

  • Noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
  • Adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic Groups (2010):[56]

Religions:[57]

Languages:[56]

Median Household Income:[58]

  • $19,350 (2015 est.)

Individuals below the poverty level:[59]

  • 45.5% (2015 est.)

Education, high school graduate or higher:[60]

  • 73% (2015 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Puerto Rico's population Statistics
  2. ^ "Resident Population Data". Census. US: Government. 2010. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  3. ^ "State Totals: Vintage 2015". Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c Stacy., Taus-Bolstad, (2005-01-01). Puerto Ricans in America. Lerner Publications Co. ISBN 9780822539537. OCLC 54046670 – via Google Books. 
  5. ^ "Puerto Rico - History and Heritage". smithsonianmag.com. Smithson Institution. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  6. ^ 1969-, Brown, Monica, (2002-01-01). Gang nation : delinquent citizens in Puerto Rican, Chicano, and Chicana narratives. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816634785. OCLC 48649774. 
  7. ^ a b The Virtual Jewish History Tour Puerto Rico
  8. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: the Americas, 1750-2000.
  9. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  10. ^ [2] National Vital Statistics System
  11. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/vitstats/serATab3.pdf
  12. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  13. ^ Puerto Rico's History on race
  14. ^ a b Representation of racial identity among Puerto Ricans and in the u.s. mainland
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  16. ^ 2010.census.gov Archived March 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Puerto Rico's Historical Demographics Retrieved November 10, 2011.
  18. ^ Ancestry in Puerto Rico
  19. ^ Not of Pure Blood. Jay Kinsbruner. Duke University Press. 1996. Page 22. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  20. ^ How Puerto Rico became white
  21. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin, Puerto Rico". US Census. US Department of Commerce. 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2017. 
  22. ^ Ethnicity 2000 census
  23. ^ "Island Identity 2000 census
  24. ^ 2006-2008 Three Year Estimate. Puerto Rico Community Survey;Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race. Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Path: U.S. Census Bureau > Fact Sheet > United States > Puerto Rico > 2006-2008 tab > ACS Demographic Estimates. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
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