Demographics of Qatar

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Qatar population pyramid in 2020

Natives of the Arabian Peninsula, many Qataris (Arabic: قطرين) are descended from a number of migratory Arab tribes that came to Qatar in the 18th century from mainly the neighboring areas of Nejd and Al-Hasa. Some are descended from Omani tribes. Qatar has about 2.6 million inhabitants as of early 2017, the vast majority of whom (about 92%) live in Doha, the capital.[1] Foreign workers amount to around 88% of the population, with Indians being the largest community numbering around 700,000.[2]]].[3]

The Qataris are mainly Sunni Muslims. Islam is the official religion, and Islamic jurisprudence is the basis of Qatar's legal system. A significant minority of the population is Hindu. Arabic is the official language and English is the lingua franca of business. Hindi and Urdu are also widely spoken, especially by the South Asian foreign workers.[4] Education is compulsory and free for all citizens 6–16 years old. Qatar has an increasingly high literacy rate.

Population[edit]

2002-2017
YearPop.±% p.a.
1986 369,079—    
1997 522,026+3.20%
2001 676,498+6.69%
2003 713,859+2.72%
2004 744,028+4.23%
2005 906,123+21.79%
2006 1,042,947+15.10%
2007 1,218,250+16.81%
2008 1,448,479+18.90%
2009 1,638,626+13.13%
2010 1,699,435+3.71%
2011 1,732,717+1.96%
2012 1,832,903+5.78%
2013 2,101,288+14.64%
2014 2,172,065+3.37%
2015 2,235,355+2.91%
2016 2,291,368+2.51%
2017 2,338,085+2.04%
Source: Qatar Statistics Authority[5]
1950-2010
YearPop.±% p.a.
195025,000—    
196047,000+6.52%
1970108,000+8.68%
1980222,000+7.47%
1990474,000+7.88%
2000591,000+2.23%
20101,759,000+11.52%
Source: United Nations[6]

By nationality[edit]

Native Qataris can be divided into three ethnic groups: Bedouin Arabs, Hadar, and Afro-Arab. They comprise 11.6% of the country's population.

A 2011–2014 report by the International Organization for Migration recorded 176,748 Nepali Citizens living in Qatar as migrant workers.[7][8][9] In 2012 about 7,000 Turkish nationals lived in Qatar[10] and in 2016 about 1,000 Colombian nationals and descendants lived in Qatar. No official numbers are published of the foreign population broken down by nationality, however a Qatari firm provides estimates as of 2019:[11]

Country Number percent
 India 700,000 25.00%
 Bangladesh 400,000 12.10%
   Nepal 400,000 12.10%
 Qatar 330,000 11.60%
 Egypt 300,000 12.10%
 Philippines 236,000 5.60%
 Pakistan 150,000 4.80%
 Sri Lanka 140,000 2.20%
 Sudan 60,000 2.10%
 Syria 54,000 1.72%
 Lebanon 40,000 1.68%
 United States 40,000 1.3%-1.50%
 Kenya 30,000 1.10%
 Iran 30,000 1.08%
 United Kingdom 22,000 0.92%

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 1,000 0 1,000 47.5 13.8 33.7 6.97 126
1955–1960 2,000 0 1,000 44.3 11.3 33.0 6.97 110
1960–1965 2,000 1,000 2,000 41.0 8.8 32.1 6.97 90
1965–1970 4,000 1,000 3,000 38.6 6.8 31.8 6.97 71
1970–1975 5,000 1,000 4,000 34.8 5.2 29.6 6.77 53
1975–1980 7,000 1,000 6,000 35.7 4.0 31.7 6.11 38
1980–1985 10,000 1,000 9,000 33.2 3.1 30.1 5.45 28
1985–1990 11,000 1,000 10,000 25.4 2.5 22.9 4.50 23
1990–1995 11,000 1,000 10,000 22.8 2.2 20.6 4.01 18
1995–2000 10,000 1,000 9,000 19.2 2.1 17.1 3.30 14
2000–2005 13,000 1,000 12,000 18.8 1.9 16.9 3.01 11
2005–2010 18,000 2,000 16,000 14.1 1.6 12.5 2.40 9
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)
Source:[12]

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 2) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1970 108,000 3,616 464 3,152 33.4 4.3 29.1
1971 118,000 3,921 491 3,430 33.2 4.2 29.0
1972 129,000 4,038 563 3,475 31.2 4.4 26.8
1973 141,000 4,367 660 3,707 31.0 4.7 26.3
1974 152,000 4,562 688 3,874 30.0 4.5 25.5
1975 163,000 4,559 600 3,959 28.0 3.7 24.3
1976 172,000 4,893 609 4,284 28.4 3.5 24.9
1977 181,000 5,313 686 4,627 29.4 3.8 25.6
1978 190,000 5,977 645 5,332 31.4 3.4 28.0
1979 203,000 6,057 709 5,348 29.8 3.5 26.3
1980 222,000 6,750 662 6,088 30.5 3.0 27.5
1981 246,000 7,192 725 6,467 29.3 3.0 26.3
1982 275,000 8,032 789 7,243 29.2 2.9 26.3
1983 307,000 8,261 803 7,458 26.9 2.6 24.3
1984 338,000 8,613 642 7,971 25.5 1.9 23.6
1985 368,000 9,225 794 8,431 25.1 2.2 22.9
1986 395,000 9,942 784 9,158 25.2 2.0 23.2
1987 420,000 9,919 788 9,131 23.6 1.9 21.7
1988 442,000 10,842 861 9,981 24.5 1.9 22.6
1989 460,000 10,908 847 10,061 23.7 1.8 21.9
1990 474,000 11,022 871 10,151 23.3 1.8 21.5
1991 483,000 9,756 883 8,873 20.2 1.8 18.4
1992 488,000 10,459 944 9,515 21.4 1.9 19.5
1993 491,000 10,822 913 9,909 22.0 1.9 20.1
1994 495,000 10,561 964 9,597 21.3 1.9 19.4
1995 501,000 10,371 1,000 9,371 20.7 2.0 18.7
1996 512,000 10,317 1,015 9,302 20.1 2.0 18.1
1997 529,000 10,447 1,060 9,387 19.8 2.0 17.8
1998 549,000 10,781 1,157 9,624 19.6 2.1 17.5
1999 570,000 10,846 1,148 9,698 19.0 2.0 17.0
2000 591,000 11,438 1,173 10,265 19.4 2.0 17.4
2001 608,000 12,355 1,210 11,145 20.3 2.0 18.3
2002 624,000 12,388 1,220 11,168 19.8 2.0 17.8
2003 654,000 13,026 1,311 11,715 19.9 2.0 17.9
2004 715,000 13,589 1,341 12,248 19.0 1.9 17.1 2.78
2005 821,000 13,514 1,545 11,969 16.5 1.9 14.6 2.62
2006 978,000 14,204 1,750 12,454 14.5 1.8 12.7 2.48
2007 1,178,000 15,695 1,776 13,919 13.3 1.5 11.8 2.45
2008 1,448,000 17,480 1,942 15,538 12.1 1.3 10.8 2.43
2009 1,639,000 18,351 2,008 16,343 11.2 1.2 10.0 2.28
2010 1,715,000 19,504 1,970 17,534 11.4 1.1 10.3 2.08
2011 1,733,000 20,623 1,949 18,674 12.0 1.1 10.9 2.12
2012 1,833,000 21,423 2,031 19,392 11.7 1.1 10.6 2.05
2013 2,004,000 23,708 2,133 21,575 11.8 1.1 10.7 2.00
2014 2,216,000 25,443 2,366 23,007 11.5 1.1 10.4 2.00
2015 2,438,000 26,622 2,317 24,305 10.9 1.0 9.9 2.00
2016 2,618,000 26,816 2,347 24,469 10.2 0.9 9.3 1.85
2017 2,725,000 27,906 2,294 25,612 10.2 0.8 9.4 1.83
2018 2,760,000 28,069 2,385 25,684 10.2 0.9 9.3 1.75
2019 2,799,000 28,412 2,200 26,212 10.2 0.8 9.4 1.73
2020 2,834,000 29,014 2,811 26,203 10.2 1.0 9.2 1.67
2021 2,748,000 22,922 2,774 20,148
Sources:[13][14]

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2019): [15]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 064 276 734 926 2 799 202 100
0–4 74 902 71 724 146 626 5.24
5–9 71 614 69 267 140 881 5.03
10–14 56 637 54 291 110 928 3.96
15–19 47 897 38 313 86 210 3.08
20–24 205 862 44 382 250 244 8.94
25–29 352 616 92 515 445 131 15.90
30–34 393 644 109 435 503 079 17.97
35–39 319 713 89 034 408 747 14.60
40–44 211 372 62 490 273 862 9.78
45–49 145 216 39 577 184 793 6.60
50–54 86 415 25 298 111 713 3.99
55–59 51 306 16 530 67 836 2.42
60–64 26 902 9 875 36 777 1.31
65-69 10 744 5 365 16 109 0.58
70-74 4 905 3 154 8 059 0.29
75-79 2 703 2 031 4 734 0.17
80+ 1 828 1 645 3 473 0.12
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 203 153 195 282 398 435 14.23
15–64 1 840 943 527 449 2 368 392 84.61
65+ 20 180 12 195 32 375 1.16

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 55.2 1985–1990 74.5
1955–1960 59.2 1990–1995 75.3
1960–1965 62.9 1995–2000 76.0
1965–1970 66.6 2000–2005 76.6
1970–1975 69.7 2005–2010 76.9
1975–1980 71.8 2010–2015 77.6
1980–1985 73.4
Source: UN World Population Prospects[16]


Religions[edit]

Languages[edit]

Arabic is the official language of Qatar according to Article 1 of the Constitution.[18]

English is the de facto second language of Qatar, and is very commonly used in business. Because of Qatar's varied ethnic landscape, English has been recognized as the most convenient medium for people of different backgrounds to communicate with each other.[19] The history of English use in the country dates back to the mid-19th and early 20th centuries when the British Empire would frequently draft treaties and agreements with the emirates of the Persian Gulf. One such treaty was the 1916 protectorate treaty signed between Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani and the British representative Percy Cox, under which Qatar would be placed under British administration in exchange for protection. Another agreement drafted in English came in 1932 and was signed between the Qatari government and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. These agreements were mainly facilitated by foreign interpreters due to neither party possessing the required language skills for such complex arrangements. For instance, a translator and native Arabic speaker named A. A. Hilmy interpreted the 1932 agreement for Qatar.[20]

Hindi, Urdu, Tagalog, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam are commonly used among Asian migrants. In 2015, there were more newspapers being printed by the government in Malayalam than in Arabic or English.[21]


Genetics[edit]

Y-chromosome DNA[edit]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Qatari Y-chromosome in large belongs to haplogroup J which comprises two thirds of the total chromosomes[22]

  • J1 ≈58.3%
  • J2 ≈8.3%
  • E* ≈7.0% — E(xE1b1b)
  • R1a ≈6.9%
  • E1b1b ≈5.6%
  • Other Haplogroups ≈13.9%

Mitochondrial DNA[edit]

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) represents the female lineage The Qatari mitochondrial DNA shows much more diversity than the Y-DNA lineages, with more than 35% of the lineages showing African ancestry (East African & Subsaharan) & the rest of the lineages being Eurasian.[23]

  • R0 ~ 22% (14% R0*, 8% H)
  • JT ~ 22% (18% J & 4% T)
  • UK ~ 20% (11% K & 9% U)
  • L3 ~ 10% (East African & Subsaharan lineages)
  • Other lineages ~ 26%

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics". Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  2. ^ "Population of Qatar by nationality - 2017 report". Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  3. ^ "QATAR 2015/2016". Retrieved 2016-11-25.
  4. ^ "Qatar Tourist Guide". Retrieved 2012-02-15.
  5. ^ "Qatar Statistics Authority - Population 2012" (PDF).
  6. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived February 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Nepalese Migrant workers in Qatar from Terai".
  8. ^ "Iom International Report claims half of Nepalese migrant workers in foreign are Madhesi people from Terai, mainly to Qatar, Malaysia, UAE, Saudi Arabia and UAE".
  9. ^ "Half of madhesi people of Terai are in Qatar".
  10. ^ "Turkish school in Qatar to help spread Turkish culture" (Archive). Today's Zaman. Wednesday February 29, 2012. Retrieved on September 26, 2015.
  11. ^ "Population of Qatar by nationality in 2019". Priya DSouza Communications. 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  12. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2015-06-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Qatar Information Exchange]
  15. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  16. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  17. ^ "CIA Factbook – Qatar". 21 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Qatar's Constitution of 2003" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  19. ^ The Report: Qatar 2015. Oxford Business Group. 2015. p. 12. ISBN 9781910068274.
  20. ^ Qotbah, Mohammed Abdullah (1990). Needs analysis and the design of courses in English for academic purposes : a study of the use of English language at the University of Qatar (PDF). etheses.dur.ac.uk (Thesis). Durham theses, Durham University. p. 8. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  21. ^ The Report: Qatar 2015. Oxford Business Group. 2015. p. 15. ISBN 9781910068274.
  22. ^ Cadenas et al. 2007
  23. ^ Rowold et al. 2007

Further reading[edit]