Demographics of Quebec

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Canada Quebec Density 2016

The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group. According to the 2011 census, French is spoken by more than 85.5% of the population while this number rises to 88% for children under 15 years old.[1] According to the 2011 census, 95% of Quebec are able to conduct a conversation in French, with less than 5% of the population not able to speak French.

Quebec is also home to "one of the world's most valuable founder populations", the Quebec Founder Population.[2] Founder populations are very valuable to medical genetic research as they are pockets of low genetic variability which provide a useful research context for discovering gene-disease linkages. The Quebec Founder Population arose through the influx of people into Quebec from France in the 17th century to mid-18th century; though this influx was large, a high proportion of the immigrants either died or returned to France, leaving a founder population of approximately 2,600 people.[2][3] About seven million Canadians (along with several million French Americans in the United States) are descendants of these original 2,600 colonists.[2]

Vital statistics[edit]

Quebec's fertility rate is now higher than the Canadian average. At 1.74 children per woman in 2008,[4] it is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.59, and has increased for five consecutive years, reaching its highest level since 1976.[4] However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. For example, between 1951 and 1961, the population grew nearly 30% with minimal immigration, a natural growth rate matched today only by some African countries.

Although Quebec is home to only 22.0% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2006)

Birth rate: 9.9% (2005)

Synthetic fertility index: 1.61 (2006)

Death rate: 7.4% (2003)

Net migration rate: 4.1% (2003)

Infant mortality rate: 0.46% (2004)

Stillbirth rate: 3.8% -- 3.5% notwithstanding requested abortions (2002)

Life expectancy: In 2002, life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.9 years for females.

Urbanisation: In 2001, 80.4% of Quebecers lived in urban areas.

Literacy: International Adult Literacy Survey 47% Prose, 42% Document, 40% Quantitative (1996) Note: This is not the official literacy rate, and should not be used in comparisons with rates calculated using different procedures.

Age Structure[edit]

Age structure[5]: (2016 census)

Age groups Total % of Population Male Female
0–4 years 444,930 5.45% 227,965 216,970
5–9 years 469,165 5.75% 240,225 228,940
10–14 years 419,160 5.13% 214,345 204,815
15–19 years 429,825 5.26% 219,070 210,755
20-24 years 500,100 6.13% 252,600 247,500
25-29 years 495,410 6.07% 248,030 247,380
30-34 years 515,505 6.31% 256,440 259,070
35–39 years 550,540 6.74% 274,595 275,945
40–44 years 506,525 6.20% 254,100 252,425
45–49 years 519,425 6.36% 260,410 259,015
50–54 years 619,435 7.59% 309,070 310,370
55–59 years 636,475 7.80% 314,190 322,285
60–64 years 562,670 6.89% 276,140 286,535
65-69 years 488,175 5.98% 236,395 251,775
70-74 years 373,590 4.58% 176,905 196,690
75-79 years 256,905 3.15% 116,020 140,890
80-84 years 187,835 2.30% 78,390 109,450
85 years and over 188,685 2.31% 61,885 126,805
Total 8,164,360 100% 4,016,760 4,147,605

Population history[edit]

Population since 1824:

Year Population Five-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
%
Canada
1822 427,465 n/a n/a n/a
1831 553,134 n/a 29.4 n/a
1841 650,000 n/a 17.5 60.07[a]
1851 892,061 n/a 37.0 48.32[a]
1861 1,111,566 n/a 24.9 44.42[a]
1871 1,191,516 n/a 7.9 32.3
1881 1,359,027 n/a 14.1 31.4
1891 1,488,535 n/a 9.5 30.8
1901 1,648,898 n/a 10.8 30.7
1911 2,005,776 n/a 21.6 27.8
1921 2,360,665 n/a 17.8 26.9
1931 2,874,255 n/a 21.8 27.7
1941 3,331,882 n/a 15.9 29.0
1951 4,055,681 n/a 21.8 28.9
1956 4,628,378 14.1 n/a 28.8
1961 5,259,211 13.6 29.7 28.8
1966 5,780,845 9.9 24.9 28.8
1971 6,027,765 4.3 14.6 27.9
1976 6,234,445 3.4 7.8 27.1
1981 6,438,403 3.3 6.8 26.4
1986 6,532,460 1.5 4.8 25.8
1991 6,895,963 5.6 7.1 25.2
1996 7,138,795 3.5 9.3 24.5
2001 7,237,479 1.4 5.0 23.8
2006 7,546,131 4.3 5.7 23.4
2011 7,903,001 4.7 9.2 23.1
2012 8,085,900 n/a n/a 23.3
2013 8,155,500 n/a n/a 23.2
2014 8,214,500 n/a n/a 23.1
2015 8,259,500 n/a n/a 23.0
2016 8,326,100 5.3 16.6 23.0
2017 8,398,200 3.8 n/a 22.0

Source: Statistics Canada [2][3][4][5] a  % Province of Canada population

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadien/Canadian 4,474,115 60.1%
French 2,151,655 28.8%
Irish 406,085 5.5%
Italian 299,655 4.0%
English 245,155 3.3%
First Nations 219,815 3.0%
Scottish 202,515 2.7%
Québécois 140,075 1.9%
German 131,795 1.8%
Chinese 91,900 1.24%
Haitian 91,435 1.23%
Spanish 72,090 0.97%
Jewish 71,380 0.96%
Greek 65,985 0.89%
Polish 62,800 0.84%
Lebanese 60,950 0.83%
Portuguese 57,445 0.77%
Belgian 43,275 0.58%
East Indian 41,600 0.56%
Romanian 40,320 0.54%
Russian 40,155 0.54%
Morrocan 36,700 0.49%
American (USA) 36,695 0.49%
Métis 36,280 0.49%
Vietnamese 33,815 0.45%
Acadian 32,950 0.44%
Ukrainian 31,955 0.43%
African (Black) 30,170 0.41%
Filipino 25,680 0.35%
Algerian 25,150 0.34%
British Isles 23,445 0.32%
Armenian 23,230 0.31%
Dutch 23,015 0.31%
Hungarian 22,585 0.30%
Swiss 20,280 0.27%
Egyptian 17,950 0.24%
Salvadoran 15,770 0.21%
Syrian 14,925 0.20%
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Colombian 14,845 0.20%
Mexican 14,215 0.19%
Berbers 13,415 0.18%
Inuit 12,915 0.17%
Iranian 12,370 0.17%
Peruvian 12,335 0.17%
Jamaican 11,935 0.16%
Pakistani 11,710 0.16%
Chilean 11,585 0.16%
Turk 11,385 0.15%
Austrian 11,295 0.15%
Sri Lankan 10,750 0.14%
Congolese 10,190 0.14%
Cambodian 10,175 0.14%
Welsh 9,815 0.13%
Black 9,520 0.13%
Tunisian 7,870 0.11%
Bulgarian 6,955 0.09%
Guatemalan 6,880 0.09%
Laotian 6,425 0.09%
Norwegian 6,350 0.09%
Bangladeshi 6,095 0.08%
Yugoslav 6,090 0.08%
Swedish 5,975 0.08%
Afghan 5,855 0.08%
Lithuanians 5,665 0.08%
Korean 5,555 0.07%
Czech 5,540 0.07%
West Indian 5,420 0.07%
Barbadian 5,340 0.07%
Croatian 5,330 0.07%
Latin/Central/South American 5,270 0.07%
European 5,130 0.07%
Danish 5,130 0.07%
Palestinian 4,940 0.07%
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 4,810 0.06%
Japanese 4,560 0.06%
Slovak 4,560 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 0.06 percent or more of respondents are shown.
[6]

Ethnicity according to the older more general system of classification is shown below:

Origins 2001 %
North American 4,989,230 70.02%
French 2,123,185 29.80%
British Isles 547,790 7.69%
Southern European 409,095 5.74%
Aboriginal 159,900 2.24%
Western European 153,750 2.16%
Arab 135,750 1.91%
East and Southeast Asian 132,280 1.86%
Origins 2001 %
Eastern European 130,410 1.83%
Caribbean 108,475 1.52%
Other European 86,450 1.21%
Latin, Central and South American 65,150 0.91%
South Asian 62,585 0.88%
African 48,715 0.68%
West Asian 40,960 0.57%
Northern European 15,295 0.21%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) and may total more than 100% due to dual responses
Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown
[7]

Future Projections[edit]

Ethnic origin by regional group
Group 2016[8] 2036[9][10]
Number % of 2016 population (8,164,361) Number % of 2036 estimated population (9,526,000)
European origins 6,750,200 87.4% 7,029,000 73.8%
Middle Eastern and South Asian origins 336,480 4.2% 790,000 8.3%
African origins 319,230 4.0% 688,000 7.2%
East and Southeast Asian origins 209,860 2.6% 403,000 4.2%
Aboriginal origins 182,885 2.3% 280,000 2.9%
Latin, Central and South American origins 133,920 1.7% 259,000 2.7%
Other 32,885 0.4% 76,000 0.8%
*Percentages total over 100% due to multiple responses, e.g. German-Indian, Norwegian-Irish.

Visible minorities and Aboriginals[edit]

The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5%) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9%), 27,985 Métis (0.4%), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15%). There is a significant undercount, as many of the biggest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted.{Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905)}[11]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2011 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
European 6,740,370 87.2%
Visible minority group
Source:[12]
South Asian 83,320 1.1%
Chinese 82,845 1.1%
Black 243,625 3.2%
Filipino 31,495 0.4%
Latin American 116,380 1.5%
Arab 166,260 2.2%
Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9%
West Asian 23,445 0.3%
Korean 6,665 0.1%
Japanese 4,025 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,895 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 17,420 0.2%
Total visible minority population 850,235 11%
Aboriginal group
Source:[12]
First Nations 82,425 1.1%
Métis 40,960 0.5%
Inuit 12,570 0.2%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 4,415 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 1,545 0%
Total Aboriginal population 141,915 1.8%
Total population 7,732,520 100%

Languages[edit]

Mother tongue language[edit]

Mother tongue language (Statistics Canada: 2006,[13] 2001,[14] 1996[15])
Language(s) 2011 2006 2001 1996
Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%)
French 6,102,210 78 5,877,660 79 5,761,765 80.8 5,742,575 80.4
English 599,225 7.6 575,555 7.7 557,040 7.8 568,405 8.0
Both English and French 64,800 0.8 43,335 0.6 50,060 0.7 97,225 1.4
Total population 7,815,950 100 7,435,905 100 7,125,580 100 7,138,795 100

Language spoken at home[edit]

Language spoken most often at home (Statistics Canada: 2006[13])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French 6,027,735 81.1
English 744,430 10.0
Both English and French 52,325 0.7
Non-official languages 518,320 7.0
Both French and a non-official language 54,490 0.7
Both English and a non-official language 26,560 0.4
French, English and a non-official language 12,035 0.2
Total population 7,435,905 100

Knowledge of languages[edit]

Knowledge of official languages of Canada in Quebec
Language Percent
English only
4.62%
French only
49.99%
English and French
44.46%
Neither English nor French
0.93%

The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses. The following figures are from the 2016 Canadian Census,[16] and lists languages that were selected by at least one per cent of respondents.

Language Responses %
French 7,522,350 94.43
English 3,930,690 49.35
Spanish 390,355 4.90
Arabic 267,965 3.37
Italian 173,710 2.18
Haitian Creole 108,315 1.36

Religion[edit]

Religion in Quebec (2011 National Household Survey)[17]

  Roman Catholicism (74.7%)
  Other Christian (7.5%)
  Non-religious (12.1%)
  Islam (3.1%)
  Hinduism (0.4%)
  Sikhism (0.1%)
  Buddhism (0.7%)
  Judaism (1.1%)
  Other religions (0.3%)

Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though now has a low church attendance. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France.

Religion (2001) Denomination (2001) Congregation (2001) Proportion (2001)
Catholic Christian 5,939,795 83.6%
Roman Catholic 5,930,385 83.23%
Ukrainian Catholic 3,430 0.05%
Protestant Christian 335,595 4.71%
Anglican 85,475 1.20%
United Church of Canada 52,950 0.74%
Baptist 35,455 0.50%
Pentecostal 22,670 0.32%
Lutheran 9,640 0.14%
Presbyterian 8,770 0.12%
Methodist 8,725 0.12%
Adventist 6,690 0.09%
Mission de l'Esprit Saint 765 0.01%
Orthodox Christian 100,375 1.41%
Greek Orthodox 50,020 0.70%
Armenian Orthodox 4,935 0.07%
Russian Orthodox 2,185 0.03%
Coptic Orthodox 2,010 0.03%
Antiochian Orthodox 1,050 0.01%
Ukrainian Orthodox 985 0.01%
Serbian Orthodox 920 0.01%
Other Christian 56,755 0.80%
Muslim 108,620 1.52%
Jewish 89,920 1.26%
Buddhist 41,375 0.58%
Hindu 24,530 0.34%
Sikh 8,220 0.12%
Other eastern religions 3,425 0.05%
Baháʼí 1,155 0.02%
Pagan 1,330 0.02%
Aboriginal spirituality 740 0.01%
No religious affiliation 413,185 5.80%
No religion 400,325 5.62%
Atheist 4,335 0.02%
Agnostic 12,600 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580 in 2001). Only groups of more than 0.01% are shown. [18]

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

Quebec welcomes about 50,000 immigrants per year. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 1,091,305 immigrants living in Quebec. The most commonly reported countries of birth for all immigrants living in Quebec were:[19]

Rank Country of origin Number
1.  France 81,225
2.  Haiti 80,965
3.  Algeria 79,460
4.  Morocco 60,695
5.  Italy 51,025
6.  China 49,555
7.  Lebanon 39,140
8.  Romania 28,690
9.  United States 25,960
10.  Colombia 25,575
11.  Vietnam 25,440
12.  Philippines 24,410
13.  Egypt 19,490
14.  Portugal 18,985
15.  Greece 18,420
16.  India 17,865
17.  Syria 17,775
18.  Iran 17,760
19.  Mexico 15,820
20.  Tunisia 14,775

Recent immigration[edit]

The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 215,175 people who immigrated to Quebec between 2011 and 2016.

Recent immigrants to Quebec by place of birth (2011 to 2016)[20]
Rank Country Population # % of recent immigrants
1 France 20,030 9.3%
2 Haiti 16,880 7.8%
3 Algeria 16,380 7.6%
4 Morocco 13,475 6.3%
5 China 10,705 5%
6 Cameroon 7,550 3.5%
7 Colombia 7,540 3.5%
8 Iran 7,505 3.5%
9 Syria 7,455 3.5%
10 Tunisia 5,850 2.7%
11 Philippines 5,635 2.6%
12 Côte D'Ivoire 5,070 2.4%
13 Egypt 4,360 2%
14 Mexico 4,210 2%
15 United States 3,990 1.9%

Interprovincial migration[edit]

Since it began being recorded in 1971 until 2018, each year Quebec has had negative interprovincial migration, and among the provinces it has experienced the largest net loss of people due to the effect.[citation needed] Between 1981 and 2017, Quebec lost 229,700 people below the age of 45 to interprovincial migration.[21] Per capita, Quebec has lost significantly fewer people than other provinces. This is due to the large population of the province and the very low migration rate of francophone Quebeckers.[citation needed] However, Quebec receives much fewer than average in-migrants from other provinces.[citation needed]

In Quebec, allophones are more likely to migrate out of the province than average: between 1996 and 2001, over 19,170 migrated to other provinces; 18,810 of whom migrated to Ontario.[22]

Interprovincial Migration Between Quebec and Other Provinces and Territories by Mother Tongue[23]
Mother Tongue / Year 1971–1976 1976–1981 1981–1986 1986–1991 1991–1996 1996–2001 2001–2006 2006–2011 2011-2016 Total
French −4,100 −18,000 −12,900 5,200 1,200 −8,900 5,000 −2,610 −9,940 −45,050
English −52,200 −106,300 −41,600 −22,200 −24,500 −29,200 −8,000 −5,930 −11,005 −300,635
Other −5,700 −17,400 −8,700 −8,600 −14,100 −19,100 −8,700 −12,710 −16,015 −111,025
Interprovincial migration in Quebec
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2008–09 20,307 27,726 −7,419
2009–10 21,048 24,306 −3,258
2010–11 19,884 24,647 −4,763
2011–12 20,179 27,094 −6,915
2012–13 16,879 27,310 −10,431
2013–14 16,536 30,848 −14,312
2014–15 16,611 32,753 −16,142
2015–16 19,259 30,377 −11,118
2016–17 19,531 27,658 −8,127
2017–18 20,777 26,470 −5,693
2018–19 24,604 27,653 −3,049
2019–20 33,843 35,066 −1,223

Source: Statistics Canada[24]

See also[edit]

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census 2011 FOLS". Statistics Canada.
  2. ^ a b c Amber LePage-Monette. "Powerful Population". BioScienceWorld.ca. Promotive Communications. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. ^ Flanagan, Nina (August 2005). "Bioresearch Highlights Significance of SNPs". Genetic Engineering News. 25 (14). Mary Ann Liebert. pp. 1, 27–29. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  4. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2009-06-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. August 9, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  6. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data.
  7. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  8. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Quebec [Province] and Canada [Country]". Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  9. ^ "Population by visible minority group, place of residence and projection scenario, Canada, 2011 and 2036". Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Projections of the Aboriginal Population and Households in Canada 2011 to 2036" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  11. ^ Aboriginal Population Profile (2006 Census)
  12. ^ a b [1], NHS Profile, Quebec, 2011, Statistics Canada
  13. ^ a b Statistics Canada. "2006 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  14. ^ Statistics Canada. "2001 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  15. ^ Statistics Canada. "1996 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  16. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Saskatchewan [Province] and Quebec [Province] - Language". statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  17. ^ 2011 National Household Survey: Data tables
  18. ^ Religion (95) and Immigrant Status (Census 2001)
  19. ^ Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Place of Birth (272), Age (7A) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
  20. ^ "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), Quebec, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
  21. ^ Serebrin, Jacob; July 26, Montreal Gazette Updated; 2018 (2018-07-26). "Quebec losing young people to interprovincial migration, report shows | Montreal Gazette". Retrieved 2018-12-28.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ "Net population gains or losses from interprovincial migration by language group, provinces and territories, 1991-1996 and 1996-2001". Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  23. ^ "Interprovincial Migration by Mother Tongue for Interprovincial Migrants Aged 5 Years and Over, Provinces and Territories, 1971 to 2016". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
  24. ^ Statistics Canada, table 051-0012: Interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual.

External links[edit]