Demographics of Quebec

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Canada Quebec Density 2016

The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group. According to the 2011 census, French is spoken by more than 85.5% of the population while this number rises to 88% for children under 15 years old.[1] According to the 2011 census, 95% of Quebec are able to conduct a conversation in French, with less than 5% of the population not able to speak French.

In 2013, Statistics Canada had estimated the province's population to be 8,155,334.[2] In the 2016 census, Quebec's population had slightly grown from that estimate to 8,164,361 living in 3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km2 (523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.0/km2 (15.6/sq mi) in 2016. Quebec accounts for a little under 23% of the Canadian population. Quebec's demographic weight in Canada has been gradually decreasing since 1971 when, back then, it was 28% of the population. In 2018, Quebec's three most populated regions are Montreal (2,029,379), Montérégie (1,554,282) and Capitale-Nationale (745,135). Quebec's three least populated regions are Nord-du-Québec (45,558), Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine (90,709) and Côte-Nord (91,213).[3]

Quebec is home to "one of the world's most valuable founder populations", the Quebec Founder Population.[4] Founder populations are very valuable to medical genetic research as they are pockets of low genetic variability which provide a useful research context for discovering gene-disease linkages. The Quebec Founder Population arose through the influx of people into Quebec from France in the 17th century to mid-18th century; though this influx was large, a high proportion of the immigrants either died or returned to France, leaving a founder population of approximately 2,600 people.[4][5] About seven million Canadians (along with several million French Americans in the United States) are descendants of these original 2,600 colonists.[4]

Vital statistics[edit]

Quebec's fertility rate is now higher than the Canadian average. At 1.74 children per woman in 2008,[6] it is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.59, and has increased for five consecutive years, reaching its highest level since 1976.[6] However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. For example, between 1951 and 1961, the population grew nearly 30% with only small net migration (large number of international migrants had settled in Quebec in the preceding period but large numbers of Quebec residents had emigrated to other provinces as well as New England), a natural growth rate matched today only by some African countries.

Although Quebec is home to only 22.0% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2006)

Birth rate: 9.9% (2005)

Synthetic fertility index: 1.61 (2006)

Death rate: 7.4% (2003)

Net migration rate: 4.1% (2003)

Infant mortality rate: 0.46% (2004)

Stillbirth rate: 3.8% -- 3.5% notwithstanding requested abortions (2002)

Life expectancy: In 2002, life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.9 years for females.

Urbanisation: In 2001, 80.4% of Quebecers lived in urban areas.

Literacy: International Adult Literacy Survey 47% Prose, 42% Document, 40% Quantitative (1996) Note: This is not the official literacy rate, and should not be used in comparisons with rates calculated using different procedures.

Marriages: In 2019, 22,250 marriages were celebrated, about 600 less than in 2017 and 2018. These numbers illustrate a continuing trend where marriages are becoming less numerous; in 1970, the number of marriages hit a peak with more than 50,000 celebrations and the number has been slowly decreasing ever since. The average age for marriage is now 33.5 for men and 32.1 for women, an increase of 8.0 and 8.5 years respectively since 1970. 72% of marriages occur on a Saturday. Half of all marriages unite a man and woman with an age gap of 3 years or less. Though they are still uncommon, civil unions are becoming more and more popular.[7]

Demographic growth: In 2019, Quebec registered the highest rate of population growth since 1972 (when quality data began to be recorded), with an increase of 110,000 people, mostly because of the arrival of a high number of non-permanent residents. The number of non-permanent residents has recently sky-rocketed from a little over 100,000 in 2014 to 260,000 in 2019. Quebec's population growth is usually middle-of-the-pack compared to other provinces and very high compared to other developed countries (ex. United States, France, Germany, etc.) because of the federal government of Canada's aggressive immigration policies. Since the 1970s, Quebec has always had more immigrants than emigrants. This can be attributed to international immigration as the number of people moving to Quebec from another province is always lower than the other way around. As of 2019, most international immigrants come from China, India or France.[7]

Education and work: In 2016, 3 out of 10 Québécois possessed a postsecondary degree or diploma. While women were more likely to have a university degree (33% vs 26%) or college degree (21% vs 11%), men were more numerous in having received vocational training.[8] In Quebec, couples where both parents work are far more likely to have children than couples where only one parent works or none of them do.[9]

Households: In Quebec, most people are owners of the property that they live in. The vast majority of couples with or without children are property owners. Most one-person households, however, are renters. Single-parent homes are equally divided between being property owners or renters. From 1996 to 2016, the number of people per household has decreased from an average of 2.5 to 2.25. In 2016, the vast majority of low income households were one-person households. In 2016, 80% of both property owners and renters considered their housing to be "unaffordable".[3]

Population centres[edit]

The Ten Most Populated Quebec Cities (2016)[10]
Rank City Region Population Image
1 Montreal Montreal 1,762,976 Old Port of Montreal (French- Vieux-Port de Montréal).jpg
2 Quebec Capitale-Nationale 538,738 Quebec City.jpg
3 Laval Laval 431,208 Échangeur A-15 et A-440 (4).jpg
4 Gatineau Outaouais 281,501 Gatineau (view from the Peace Tower of Parliament Centre Block).JPG
5 Longueuil Montérégie 245,033 Longueuil 2011.jpg
6 Sherbrooke Estrie 165,005 Falaise saint-micel de sherbrooke.jpg
7 Saguenay Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean 144,989 Chicoutimi - Centre-ville Est.jpg
8 Lévis Chaudière-Appalaches 144,808 Lévis (43331478522).jpg
9 Trois-Rivières Mauricie 135,863 Trois-Rivières fleuve.jpg
10 Terrebonne Lanaudière 113,226 Terrebonne-Ecluse des Moulins.jpg

Age structure[edit]

Age structure[11]: (2016 census)

Age groups Total % of Population Male Female
0–4 years 444,930 5.45% 227,965 216,970
5–9 years 469,165 5.75% 240,225 228,940
10–14 years 419,160 5.13% 214,345 204,815
15–19 years 429,825 5.26% 219,070 210,755
20-24 years 500,100 6.13% 252,600 247,500
25-29 years 495,410 6.07% 248,030 247,380
30-34 years 515,505 6.31% 256,440 259,070
35–39 years 550,540 6.74% 274,595 275,945
40–44 years 506,525 6.20% 254,100 252,425
45–49 years 519,425 6.36% 260,410 259,015
50–54 years 619,435 7.59% 309,070 310,370
55–59 years 636,475 7.80% 314,190 322,285
60–64 years 562,670 6.89% 276,140 286,535
65-69 years 488,175 5.98% 236,395 251,775
70-74 years 373,590 4.58% 176,905 196,690
75-79 years 256,905 3.15% 116,020 140,890
80-84 years 187,835 2.30% 78,390 109,450
85 years and over 188,685 2.31% 61,885 126,805
Total 8,164,360 100% 4,016,760 4,147,605

In 2016, Quebec's median age was 41.2 years old. According to Quebec's age pyramid, the most numerous generation is the baby-boomers that are between 54 and 74 years of age. There are a few other less pronounced peaks, namely in the 1980s, and the one around 2010. A noticeable crater can be observed around the year 2000 because of a record-low amount of births. In 2020, 20.8% of Québécois are less than 20 years old, 59.5% are aged between 20 and 64 years old, and 19.7% are 65 years old or older. In 2019, Quebec witnessed an increase in the number of births compared to the year before (84,200 vs 83,840) and had a replacement rate of about 1.6 per woman. Replacement rates being below 2.1 something that is the norm in industrialised regions like Quebec. Quebec has a higher replacement rate than the Canadian average (1,47). Quebec's rate can also be both higher (ex. Switzerland (1.48), Portugal (1.42), Japan (1.36), Italy (1.29), etc.) or lower (ex. United States (1.73), New Zealand (1.75), Sweden (1.70), England (1.65), etc.) than other industrialised regions'. In Quebec, a lowered rate of giving birth has been mostly observed in people in their 20s. From 30 years of age and onwards, the rate is either increasing or stable. This demonstrates a trend towards wanting to form a family later in life. As of 2020, the average Québécois lifespan is 82.3 years. Between 2010 and 2019, there were between 1000 and 1600 deaths every week, with deaths being at their highest levels in January and their lowest levels in July.[12]

Population history[edit]

Population since 1824:

Year Population Five-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
%
Canada
1822 427,465 n/a n/a n/a
1831 553,134 n/a 29.4 n/a
1841 650,000 n/a 17.5 60.07[a]
1851 892,061 n/a 37.0 48.32[a]
1861 1,111,566 n/a 24.9 44.42[a]
1871 1,191,516 n/a 7.9 32.3
1881 1,359,027 n/a 14.1 31.4
1891 1,488,535 n/a 9.5 30.8
1901 1,648,898 n/a 10.8 30.7
1911 2,005,776 n/a 21.6 27.8
1921 2,360,665 n/a 17.8 26.9
1931 2,874,255 n/a 21.8 27.7
1941 3,331,882 n/a 15.9 29.0
1951 4,055,681 n/a 21.8 28.9
1956 4,628,378 14.1 n/a 28.8
1961 5,259,211 13.6 29.7 28.8
1966 5,780,845 9.9 24.9 28.8
1971 6,027,765 4.3 14.6 27.9
1976 6,234,445 3.4 7.8 27.1
1981 6,438,403 3.3 6.8 26.4
1986 6,532,460 1.5 4.8 25.8
1991 6,895,963 5.6 7.1 25.2
1996 7,138,795 3.5 9.3 24.5
2001 7,237,479 1.4 5.0 23.8
2006 7,546,131 4.3 5.7 23.4
2011 7,903,001 4.7 9.2 23.1
2012 8,085,900 n/a n/a 23.3
2013 8,155,500 n/a n/a 23.2
2014 8,214,500 n/a n/a 23.1
2015 8,259,500 n/a n/a 23.0
2016 8,326,100 5.3 16.6 23.0
2017 8,398,200 3.8 n/a 22.0

Source: Statistics Canada [2][3][4][5] a  % Province of Canada population

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadien/Canadian 4,474,115 60.1%
French 2,151,655 28.8%
Irish 406,085 5.5%
Italian 299,655 4.0%
English 245,155 3.3%
First Nations 219,815 3.0%
Scottish 202,515 2.7%
Québécois 140,075 1.9%
German 131,795 1.8%
Chinese 91,900 1.24%
Haitian 91,435 1.23%
Spanish 72,090 0.97%
Jewish 71,380 0.96%
Greek 65,985 0.89%
Polish 62,800 0.84%
Lebanese 60,950 0.83%
Portuguese 57,445 0.77%
Belgian 43,275 0.58%
East Indian 41,600 0.56%
Romanian 40,320 0.54%
Russian 40,155 0.54%
Moroccan 36,700 0.49%
American (USA) 36,695 0.49%
Métis 36,280 0.49%
Vietnamese 33,815 0.45%
Acadian 32,950 0.44%
Ukrainian 31,955 0.43%
African (Black) 30,170 0.41%
Filipino 25,680 0.35%
Algerian 25,150 0.34%
British Isles 23,445 0.32%
Armenian 23,230 0.31%
Dutch 23,015 0.31%
Hungarian 22,585 0.30%
Swiss 20,280 0.27%
Egyptian 17,950 0.24%
Salvadoran 15,770 0.21%
Syrian 14,925 0.20%
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Colombian 14,845 0.20%
Mexican 14,215 0.19%
Berbers 13,415 0.18%
Inuit 12,915 0.17%
Iranian 12,370 0.17%
Peruvian 12,335 0.17%
Jamaican 11,935 0.16%
Pakistani 11,710 0.16%
Chilean 11,585 0.16%
Turk 11,385 0.15%
Austrian 11,295 0.15%
Sri Lankan 10,750 0.14%
Congolese 10,190 0.14%
Cambodian 10,175 0.14%
Welsh 9,815 0.13%
Black 9,520 0.13%
Tunisian 7,870 0.11%
Bulgarian 6,955 0.09%
Guatemalan 6,880 0.09%
Laotian 6,425 0.09%
Norwegian 6,350 0.09%
Bangladeshi 6,095 0.08%
Yugoslav 6,090 0.08%
Swedish 5,975 0.08%
Afghan 5,855 0.08%
Lithuanians 5,665 0.08%
Korean 5,555 0.07%
Czech 5,540 0.07%
West Indian 5,420 0.07%
Barbadian 5,340 0.07%
Croatian 5,330 0.07%
Latin/Central/South American 5,270 0.07%
European 5,130 0.07%
Danish 5,130 0.07%
Palestinian 4,940 0.07%
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 4,810 0.06%
Japanese 4,560 0.06%
Slovak 4,560 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 0.06 percent or more of respondents are shown.
[13]

Ethnicity according to the older more general system of classification is shown below:

Origins 2001 %
North American 4,989,230 70.02%
French 2,123,185 29.80%
British Isles 547,790 7.69%
Southern European 409,095 5.74%
Aboriginal 159,900 2.24%
Western European 153,750 2.16%
Arab 135,750 1.91%
East and Southeast Asian 132,280 1.86%
Origins 2001 %
Eastern European 130,410 1.83%
Caribbean 108,475 1.52%
Other European 86,450 1.21%
Latin, Central and South American 65,150 0.91%
South Asian 62,585 0.88%
African 48,715 0.68%
West Asian 40,960 0.57%
Northern European 15,295 0.21%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) and may total more than 100% due to dual responses
Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown
[14]

Future projections[edit]

Ethnic origin by regional group
Group 2016[15] 2036[16][17]
Number % of 2016 population (8,164,361) Number % of 2036 estimated population (9,526,000)
European origins 6,750,200 87.4% 7,029,000 73.8%
Middle Eastern and South Asian origins 336,480 4.2% 790,000 8.3%
African origins 319,230 4.0% 688,000 7.2%
East and Southeast Asian origins 209,860 2.6% 403,000 4.2%
Aboriginal origins 182,885 2.3% 280,000 2.9%
Latin, Central and South American origins 133,920 1.7% 259,000 2.7%
Other 32,885 0.4% 76,000 0.8%
*Percentages total over 100% due to multiple responses, e.g. German-Indian, Norwegian-Irish.

Visible minorities and Indigenous peoples[edit]

The 2016 census counted a total Indigenous population of 182,885 (2.3 percent) including 92,655 First Nations (1.2 percent), 69,365 Métis (0.9 percent), and 13,940 Inuit (0.2 percent).[18] There is an undercount, as some Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of Indigenous sovereignty. In 2016, the Mohawk reserves of Kahnawake and Doncaster 17 along with the Indian settlement of Kanesatake and Lac-Rapide, a reserve of the Algonquins of Barriere Lake, were not counted.[19]{Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905)}[20]

Almost 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the remaining five provinces. Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal.

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2011 Census) (Canada 2016 Census)
Population group Population % of total population Population % of total population
European 6,740,370 87.2% 7,131,996 87.4%
Visible minority group
Source:[21]
South Asian 83,320 1.1% 90,335 1.1%
Chinese 82,845 1.1% 99,505 1.2%
Black 243,625 3.2% 319,230 3.9%
Filipino 31,495 0.4% 34,910 0.4%
Latin American 116,380 1.5% 133,920 1.6%
Arab 166,260 2.2% 213,740 2.6%
Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9% 62,820 0.8%
West Asian 23,445 0.3% 32,405 0.4%
Korean 6,665 0.1% 8,055 0.1%
Japanese 4,025 0.1% 4,570 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,895 0.1% 9,840 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 17,420 0.2% 23,045 0.3%
Total visible minority population 850,235 11% 1,032,365 12.6%
Aboriginal group
Source:[21]
First Nations 82,425 1.1% 92,655 1.1%
Métis 40,960 0.5% 69,365 0.8%
Inuit 12,570 0.2% 13,940 0.2%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 4,415 0.1% 4,170 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 1,545 0% 2,760 0%
Total Aboriginal population 141,915 1.8% 182,885 2.2%
Total population 7,732,520 100% 8,164,361 100%
Map of indigenous communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
  Algonquins
  Attikameks
  Abenakis
  Crees
  Hurons-Wendat
  Innus
  Maliseets
  Micmacs
  Mohawks
  Naskapis
  Inuit

The indigenous peoples of Quebec have inhabited the region for several millennia. Each community possesses its own social structure, culture and territorial entity. In 2016, the indigenous population of Quebec numbered 182,885 people.[18] However, because federal law only recognized children of indigenous fathers until the 1980s, the actual number may be higher.

All the ethnicities living primarily south of the 55th parallel are collectively referred to by Québécois as "Amerindians", "Indians", "First Nations" or, obsolete, "Redskins". The ten First Nations ethnic groups in Quebec are linked to two linguistic groups. The Algonquian family is made up of eight ethnic groups: the Abenaki, the Algonquin, the Attikamek, the Cree, the Wolastoqiyik, the Mi'kmaq, the Innu and the Naskapis. These last two formed, until 1978, a single ethnic group: the Innu. The Iroquoian family is made up of the Huron-Wendat and the Mohawks. Only the Mohawks were part of the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee), along with five other Indigenous groups from New York State and Ontario. The eleventh indigenous ethnic group in Quebec, the Inuit (or, obsolete, the Eskimos), belong to the Inuit–Aleut family. The Inuit live mainly in Nunavik, Nord-du-Québec (Nouveau Quebec) and make up the majority of the population living north of the 55th parallel.

Of these indigenous peoples, so-called "nomadic" tribes exist, specifically the tribes of Algonquian cultures (eg: the Algonquins, the Cree and the Innu), as well as more "sedentary" ones, specifically the tribes of Iroquoian traditions (eg: the Iroquois and the Hurons-Wendat). The more sedentary groups are the ones who developed more complex forms of social organization. Traditionally, nomadic tribes follow the migration of herds of animals that serve as prey, such as bison, moose or seals.[22] The way of life of the Algonquian and Inuit tribes is dictated by the obligations of hunting and fishing. The traditions of the Iroquoian tribes, producers of the Three Sisters (corn, beans and squash), are instead developed around a matriarchal structure derived from the "long cabin" called a longhouse which houses within it several families under the authority of one dean.

Relations with Québécois[edit]

Although they represent today approximately 3% of the Quebec population, the indigenous peoples of Quebec have contributed a lot to Québécois society thanks to their ideals of respect for flora, fauna, nature and the environment as well as thanks to their values of hospitality, generosity and sharing. Economically, through the fur trade and the development of relationships with settlers, including coureurs des bois, merchants, cartographers and Jesuit fathers. In addition to contributing to Quebec toponymy [fr], indigenous peoples also contributed through their more advanced knowledge than settlers in the following areas: holistic medicine, the functioning of human biology, remedies for several diseases, curing scurvy at settlers' arrival (its thought this was done with a cure made from fir, white cedar or anneda), winter clothing (tanning), architecture that insulates against the cold, means of faster transport on snow (snowshoes and dogsled) and on water (canoes, kayaks and rabaskas), l'acériculture (the process of making maple syrup), sports (lacrosse and ice fishing), moose and caribou hunting, trapping, the territory and its components, watersheds and their watercourses and natural resources.[23]

When Europeans arrived in America in the 16th century, the Algonquian-speaking peoples and the St. Lawrence Iroquoians made allies with the French colonists for the purpose of trade. The first connection was made with the arrival of Jacques Cartier when he set foot in Gaspé and met Donnacona, chief of the village of Stadacona (Stadaconé, today, the city of Quebec), in 1534. Moreover, the legend of the Kingdom of Saguenay prompted King Francis I to finance new trips to the New World.

Rather than by conquest and by force, it is by promoting commercial and military alliances, and by concluding numerous peace and friendship treaties that relations between the two peoples solidified.[24]

Rights of indigenous people[edit]

In the Royal Proclamation of 1763, issued by King George III, the indigenous peoples were stated to have an indisputable right to their lands. However, quickly following the proclamation and after the peace treaties with New France and France concluded, the British Crown decided to institute territorial treaties which allowed British authorities to proceed with the total extinction of the land titles of the Indigenous groups.[25]

Entirely under federal tutelage and direction, indigenous rights were enunciated in the Indian Act and adopted at the end of the 19th century. This act confines First Nations within the Indian reserves created for them. The Indian Act is still in effect today.[26]

In 1975, the Cree, Inuit and the Quebec government agreed to an agreement called the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement that would extended Indigenous rights beyond Indian reserves, and to over two-thirds of the Québécois territory. Because this extension was enacted without the participation of the federal government, the extended Indigenous rights only exist in Quebec. In 1978, the Naskapis joined the agreement when the Northeastern Quebec Agreement was signed. As a result, these three ethnic groups were able to break away from their subjugation to the Indian Act.

In recent times, discussions have been underway for several years with the Montagnais of the Côte-Nord and Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean for the potential creation of a similar autonomy in two new distinct territories that would be called Innu Assi and Nitassinan.[27] Moreover, in January 2010, an agreement between Quebec City and Montagnais granted the Mashteuiatsh Band Council the ability to plan out development in the entire Ashuapmushuan Wildlife Reserve, which is located on the Nitassinan of the community of the Pekuakamiulnuatsh.[28][29]

A few political institutions have also been created over time:

Indigenous lands[edit]

The following table shows the traditional territories of the First Nations and Inuit peoples who live on the Québécois territory in the basins of the St. Lawrence Valley and James Bay, as well as on the Labrador peninsula.[33]

Map of the traditional territory and co-territorial area of the Abenakis, which overlaps between Quebec and Massachusetts.
Traditional territories of the different indigenous peoples of Quebec
Groups Sub-groups Name of territory Territorial division Other names for territory
Ojibwe Anishinaabewaki Osogonek Anishinaabe Ahiki
Algonquins Osogonek
Attikameks Kitaskino Nehirowisi Aski / Nitaskinan
Iroquois confederation Haudenosauneega Kanienkeh Aquanishuonigy
Mohawks Kanienkeh
Wabanaki confederation Wabanaki ***
Abenaki Ndakinna N'dakina
Maliseet Wolastokuk
Micmacs Mi'kma'ki Migmagi
Cree Eeyou Istchee
Hurons-Wendats Wendake
Innu-Montagnais Nitassinan Innu Assi
Inuit Inuit Nunangat Nunavik
Nunavimmiutitut Nunavik
Naskapis Nutshimiu-Aschiiy Nuchimiiyu - chhiiy

Acadians[edit]

Boats docked in the Magdalen Islands are sometimes decorated with Acadian flags.

The subject of Acadians in Quebec [fr] is an important one as more than a million Québécois are of Acadian ascent, with roughly 4.8 million Québécois possessing one or multiple Acadian ancestors in their genealogy tree. Furthermore, more than a million Québécois wear a patronym of Acadian origin. All of this is because a large number of Acadians had fled Acadia to take refuge in Quebec during the Great Upheaval.[34][35][36][37]

Quebec houses an Acadian community spread out across several regions. Nowadays, Acadians mainly live on the Magdalen Islands and in Gaspesia, but about thirty other communities are present elsewhere in Quebec, mostly in the Côte-Nord and Centre-du-Québec regions. An Acadian community in Quebec can be called a "Cadie" or "Petite Cadie", and some cities and villages use the demonym "Cadien".[38]

The Festival Acadien des Îles-de-la-Madeleine is a festival which occurs every year in memory of the founders of the first villages on the Magdalen Islands. The festival is held in Havre Aubert for about two weeks. There, Québécois and Acadians from all corners of Quebec and other neighbouring lands mingle to celebrate Acadian culture.[39] The town of Bonaventure, in Gaspesia, also houses the Musé Acadien du Québec which features permanent exhibitions on Acadians in Quebec, like Une Acadie québécoise and Secrets d'Acadiens, les coulisses de la rue Grand-Pré.[40] In 2002, on National Acadian Day, the Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec unveiled a monument to Acadians entitled "Towards the Light". The monument symbolizes and explains the predominant role that the Acadians and their descendants played in the history of Quebec. The Premier of Quebec, Bernard Landry, declared at this unveiling that:

Between the Québécois people and the Acadian people, there is more than friendship, there is kinship.[41]

Languages[edit]

Linguistic map of the province of Quebec (source: Statistics Canada, 2006 census):
  Francophone majority, less than 33% Anglophone
  Francophone majority, more than 33% Anglophone
  Anglophone majority, less than 33% Francophone
  Anglophone majority, more than 33% Francophone
  Data not available

Quebec differs from other Canadian provinces in that French is the only official and preponderant language, while English predominates in the rest of Canada.[42] French is the common language, understood and spoken by 94.46% of the population.[43][44] Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1% of the population) recorded it as their sole native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded that they spoke it most often at home.[45] Knowledge of French is widespread even among those who do not speak it natively; in 2011, about 94.4% of the total population reported being able to speak French, alone or in combination with other languages.[45]

A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. In Quebec, about 42.6% of the population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is the highest proportion of bilinguals in any Canadian province.[45] The federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis, located in the Bilingual Belt, is the most bilingual area in the province with 72.8% of its residents claiming to know English and French, according to the 2011 census.[46] In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006, only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages.[45]

Quebecers defend the French language and the Francophonie in the face of the mostly English-dominated rest of North America. The Gendron Commission report of 1968 established the foundations for the white book of the government of Quebec' linguistic policy. Dependent on commissions of inquiry, this policy statement is also accompanied the Charter of the French language -or "Bill 101"- since 1977.

"The campaign of systematic disinformation waged by English-language newspapers about Quebec began with the Charter and has never ceased to draw on the Charter; it gave rise to stubborn prejudices and maintains a profound ignorance of the reality of Quebec."[47]

French[edit]

French is the official language of Quebec. Québécois French is the most widely used variant. The Office québécois de la langue française oversees the application of the linguistic policy on the territory jointly with the Superior Council of the French Language and the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Their recommendations then become part of the debate on the standard for Quebec French and are represented in Le Grand Dictionnaire terminologique (GDT), the Banque de dépannage linguistique [fr] (BDL) and various other works. Through its linguistic recommendations, the GDT fights against the invasion of Frenglish into the French language. Since the 1970s, scientific research on the matter has been carried out by university organizations, including the Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ) and the Franqus group [fr].

The French settlers who settled in New France came largely from the western and northern provinces of France. They generally spoke a variety of regional languages of the Oïl language family.[48] Thus, creating the need for the colonists to "unify their patois" ("unite their dialects") and creating Quebec French. Québécois French became the vehicular language of New France, and it remained as such until the British's conquest of New France.

The King's Daughters were sent to the New World to fix the gender imbalance in the colonies and boost population growth.

Early on, colonists borrowed words from Algonquin, a language they frequently interacted with, often to name and describe new aspects of geography, temperature, fauna or flora not present in the Old World.[49] Then, Quebec French's evolution was affected by the French court [fr] due to the arrival of the King's daughters. These 800 women were mostly orphaned girls that had been adopted by the state as part of a program sponsored by King Louis XIV, and been educated in convents to become exemplary settlers and wives. Once their training was complete, between 1663 and 1673, they were sent to New France and married among the colonists, instilling the King's French into the population in the process.[50]

In his 1757 Memoir on the State of New France, Bougainville writes:

"Canadians have natural spirit; they speak with ease, they cannot write, their accent is as good as in Paris, their diction is full of vicious phrases, borrowed from the language of the Indians or from marine terms, applied in the ordinary style."[51]

The British conquest of 1759 turned the evolution of French in Quebec and North America upside down. By having ties severed with France, the French spoken in Quebec definitively separated from the French spoken in metropolitan France. Quebec French was then truly born, retaining the peculiarities of the old languages of Oïl (which were almost extinct in France at that point) and the King's French, and being both influenced and threatened by the language of the new English conquerors. Quebec's French continued to evolve in its own direction, retaining some aspects the non-isolated rest of the French-speaking world lost,[52] and, over time, new influences and remoteness formed the regional accents and different dialects of Quebec French.[53]

Canada is estimated to be home to between 32 and 36 regional French accents,[54][55] 17 of which can be found in Quebec.[56] There are 11 accents exclusive to mainland Quebec; they are the regional accents of Gaspé (Gaspésien), Bas-Saint-Laurent, Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean (Saguenéen), Quebec-Charlevoix, Beauce (Beauceron), the Eastern Townships, Mauricie-Haute-Mauricie (Magoua), Greater Montreal, Eastern Montreal-Laval, Rouyn-Noranda and Côte-Nord. There are 4 accents off the mainland, 1 on the Isle-aux-Coudres, and 3 on the Îles-de-la-Madeleine: the accents of Villages Medelinots, Havre-aux-Maisons, and Havre-Aubert.[57] Finally, there are 2 accents that cross provincial borders: the accents of Outaouais-Eastern Ontario (Outaouais) and Témiscouata-Madawaska (Brayon). There are also people in Quebec who will naturally speak using Standard Québécois or Joual, both of which are considered sociolects rather than regional accents.

Fragility and protection of French[edit]

The evolution of the proportion of francophones, anglophones and allophones between 1844 and 2006.

During the days of New France, there began to be an extremely pronounced demographic increase of anglophones versus francophones in North America, a trend which continues to this day. In 1700, for every 250,000 English-speakers, there was 16,500 French-speakers.[58]

After the conquest of 1759, this reality became more brutal for Quebec, which now had to avoid assimilation by the British Empire's regime and survive culturally as well as linguistically.[59]

Still today, as French's demographic weight on the continent and in Canada continues to decline, Quebec faces the threat of assimilation. Since 2011, the population with French as their mother tongue on the Island of Montreal, Quebec's metropolis, has fallen below 50%, with only 49% of the population being francophone[60] due to a sharp increase in the immigrant allophone population (whose mother tongue is neither French nor English).

Efforts have been made to preserve the primacy of the French language in Quebec. Such efforts include: instating the Charter of the French language,[61] Quebec's participation in the Francophonie since 1971,[62] French immigration to Quebec,[63] etc. Several institutions seek to protect and promote French such as the Office québécois de la langue française, the Superior Council of the French Language, the Commission de toponymie du Québec, etc.

English[edit]

As of 2011, English is the mother tongue of nearly 650,000 Quebecers (8% of the population).[64] These anglophones, sometimes called Anglo-Québécois, constitute the second largest linguistic group in Quebec. In addition, in 2001, roughly 50,000 people (0.7% of the population) considered their mother tongue to be both French and English.[65] According to the latest censuses of 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016, the percentage of anglophones in the population has more or less stabilized, but in absolute numbers, they are constantly increasing. Allophones, on the other hand, are increasing sharply in absolute numbers as well as in percentage. According to the 2016 census, 49.1% of people living in Quebec say they can conduct a conversation in English (English as mother tongue or as a second language). As for French-English bilingualism, 44.5% of people in Quebec state that they are bilingual, that is to say, able to conduct a conversation in both French and English.[66]

English made its first appearance in Quebec in 1760, when the British invaded and conquered Canada (New France). Shortly afterwards, the first English and Scottish merchants came to settle in the cities of Québec City and Montreal. In 1784, United Empire Loyalists flooded Quebec following their expulsion from the Thirteen Colonies during the United States' War of Independence. This dramatically increased the number of English speakers in Quebec. These Loyalists, avoiding the French-speaking and Catholic countryside, settled mainly in then underdeveloped regions, such as the Eastern Townships and the Outaouais. The proclamation of the Act of Union of 1840 caused massive immigration from the British Isles to the Québécois territory, which introduced Celtic languages for the first time and increased the power of English. The influence of English and repeated attempts at linguistic assimilation of the French-speaking population had and continues to have a considerable impact on French-language culture in Quebec. Today, Anglo-Quebecers reside mainly in the west of the island of Montreal (West Island), downtown Montreal and the Pontiac.

Anglophones in Quebec have several institutions and infrastructural systems. At the school level, anglophones in Quebec have several school boards grouped together into the Association des commissions scolaire anglophones du Québec.[67] In terms of media, anglophones own, among others, the Montreal Gazette in Montreal, and the Chronicle-Telegraph in Quebec City.[68] Other organisations include the Quebec Writers' Federation, which is a group of English-speaking Quebec authors,[69] and the Voice of English-speaking Quebec, which represents the interests of the English-speaking community in the Québec region.[70]

Other languages[edit]

The term "allophone" is used to refer to people whose mother tongue is neither French nor English.[71] We can distinguish two groups of allophones: people who speak indigenous languages, and those who speak so-called immigrant languages.

In the 2016 census, where one could note more than one language as their mother tongue, Quebec had 1,171,045 people (14.5% of the population) who reported a mother tongue that was neither French nor English, and 1,060,830 people (13.2% of the population) who did not declare French or English as a mother tongue at all.[72] In this census, 47,025 (0.6% of the population) reported an aboriginal language as a mother tongue, while 1,124,020 (13.9% of the population) reported an immigrant language as a mother tongue.[73]

Indigenous languages[edit]

Three families of aboriginal languages exist in Quebec, which encompass eleven languages. Each of these languages belong to and are spoken by members of a specific ethnic group. Sometimes, the language in question is spoken natively by all members of the group, sometimes they are spoken only by a few individuals. These languages are also sometimes sub-divided into different dialects in the indigenous communities.

A multilingual road sign in Mistissini, showing Cree, English and French.

In the 2016 census, 50,895 people in Quebec said they knew at least one indigenous language.[74] Furthermore, 45,570 people declared having an aboriginal language as their mother tongue. For 38,995 of them, it was the language most frequently spoken at home. Additionally, 1,195 people who did not have an aboriginal language as their mother tongue reported using an aboriginal language most often at home.[75]

In Quebec, most indigenous languages are currently transmitted quite well from one generation to the next with a mother tongue retention rate of 92%.[76]

Immigrant languages[edit]

In the 2016 census, 1,124,020 people declared having an immigrant language as their mother tongue in Quebec. The most cited languages are Arabic (2.5% of the total population), Spanish (1.9%), Italian (1.4%), Creole languages (mainly Haitian Creole) (0.8%) and Mandarin (0.6%).[77]

Both the number and proportion of allophones have been increasing in Quebec since the 1951 census.[78]

In 2015, the vast majority (89%) of young allophone students in Quebec attended French-language schools.[79][80]

Mother tongue language[edit]

Mother tongue language (Statistics Canada: 2006,[81] 2001,[82] 1996[83])
Language(s) 2011 2006 2001 1996
Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%)
French 6,102,210 78 5,877,660 79 5,761,765 80.8 5,742,575 80.4
English 599,225 7.6 575,555 7.7 557,040 7.8 568,405 8.0
Both English and French 64,800 0.8 43,335 0.6 50,060 0.7 97,225 1.4
Total population 7,815,950 100 7,435,905 100 7,125,580 100 7,138,795 100

Language spoken at home[edit]

Language spoken most often at home (Statistics Canada: 2006[81])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French 6,027,735 81.1
English 744,430 10.0
Both English and French 52,325 0.7
Non-official languages 518,320 7.0
Both French and a non-official language 54,490 0.7
Both English and a non-official language 26,560 0.4
French, English and a non-official language 12,035 0.2
Total population 7,435,905 100

Knowledge of languages[edit]

Knowledge of official languages of Canada in Quebec (2016)
Language Percent
English only
4.62%
French only
49.99%
English and French
44.46%
Neither English nor French
0.93%

The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses. The following figures are from the 2021 Canadian Census and the 2016 Canadian Census, and lists languages that were selected by at least one per cent of respondents.

Knowledge of Languages in Quebec
Language Population (2021)[84] Percentage (2021) Population (2016) Percentage (2016)
French 7,786,735 93.72% 7,522,350 94.43%
English 4,317,180 51.96% 3,930,690 49.35%
Spanish 453,905 5.46% 390,355 4.90%
Arabic 343,675 4.14% 267,965 3.37%
Italian 168,040 2.02% 173,710 2.18%
Haitian Creole 118,010 1.42% 108,315 1.36%
Mandarin 80,520 0.97% N/A <1%

Religion[edit]

Religion in Quebec (2011 National Household Survey)[85]

  Roman Catholicism (74.7%)
  Other Christian (7.5%)
  Non-religious (12.1%)
  Islam (3.1%)
  Hinduism (0.4%)
  Sikhism (0.1%)
  Buddhism (0.7%)
  Judaism (1.1%)
  Other religions (0.3%)

Religion, more precisely the Roman Catholic Church, has long occupied a central and integral place in Quebec society since the arrival of the first French settlers in New France. However, since the Quiet Revolution and the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s, there has been a real separation between state and religion, and society in general sees religion as a private matter. Nevertheless, Catholicism still represents the beliefs of 75% of the Quebec population in 2011.[86]

Religion (2001) Denomination (2001) Congregation (2001) Proportion (2001)
Catholic Christian 5,939,795 83.6%
Roman Catholic 5,930,385 83.23%
Ukrainian Catholic 3,430 0.05%
Protestant Christian 335,595 4.71%
Anglican 85,475 1.20%
United Church of Canada 52,950 0.74%
Baptist 35,455 0.50%
Pentecostal 22,670 0.32%
Lutheran 9,640 0.14%
Presbyterian 8,770 0.12%
Methodist 8,725 0.12%
Adventist 6,690 0.09%
Mission de l'Esprit Saint 765 0.01%
Orthodox Christian 100,375 1.41%
Greek Orthodox 50,020 0.70%
Armenian Orthodox 4,935 0.07%
Russian Orthodox 2,185 0.03%
Coptic Orthodox 2,010 0.03%
Antiochian Orthodox 1,050 0.01%
Ukrainian Orthodox 985 0.01%
Serbian Orthodox 920 0.01%
Other Christian 56,755 0.80%
Muslim 108,620 1.52%
Jewish 89,920 1.26%
Buddhist 41,375 0.58%
Hindu 24,530 0.34%
Sikh 8,220 0.12%
Other eastern religions 3,425 0.05%
Baháʼí 1,155 0.02%
Pagan 1,330 0.02%
Aboriginal spirituality 740 0.01%
No religious affiliation 413,185 5.80%
No religion 400,325 5.62%
Atheist 4,335 0.02%
Agnostic 12,600 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580 in 2001). Only groups of more than 0.01% are shown. [87]

With a membership rate of 75% among the Québécois population, Catholicism is the main religion in Quebec,[86] although the traditional practice is followed by 10% of believers in Quebec.[88] From the beginning of Canada, and throughout French-Canadian history, catholicism and the Catholic Church have played a preponderant role in the social and political development of Quebec.

The first Québécois mass was celebrated by the priest accompanying Jacques Cartier on his voyage to the New World in 1535. Amerindians were evangelized by Catholic missionaries before the founding of parishes. In 1627, Cardinal Richelieu recited a royal proclamation by Louis XIII which banished all non-Catholics, including Huguenots, from New France. In 1658, the apostolic vicariate of Quebec was founded, followed by the Archdiocese of Quebec in 1674. The archbishop of Quebec, who today is the primate of the Catholic Church of Canada, was once part of the Sovereign Council of New France.[89]

The extraordinary power that the Catholic Church once had in Quebec is reflected in all areas of culture, from language to the fine arts, theater, literature and film.[89] The golden age for ecclesiastics would come in the mid-nineteenth century (around 1840) as this was a period during which the Church, influenced by ultramontanism, concretized its influence (see Clericalism in Quebec). The influence of the Church began to wane a hundred years later, when, after the Grande Noirceur, Quebec society was profoundly transformed by the Quiet Revolution. Created in 1966, the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Quebec [fr] deals with current issues concerning ethical and moral values (ex. gay marriage, euthanasia and abortion).

Several holy men and women from Quebec have been recognized for their venerable actions and canonized as saints:

The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is an important symbol of the protestant religion in Quebec.

Protestantism, a practice consisting of reformed catholicism, has been present in Quebec for a long time. From the very beginning of Canada, several Huguenots of the calvinist religion were present in Quebec. Huguenots have been identified in almost all classes of society: settlers, fishermen, daughters of the king, etc. During the early French Regime, the number of protestant immigrants was estimated to be 1,450 people. In 1627, protestantism became no longer tolerated in New France.[94] After Quebec fell under British rule, the protestant religion, more particularly of the anglican faith, became a religion tolerated on Quebecois territory again. This was because the English immigrants who came to certain regions of Quebec followed this religion.

The Amerindian religions of Quebec [fr] preceded Catholicism in Quebec.

While the first synagogue was established in Montreal in 1777, Jews remained a negligible religious group in Quebec until the early 20th century when a wave of Jewish immigrants settled in Montreal. The Jewish community of today, established mainly on the island of Montreal, now numbers about 120,000 people.[95] In 2010, this community was made up of 26.1% traditionalist Jews, 24.3% orthodox, 15.2% conservative, 9% reconstructionist and reformist, and 25.4% of Montreal Jews say they have no religious affiliation.[96] In the 20th century, successive waves of immigrants from Africa, Asia, Greece, Ireland and Italy settled in Montreal, bringing their cultural and religious customs. Some religious communities, such as Eastern Christians, then established places of worship.

Religion and Politics[edit]

Many aspects of life for French-speaking Quebeckers remained dominated by the Catholic Church in the decades following 1867. The Church operated many of the institutions of the province, including most French-language schools,[97] hospitals, and charitable organizations. The leader of the Catholic Church in Quebec was the Bishop of Montreal, and from 1840 to 1876 this was Ignace Bourget, an opponent of liberalism. Bourget eventually succeeded in gaining more influence than the liberal, reformist Institut Canadien. At his most extreme, Bourget went so far as to deny a Church burial to Joseph Guibord, a member of the Institut, in 1874. A court decision forced Bourget to allow Guibord to be buried in a Catholic cemetery, but Bourget deconsecrated the burial plot of ground, and Guibord was buried under army protection.[98] The conservative approach of the Catholic Church was the major force in Quebec society until the reforms of the Quiet Revolution during the 1960s. In 1876, Pierre-Alexis Tremblay was defeated in a federal by-election because of pressure from the Church on voters, but succeeded in getting his loss annulled with the help of a new federal law. He quickly lost the subsequent election. In 1877, the Pope sent representatives to force the Quebecois Church to minimize its interventions in the electoral process.[99]

Lionel Groulx wanted to build a nationalistic French-Canadian identity, in purpose to protect the power of the Church and dissuade the public from popular-rule and secularist views. Groulx propagated French-Canadian nationalism and argued that maintaining a Roman Catholic Quebec was the only means to 'emancipate the nation against English power.' He believed the powers of the provincial government of Quebec could and should be used within Confederation, to bolster provincial autonomy (and thus Church power), and advocated it would benefit the French-Canadian nation economically, socially, culturally and linguistically. Groulx successfully promoted Québécois nationalism and the ultra-conservative Catholic social doctrine, to which the Church would maintain dominance in political and social life in Quebec.[100] In the 1920s–1950s, this form of traditionalist Catholic nationalism became known as clerico-nationalism.

During the 1940s and 1950s Quebec Premier Maurice Duplessis party, the Union Nationale, often had the active support of the Roman Catholic Church during political campaigns, using the slogan Le ciel est bleu; l'enfer est rouge ("Heaven is blue; hell is red"; red is the colour of the Liberal party, and blue was the colour of the Union Nationale).[101]

Churches[edit]

The oldest parish church in North America is the Cathedral-Basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Its construction began in 1647, when it was then known under the name Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix, and it was finished in 1664.[102] Its first mass was celebrated by Father Vimont on December 24, 1650. This church obtained the status of cathedral in 1674, when François de Laval became archbishop of Quebec, and then the status of minor basilica in 1874. It was also rebuilt twice after the siege of Quebec in 1759 and the fire of 1922.[103]

The most frequented place of worship in Quebec is the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré. This basilica welcomes millions of visitors each year, especially during the novena of Saint Anne, on July 26. The Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré basilica is recognized for its numerous miracles, which is why thousands of crutches can be found at its entrance.[104]

Saint Joseph's Oratory is the largest place of worship in the world dedicated to Saint Joseph. Located beside Mount Royal, it is known for its 283 steps, which pilgrims come to climb on their knees every year, reciting a prayer on each of the steps.

Many pilgrimages include places such as Saint Benedict Abbey, Sanctuaire Notre-Dame-du-Cap [fr], Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Marie-Reine-du-Monde de Montréal Basilica-Cathedral, Saint-Michel Basilica-Cathedral, Saint-Patrick's Basilica, etc.

Another important place of worship in Quebec is the anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral, which was erected between 1800 and 1804. It was the first anglican cathedral built outside the British Isles.[105]

In August 2019, the Minister of Culture, Nathalie Roy, announced the allocation of $15 million to preserve the cultural heritage that the churches of Quebec embody, and $5 million for the requalification of places of worship.[106]

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

Quebec welcomes about 40,000 immigrants per year. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 1,091,305 immigrants living in Quebec. The most commonly reported countries of birth for all immigrants living in Quebec were:[107]

Rank Country of birth Number
1.  France 81,225
2.  Haiti 80,965
3.  Morocco 60,695
4.  Algeria 59,460
5.  Italy 51,025
6.  China 49,555
7.  Lebanon 39,140
8.  Romania 28,690
9.  United States 25,960
10.  Colombia 25,575
11.  Vietnam 25,440
12.  Philippines 24,410
13.  Egypt 19,490
14.  Portugal 18,985
15.  Greece 18,420
16.  India 17,865
17.  Syria 17,775
18.  Iran 17,760
19.  Mexico 15,820
20.  Tunisia 14,775

Recent immigration[edit]

The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 215,175 people who immigrated to Quebec between 2011 and 2016.

Recent immigrants to Quebec by place of birth (2011 to 2016)[108]
Rank Country Population # % of recent immigrants
1 France 20,030 9.3%
2 Haiti 16,880 7.8%
3 Algeria 16,380 7.6%
4 Morocco 13,475 6.3%
5 China 10,705 5%
6 Cameroon 7,550 3.5%
7 Colombia 7,540 3.5%
8 Iran 7,505 3.5%
9 Syria 7,455 3.5%
10 Tunisia 5,850 2.7%
11 Philippines 5,635 2.6%
12 Côte D'Ivoire 5,070 2.4%
13 Egypt 4,360 2%
14 Mexico 4,210 2%
15 United States 3,990 1.9%

Interprovincial migration[edit]

Since it began being recorded in 1971 until 2018, each year Quebec has had negative interprovincial migration, and among the provinces it has experienced the largest net loss of people due to the effect.[citation needed] Between 1981 and 2017, Quebec lost 229,700 people below the age of 45 to interprovincial migration.[109] Per capita, Quebec has lost significantly fewer people than other provinces. This is due to the large population of the province and the very low migration rate of francophone Quebeckers.[citation needed] However, Quebec receives much fewer than average in-migrants from other provinces.[citation needed]

In Quebec, allophones are more likely to migrate out of the province than average: between 1996 and 2001, over 19,170 migrated to other provinces; 18,810 of whom migrated to Ontario.[110]

Interprovincial Migration Between Quebec and Other Provinces and Territories by Mother Tongue[111]
Mother Tongue / Year 1971–1976 1976–1981 1981–1986 1986–1991 1991–1996 1996–2001 2001–2006 2006–2011 2011-2016 Total
French −4,100 −18,000 −12,900 5,200 1,200 −8,900 5,000 −2,610 −9,940 −45,050
English −52,200 −106,300 −41,600 −22,200 −24,500 −29,200 −8,000 −5,930 −11,005 −300,635
Other −5,700 −17,400 −8,700 −8,600 −14,100 −19,100 −8,700 −12,710 −16,015 −111,025
Interprovincial migration in Quebec
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2008–09 20,307 27,726 −7,419
2009–10 21,048 24,306 −3,258
2010–11 19,884 24,647 −4,763
2011–12 20,179 27,094 −6,915
2012–13 16,879 27,310 −10,431
2013–14 16,536 30,848 −14,312
2014–15 16,611 32,753 −16,142
2015–16 19,259 30,377 −11,118
2016–17 19,531 27,658 −8,127
2017–18 20,777 26,470 −5,693
2018–19 24,604 27,653 −3,049
2019–20 33,843 35,066 −1,223

Source: Statistics Canada[112]

See also[edit]

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census 2011 FOLS". Statistics Canada.
  2. ^ "Canada's total population estimates, 2013" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 26, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Profil statistique de l'habitation au Québec 2018–2019" (PDF) (in French). Government of Quebec. November 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-06-05. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Amber LePage-Monette. "Powerful Population". BioScienceWorld.ca. Promotive Communications. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  5. ^ Flanagan, Nina (August 2005). "Bioresearch Highlights Significance of SNPs". Genetic Engineering News. Vol. 25, no. 14. Mary Ann Liebert. pp. 1, 27–29. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  6. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2009-06-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ a b "Bilan demographique du Québec" (PDF) (in French) (2020 ed.). Institut de la statistique du Québec. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-12-09. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  8. ^ "Niveau de scolarité et domaine d'études en 2016 selon le sexe, le groupe d'âge et la région administrative" (in French). Institut de la statistique du Québec. Archived from the original on 2021-03-02. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  9. ^ "Couples selon le type de revenu et la présence d'enfant, 1976-2020, Québec, Ontario et Canada" (in French). Institut de la statistique du Québec. Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  10. ^ "La population des municipalités du Québec au 1er juillet 2017" (PDF). Institut de la statistique du Québec. 2017.
  11. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. August 9, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  12. ^ "Nombre hebdomadaire de décès au Québec, 2010-2021" (in French). Institut de la statistique du Québec. Archived from the original on 2020-12-03. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  13. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data.
  14. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  15. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Quebec [Province] and Canada [Country]". Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Population by visible minority group, place of residence and projection scenario, Canada, 2011 and 2036". Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Projections of the Aboriginal Population and Households in Canada 2011 to 2036" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census Quebec [Province] and Canada [Country]". August 9, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2021.
  19. ^ "Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements". January 3, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2021.
  20. ^ Aboriginal Population Profile (2006 Census)
  21. ^ a b [1], NHS Profile, Quebec, 2011, Statistics Canada
  22. ^ Lacoursière, Provencher et Vaugeois (2000), op. cit., pp. 13-14.
  23. ^ Émission d'affaires publiques : Les Années lumière, émission spéciale : La Science en Nouvelle-France, présentée en rediffusion sur la chaîne d'information ICI Radio-Canada Première, le 28 juin 2009, de 12h15 à 14h00 (HAE)
  24. ^ Guide officiel de la Société touristique des autochtones du Québec (STAQ) : La Nouvelle-France, un vaste réseau d'alliances en Amérique du Nord
  25. ^ Guide officiel de la Société touristique des autochtones du Québec (STAQ) : Conclure des traités ou la recherche de bonne entente.
  26. ^ "Loi sur les Indiens" (PDF). justice.gc.ca. 30 July 2019.
  27. ^ "Entente Québec-Innus". Secrétariat aux Affaires intergouvernementales. 15 April 2009.
  28. ^ "La planification viendra de Mashteuiatsh". Radio-Canada Nouvelles. 6 January 2010.
  29. ^ "Nitassinan de la première nation des Pekuakamiulnuatsh". Conseil des Montagnais du Lac-Saint-Jean. 8 January 2010.
  30. ^ "APNQL". Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  31. ^ "Grand Conseil des Cris (Eeyou Istchee)/Gouvernement de la Nation Crie". The Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee). Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  32. ^ "Bienvenue sur le site Internet de la Société MakivikAu service des Inuit du Nunavik depuis 1978". Makivik Corporation. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  33. ^ "Localisation des Nations Autochtones au Québec" (PDF) (in French). Government of Quebec. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-06-02. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  34. ^ "Québec". Société nationale de l'Acadie. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  35. ^ "L'Acadie du Québec - Du 29 mars au 31 mai 1998". Télécommunauté insulaire francophone. 1998. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  36. ^ Adrien Bergeron (2000). "HÉBERT, ÉTIENNE". Dictionnaire biographique du Canada en ligne en collaboration avec l'Université de Toronto et l'Université Laval. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  37. ^ Hébert, Pierre-Maurice (1994). Les Acadiens du Québec (in French). Vol. 427. Éditions de L'Écho. ISBN 2-920312-32-4.
  38. ^ Arsenault, Samuel; Lamarche, Rodolphe; Daigle, Jean (1993). L'Acadie des Maritimes : études thématiques des débuts à nos jours. Vol. Les géographes et l'aménagement des structures spatiales. Centre d'études acadiennes, Université de Moncton. ISBN 2921166062.
  39. ^ "Festival Acadien des Îles-de-la-Madeleine". tourismeilesdelamadeleine.com. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  40. ^ "Musée acadien du Québec à Bonaventure : Une culture bien vivante!". Musée acadien du Québec à Bonaventure, Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  41. ^ "Monument aux Acadiens". Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  42. ^ Commissariat aux langues officielles du Canada, ed. (2006). "Les langues officielles au Canada" (PDF). Government of Canada. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  43. ^ "Tableau statistique canadien - Chapitre 3" (PDF). stat.gouv.qc.ca. Institut de la statistique du Québec. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
  44. ^ "Statistiques du Québec" (PDF). olf.gouv.qc.ca.
  45. ^ a b c d "Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census – Province of Quebec". 2.statcan.gc.ca. February 8, 2012. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  46. ^ "Statistics Canada: 2011 Census Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. February 8, 2012. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  47. ^ Plourde, Michel; Georgeault, Pierre (2008). Conseil supérieur de la langue française, Éditions Fides (ed.). Le français au Québec : 400 ans d'histoire et de vie, nouvelle édition. p. 351. ISBN 978-2-7621-2813-0.
  48. ^ "Histoire du francais au Québec: colonie du Canada". University of Laval. 14 February 2021. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  49. ^ "L'implantation du français au Canada".
  50. ^ Sionneau, Yoann. "Filles du roi, mères de la nation québécoise". Encyclopédie du patrimoine culturel de l'Amérique Française (in French). Retrieved August 16, 2021.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  51. ^ Mémoire de Bougainville sur l'état de la Nouvelle-France à l'époque de la guerre de Sept ans. 1757.
  52. ^ "Les soubresauts historiques qui ont façonné le français québécois". Radio-Canada (in French). August 30, 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-05-15. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  53. ^ "Différents accents à travers le Québec". umoncton.ca (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-06-05. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  54. ^ "Our-32 Accents". Quebec Culture Blog. Archived from the original on 2014-12-02. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  55. ^ "Le francais parlé de la Nouvelle-France" (in French). Government of Canada. April 27, 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-09-23. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  56. ^ Parent, Stéphane (March 30, 2017). "Le francais dans tous ses etats au quebec et au canada". Radio-Canada. Archived from the original on 2017-03-31. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  57. ^ "Découvrir les Îles de la Madeleine". tourismeilesdelamadeleine.com (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  58. ^ "L'implantation du français au Canada". University of Laval. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  59. ^ "Histoire (2): Le Régime britannique (1760-1840)". axl.cefan.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  60. ^ "La question démographique (Québec)". axl.cefan.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  61. ^ "OQLF - Erreur". www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  62. ^ "Canada Québec - Organisation internationale de la Francophonie". francophonie.org. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  63. ^ "La question de l'immigration au Québec". University of Laval. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  64. ^ "Caractéristiques linguistiques des Canadiens" (in French). Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2013-05-22. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  65. ^ "Population n'ayant qu'une seule langue maternelle, régions administratives du Québec, 2001". Institut de la statistique du Québec. Québec. 2 April 2003.
  66. ^ "Recensement en bref: Le français, l'anglais et les minorités de langue officielle au Canada". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2017-08-09. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  67. ^ "Accueil". Association des commissions scolaire anglophones du Québec. Archived from the original on 2000-01-15. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  68. ^ "Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph Online - North America's Oldest Newspaper, Since 1764". qctonline.com. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  69. ^ "Home". Quebec Writers' Federation. Archived from the original on 1999-11-16. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  70. ^ "Who We Are". Voice of English-speaking Quebec. Archived from the original on 2021-09-12. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  71. ^ "allophone". gdt.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  72. ^ "Proportion de la population selon la langue maternelle déclarée, pour différentes régions au Canada, Recensement de 2016". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Gouvernement du Canada, Statistique. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  73. ^ "Langue – Faits saillants en tableaux, Recensement de 2016 - Langue maternelle selon l'âge (Total), chiffres de 2016 pour la population à l'exclusion des résidents d'un établissement institutionnel du Canada, provinces et territoires, Recensement de 2016 – Données intégrales (100 %)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Gouvernement du Canada, Statistique. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  74. ^ "Knowledge of Aboriginal Languages (90), Knowledge of Languages: Single and Multiple Language Responses (3), Aboriginal Identity (9), Aboriginal Mother Tongue (11), Registered or Treaty Indian Status (3) and Age (12) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca (in French). Gouvernement du Canada, Statistique. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  75. ^ "Recensement du Canada de 2016 : Tableaux de données – Langue maternelle (10), langue parlée le plus souvent à la maison (10), autre(s) langue(s) parlée(s) régulièrement à la maison (11), connaissance des langues officielles (5), première langue officielle parlée (5), âge (7) et sexe (3) pour la population à l'exclusion des résidents d'un établissement institutionnel du Canada, provinces et territoires, régions métropolitaines de recensement et agglomérations de recensement, Recensement de 2016 - Données intégrales (100 %)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Gouvernment of Canada, Statistique. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  76. ^ Marc Termote; Normand Thibault (2008). "Nouvelles perspectives démolinguistiques du Québec et de la région de Montréal, 2001-2051" (PDF). oqlf.gouv.qc.ca: 45.
  77. ^ "Proportion de la population selon la langue maternelle déclarée, pour différentes régions au Canada, Recensement de 2016". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Gouvernement du Canada, Statistics. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  78. ^ "L'évolution des populations de langue maternelle au Canada, 1901 à 2016". www150.statcan.gc.ca. Gouvernement du Canada, Statistique. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  79. ^ "Les allophones fréquentent les écoles francophones au Québec". La Presse. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  80. ^ Sarah-Maude (26 August 2014). "De plus en plus d'élèves parlent français". Le Journal de Montréal.
  81. ^ a b Statistics Canada. "2006 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  82. ^ Statistics Canada. "2001 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  83. ^ Statistics Canada. "1996 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  84. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-08-17). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Quebec [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-17.
  85. ^ 2011 National Household Survey: Data tables
  86. ^ a b "Data Tables: Religion". 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada. 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  87. ^ Religion (95) and Immigrant Status (Census 2001)
  88. ^ Vallée, Pierre (8 January 2010). "L'Église catholique du Québec — Un patrimoine en danger". Le Devoir.
  89. ^ a b "Église catholique de Québec - Histoire". Église catholique de Québec. 15 February 2010.
  90. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-30. Retrieved 2016-02-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  91. ^ "21 octobre 2012 : Messe et canonisation des bienheureux Jacques Berthieu, Pedro Calungsod, Giovanni Battista Piamarta, Maria Carmen Sallés y Barangueras, Marianne Cope, Kateri Tekakwitha, Anna Schäffer BENOÎT XVI". w2.vatican.va. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
  92. ^ "Sainte Marine de l'Incarnation née Marie Guyart Ursuline Mystique Tours Quebec (1599-1672)". carrefourkairos.net. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  93. ^ "François de Laval, pour mieux le connaître". francoisdelaval.com. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  94. ^ "Protestantisme". L'encyclopédie canadienne.
  95. ^ "Ville de Montréal, Annuaire statistique de l'agglomération de Montréal 2007" (PDF). montreal.qc.ca. 30 July 2019.
  96. ^ Sondage et étude de la Fédération Juive de Montréal CJA.
  97. ^ Linteau, Quebec, a History, 1867–1929 pp. 212–213
  98. ^ Linteau, Quebec, a History, 1867–1929 pp. 203–204
  99. ^ "Histoire" (in French). Nonciature Apostolique au Canada. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  100. ^ Mason Wade, The French-Canadians 1760–1967, vol. 2, p. 894.
  101. ^ "Religion in Canada: Politics". Religion in Canada. Université Laval. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  102. ^ "Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de Québec". Corporation du patrimoine et du tourisme religieux de Québec. 15 February 2010.
  103. ^ "La Corporation du Patrimoine et du Tourisme Religieux de Québec (CPTRQ)". www.patrimoine-religieux.com. 30 July 2019.
  104. ^ "29 mars 1922 : Incendie de la basilique Sainte-Anne de Beaupré". Bilan du siècle. Université de Sherbrooke. 8 January 2010.
  105. ^ "The Cathedral – The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Quebec, Canada". cathedral.ca. 29 July 2019.
  106. ^ "Au Québec, 20 millions de dollars canadiens pour la restauration du patrimoine religieux". La Croix (in French). 8 August 2019.
  107. ^ Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Place of Birth (272), Age (7A) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
  108. ^ "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), Quebec, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
  109. ^ Serebrin, Jacob (2018-07-26). "Quebec losing young people to interprovincial migration, report shows". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  110. ^ "Net population gains or losses from interprovincial migration by language group, provinces and territories, 1991-1996 and 1996-2001". Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  111. ^ "Interprovincial Migration by Mother Tongue for Interprovincial Migrants Aged 5 Years and Over, Provinces and Territories, 1971 to 2016". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
  112. ^ Statistics Canada, table 051-0012: Interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual.

External links[edit]