Demographics of Quebec

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1971 to 2017

The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National question. Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group. According to the 2011 census, French is spoken by more than 85.5% of the population while this number rises to 88% for children under 15 years old.[1] According to the 2011 census, 95% of Quebec is francophone, with less than 5% of the population not able to speak French.

Quebec is also home to "one of the world's most valuable founder populations", the Quebec Founder Population.[2] Founder populations are very valuable to medical genetic research as they are pockets of low genetic variability which provide a useful research context for discovering gene-disease linkages. The Quebec Founder Population arose through the influx of people into Quebec from France in the 17th century to mid-18th century; though this influx was large, a high proportion of the immigrants either died or returned to France, leaving a founder population of approximately 2,600 people.[2][3] About seven million Canadians (along with several million French Americans in the United States) are descendants of these original 2,600 colonists.[2]

Population[edit]

Population since 1851:

Year Population Five-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
%
Canada
1851 892,061 n/a n/a 36.5
1861 1,111,566 n/a 24.6 34.4
1871 1,491,816 n/a 7.2 32.3
1881 1,359,027 n/a 14.1 31.4
1891 1,488,535 n/a 9.5 30.8
1901 1,648,898 n/a 10.8 30.7
1911 2,005,776 n/a 21.6 27.8
1921 2,360,665 n/a 17.8 26.9
1931 2,874,255 n/a 21.8 27.7
1941 3,331,882 n/a 15.9 29.0
1951 4,055,681 n/a 21.8 28.9
1956 4,628,378 14.1 n/a 28.8
1961 5,259,211 13.6 29.7 28.8
1966 5,780,845 9.9 24.9 28.8
1971 6,027,765 4.3 14.6 27.9
1976 6,234,445 3.4 7.8 27.1
1981 6,438,403 3.3 6.8 26.4
1986 6,532,460 1.5 4.8 25.8
1991 6,895,963 5.6 7.1 25.2
1996 7,138,795 3.5 9.3 24.5
2001 7,237,479 1.4 5.0 23.8
2006 7,546,131 4.3 5.7 23.4
2011 7,903,001 4.7 9.2 23.1
2012 8,085,900 n/a n/a 23.3
2013 8,155,500 n/a n/a 23.2
2014 8,214,500 n/a n/a 23.1
2015 8,259,500 n/a n/a 23.0
2016 8,326,100 5.3 16.6 23.0
2017 8,398,200 3.8 n/a 22.0

Source: Statistics Canada [2][3][4]

Vital statistics[edit]

Age structure: (2001 census)

Age groups Total Male Female
0–4 years 375,770 192,280 183,490
5–9 years 457,225 232,650 224,575
10–14 years 458,585 234,140 224,445
15–24 years 949,475 481,990 467,485
25–34 years 921,770 459,960 461,810
35–44 years 1,243,970 617,510 626,460
45–54 years 1,109,945 548,080 561,865
55–64 years 760,905 370,960 389,945
65–74 years 547,185 248,740 298,445
75–84 years 318,185 120,940 197,245
85 years and over 94,450 25,580 68,870
Total 7,237,480 3,532,845 3,704,635

Source : Statistics Canada[4]

Quebec's fertility rate is now higher than the Canadian average. At 1.74 children per woman in 2008,[5] it is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.59, and has increased for five consecutive years, reaching its highest level since 1976.[5] However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. For example, between 1951 and 1961, the population grew nearly 30% with minimal immigration, a natural growth rate matched today only by some African countries.

Although Quebec is home to only 23.0% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2006)

Birth rate: 9.9% (2005)

Synthetic fertility index: 1.61 (2006)

Death rate: 7.4% (2003)

Net migration rate: 4.1% (2003)

Infant mortality rate: 0.46% (2004)

Stillbirth rate: 3.8% -- 3.5% notwithstanding requested abortions (2002)

Life expectancy: In 2002, life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.9 years for females.

Urbanisation: In 2001, 80.4% of Quebecers lived in urban areas.

Literacy: International Adult Literacy Survey 47% Prose, 42% Document, 40% Quantitative (1996) Note: This is not the official literacy rate, and should not be used in comparisons with rates calculated using different procedures.

Languages[edit]

Mother tongue language[edit]

Mother tongue language (Statistics Canada: 2006,[6] 2001,[7] 1996[8])
Language(s) 2011 2006 2001 1996
Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%)
French 6,102,210 78 5,877,660 79 5,761,765 80.8 5,742,575 80.4
English 599,225 7.6 575,555 7.7 557,040 7.8 568,405 8.0
Both English and French 64,800 0.8 43,335 0.6 50,060 0.7 97,225 1.4
Total population 7,815,950 100 7,435,905 100 7,125,580 100 7,138,795 100

Language spoken at home[edit]

Language spoken most often at home (Statistics Canada: 2006[6])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French 6,027,735 81.1
English 744,430 10.0
Both English and French 52,325 0.7
Non-official languages 518,320 7.0
Both French and a non-official language 54,490 0.7
Both English and a non-official language 26,560 0.4
French, English and a non-official language 12,035 0.2
Total population 7,435,905 100

Knowledge of official languages[edit]

Knowledge of official languages (Statistics Canada: 2006[6])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French only 4,010,880 53.9
English only 336,785 4.5
Both English and French 3,017,860 40.6
Neither English or French 70,375 0.9
Total population 7,435,905 100

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadien/Canadian 4,474,115 60.1%
French 2,151,655 28.8%
Irish 406,085 5.5%
Italian 299,655 4.0%
English 245,155 3.3%
First Nations 219,815 3.0%
Scottish 202,515 2.7%
Quebecer 140,075 1.9%
German 131,795 1.8%
Chinese 91,900 1.24%
Haitian 91,435 1.23%
Spanish 72,090 0.97%
Jewish 71,380 0.96%
Greek 65,985 0.89%
Polish 62,800 0.84%
Lebanese 60,950 0.83%
Portuguese 57,445 0.77%
Belgian 43,275 0.58%
East Indian 41,600 0.56%
Romanian 40,320 0.54%
Russian 40,155 0.54%
Algerian 36,700 0.49%
American (USA) 36,695 0.49%
Métis 36,280 0.49%
Vietnamese 33,815 0.45%
Acadian 32,950 0.44%
Ukrainian 31,955 0.43%
African (Black) 30,170 0.41%
Filipino 25,680 0.35%
Morrocan 25,150 0.34%
British Isles 23,445 0.32%
Armenian 23,230 0.31%
Dutch 23,015 0.31%
Hungarian 22,585 0.30%
Swiss 20,280 0.27%
Egyptian 17,950 0.24%
Salvadoran 15,770 0.21%
Syrian 14,925 0.20%
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Colombian 14,845 0.20%
Mexican 14,215 0.19%
Berbers 13,415 0.18%
Inuit 12,915 0.17%
Iranian 12,370 0.17%
Peruvian 12,335 0.17%
Jamaican 11,935 0.16%
Pakistani 11,710 0.16%
Chilean 11,585 0.16%
Turk 11,385 0.15%
Austrian 11,295 0.15%
Sri Lankan 10,750 0.14%
Congolese 10,190 0.14%
Cambodian 10,175 0.14%
Welsh 9,815 0.13%
Black 9,520 0.13%
Tunisian 7,870 0.11%
Bulgarian 6,955 0.09%
Guatemalan 6,880 0.09%
Laotian 6,425 0.09%
Norwegian 6,350 0.09%
Bangladeshi 6,095 0.08%
Yugoslav 6,090 0.08%
Swedish 5,975 0.08%
Afghan 5,855 0.08%
Lithuanians 5,665 0.08%
Korean 5,555 0.07%
Czech 5,540 0.07%
West Indian 5,420 0.07%
Barbadian 5,340 0.07%
Croatian 5,330 0.07%
Latin/Central/South American 5,270 0.07%
European 5,130 0.07%
Danish 5,130 0.07%
Palestinian 4,940 0.07%
Trinidadian/Tobagan 4,810 0.06%
Japanese 4,560 0.06%
Slovak 4,560 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 0.06 percent or more of respondents are shown.
[9]

Ethnicity according to the older more general system of classification is shown below:

Origins 2001 %
North American 4,989,230 70.02%
French 2,123,185 29.80%
British Isles 547,790 7.69%
Southern European 409,095 5.74%
Aboriginal 159,900 2.24%
Western European 153,750 2.16%
Arab 135,750 1.91%
East and Southeast Asian 132,280 1.86%
Origins 2001 %
Eastern European 130,410 1.83%
Caribbean 108,475 1.52%
Other European 86,450 1.21%
Latin, Central and South American 65,150 0.91%
South Asian 62,585 0.88%
African 48,715 0.68%
West Asian 40,960 0.57%
Northern European 15,295 0.21%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) and may total more than 100% due to dual responses
Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown
[10]

Visible minorities and Aboriginals[edit]

The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5%) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9%), 27,985 Métis (0.4%), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15%). There is a significant undercount, as many of the biggest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted.{Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905)}[11]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2011 Census)
Population group Population % of total population
European 6,740,370 87.2%
Visible minority group
Source:[12]
South Asian 83,320 1.1%
Chinese 82,845 1.1%
Black 243,625 3.2%
Filipino 31,495 0.4%
Latin American 116,380 1.5%
Arab 166,260 2.2%
Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9%
West Asian 23,445 0.3%
Korean 6,665 0.1%
Japanese 4,025 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,895 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 17,420 0.2%
Total visible minority population 850,235 11%
Aboriginal group
Source:[12]
First Nations 82,425 1.1%
Métis 40,960 0.5%
Inuit 12,570 0.2%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 4,415 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 1,545 0%
Total Aboriginal population 141,915 1.8%
Total population 7,732,520 100%

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

Quebec welcomes about 50,000 immigration per year. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total of 1,091,305 immigrants living in Quebec. The most commonly reported countries of birth for all immigrants living in Quebec were:[13]

1. France 81,225
2. Haiti 80,965
3. Morocco 60,695
4. Algeria 59,460
5. Italy 51,025
6. China 49,555
7. Lebanon 39,140
8. Romania 28,690
9. United States 25,960
10. Colombie 25,575
11. Vietnam 25,440
12. Philippines 24,410
13. Egypt 19,490
14. Portugal 18,985
15. Greece 18,420
16. India 17,865
17. Syria 17,775
18. Iran 17,760
19. Mexico 15,820
20. Tunisia 14,775

Interprovincial migration[edit]

Net cumulative interprovincial migration per Province from 1997 to 2017, as a share of population of each Provinces

Since it started being recorded in 1971, Quebec has had negative interprovincial migration every year, and Quebec has seen the largest net loss of people due to interprovincial migration during this time (without adjusting for population).[14] Between 1981 and 2017, Quebec lost 229,700 people below the age of 45 to interprovincial migration.[15] However, if we adjust for population, Quebec has lost significantly fewer people as a share of their population than other provinces. This is due to the very low migration rate of francophone quebeckers, and anglophone quebeckers are much more likely to leaver Quebec than francophones.[16] However, Quebec receives much fewer in-migrants from other provinces than average.[17]

In Quebec, Allophones are more likely to migrate out of the province than average: between 1996 and 2001, over 19,170 migrated to other provinces; 18,810 of whom migrated to Ontario.[18]

Interprovincial Migration Between Quebec and Other Provinces and Territories by Mother Tongue Source: Statistics Canada[19]
Mother Tongue / Year 1971–1976 1976–1981 1981–1986 1986–1991 1991–1996 1996–2001 Total
French -4,100 -18,000 -12,900 5,200 1,200 -8,900 -37,500
English -52,200 -106,300 -41,600 -22,200 -24,500 -29,200 -276,000
Other -5,700 -17,400 -8,700 -8,600 -14,100 -19,100 -73,600
Interprovincial migration in Quebec[17]
In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2007 / 2008 20,102 31,784 -11,682
2008 / 2009 20,307 27,726 -7,419
2009 / 2010 21,048 24,306 -3,258
2010 / 2011 19,884 24,647 -4,763
2011 / 2012 20,179 27,094 -6,915
2012 / 2013 16,879 27,310 -10,431
2013 / 2014 16,536 30,848 -14,312
2014 / 2015 16,611 32,753 -16,142
2015 / 2016 19,259 30,377 -11,118
2016 / 2017 22,007 32,766 -10,759


Religion[edit]

Religion in Quebec (2011 National Household Survey)[20]

  Roman Catholicism (74.7%)
  Other Christian (7.5%)
  Non-religious (12.1%)
  Islam (3.1%)
  Hinduism (0.4%)
  Sikhism (0.1%)
  Buddhism (0.7%)
  Judaism (1.1%)
  Other religions (0.3%)

Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though now has a low church attendance. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France.

Religion (2001) Denomination (2001) Congregation (2001) Proportion (2001)
Catholic Christian 5,939,795 83.6%
Roman Catholic 5,930,385 83.23%
Ukrainian Catholic 3,430 0.05%
Protestant Christian 335,595 4.71%
Anglican 85,475 1.20%
United Church of Canada 52,950 0.74%
Baptist 35,455 0.50%
Pentecostal 22,670 0.32%
Lutheran 9,640 0.14%
Presbyterian 8,770 0.12%
Methodist 8,725 0.12%
Adventist 6,690 0.09%
Mission de l'Esprit Saint 765 0.01%
Orthodox Christian 100,375 1.41%
Greek Orthodox 50,020 0.70%
Armenian Orthodox 4,935 0.07%
Russian Orthodox 2,185 0.03%
Coptic Orthodox 2,010 0.03%
Antiochian Orthodox 1,050 0.01%
Ukrainian Orthodox 985 0.01%
Serbian Orthodox 920 0.01%
Other Christian 56,755 0.80%
Muslim 108,620 1.52%
Jewish 89,920 1.26%
Buddhist 41,375 0.58%
Hindu 24,530 0.34%
Sikh 8,220 0.12%
Other eastern religions 3,425 0.05%
Bahá'í 1,155 0.02%
Pagan 1,330 0.02%
Aboriginal spirituality 740 0.01%
No religious affiliation 413,185 5.80%
No religion 400,325 5.62%
Atheist 4,335 0.02%
Agnostic 12,600 0.06%

Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580 in 2001). Only groups of more than 0.01% are shown. [21]

See also[edit]

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census 2011 FOLS". Statistics Canada.
  2. ^ a b c Amber LePage-Monette. "Powerful Population". BioScienceWorld.ca. Promotive Communications. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. ^ Flanagan, Nina (August 2005). "Bioresearch Highlights Significance of SNPs". Genetic Engineering News. 25 (14). Mary Ann Liebert. pp. 1, 27–29. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  4. ^ Statistics profile for Quebec
  5. ^ a b http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/salle-presse/communiq/2009/avril/avril0914_an.htm
  6. ^ a b c Statistics Canada. "2006 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  7. ^ Statistics Canada. "2001 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  8. ^ Statistics Canada. "1996 Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
  9. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data.
  10. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  11. ^ Aboriginal Population Profile (2006 Census)
  12. ^ a b [1], NHS Profile, Quebec, 2011, Statistics Canada
  13. ^ Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Place of Birth (272), Age (7A) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data
  14. ^ "Interprovincial Migration in Canada: Quebeckers Vote with Their Feet" (PDF). www.fraserinstitute.org. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  15. ^ Serebrin, Jacob; July 26, Montreal Gazette Updated:; 2018 (2018-07-26). "Quebec losing young people to interprovincial migration, report shows | Montreal Gazette". Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  16. ^ Finnie, Ross (2004). School of Policy Studies at Queen’s University and Business and Labour Market Analysis Division, Statistics Canada. "Who moves? A logit model analysis of inter-provincial migration in Canada". Applied Economics. 36: 1759–1779.
  17. ^ a b Statistics Canada, table 051-0012: Interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual.
  18. ^ Net population gains or losses from interprovincial migration by language group, provinces and territories, 1991-1996 and 1996-2001
  19. ^ "Factors Affecting the Evolution of Language Groups". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
  20. ^ 2011 National Household Survey: Data tables
  21. ^ Religion (95) and Immigrant Status (Census 2001)

External links[edit]