Demographics of Rwanda

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Rwanda, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Rwanda's population density, even after the 1994 genocide, is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa at 230 inhabitants per square kilometre (600/sq mi). This country has few villages, and nearly every family lives in a self-contained compound on a hillside. The urban concentrations are grouped around administrative centers.

Over half of the adult population is literate, but no more than 5% have received secondary education.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The indigenous population consists of three ethnic groups. The Hutus, who comprise the majority of the population (85%), are farmers of Bantu origin. The Tutsis (14% before the Genocide, probably less than 10% now) are a pastoral people who arrived in the area in the 15th century. Until 1959, they formed the dominant caste under a feudal system based on cattleholding.

The Twa (pygmies) (1%) are thought to be the remnants of the earliest settlers of the region.

Population[edit]

In 1950, Rwanda had a very narrow population pyramid, with less than 250,000 males and females between 0-10 years old. The graph only gets narrower as it goes up with virtually no-one living past 50 years of age. In 2017, we see the population of Rwanda increase dramatically from 1950 with about 750,000 people between 0-20 years old, the graph remains very narrow in the older ages section but has improved from 1950. By 2050, it is predicted that more people will be living longer and the structure will broaden overall. By 2100, it is predicted that there will be more people aged between 30-60 than between 0-20 as previous years have shown.[1]

A graph showing Rwanda's total population, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2] the total population was 11,917,508 in 2016, compared to only 2,072,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 42.6%, 54.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older .[3]

Total population (in thousands) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2,072 45.1 52.3 2.6
1955 2,386 46.3 50.8 2.9
1960 2,771 48.1 49.1 2.8
1965 3,221 47.8 49.5 2.7
1970 3,749 47.8 49.7 2.5
1975 4,390 47.7 49.9 2.4
1980 5,179 48.1 49.7 2.2
1985 6,081 48.9 49.1 2.0
1990 7,110 49.1 48.7 2.2
1995 5,570 48.4 49.3 2.3
2000 8,098 45.4 52.0 2.6
2005 9,202 42.4 55.0 2.7
2010 10,624 42.6 54.7 2.7
2012 10,516 41.16 55.65 3.19

Structure of the population [4][edit]

Structure of the population (1 July 2012 estimates, data refer to national projections):

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 5,342,112 5,691,029 11,033,141 100
0–4 973,447 957,104 1,930,551 17.50
5–9 770,292 763,709 1,534,001 13.90
10–14 608,836 621,378 1,230,213 11.15
15–19 552,629 568,101 1,120,730 10.16
20–24 525,485 550,486 1,075,971 9.75
25–29 508,839 540,872 1,049,712 9.51
30–34 366,700 416,072 782,772 7.09
35–39 241,362 291,340 532,702 4.83
40–44 197,005 228,728 425,733 3.86
45–49 165,096 193,402 358,499 3.25
50–54 153,080 180,759 333,839 3.03
55–59 107,200 132,234 239,433 2.17
60–64 71,924 92,299 164,223 1.49
65–69 38,125 58,585 96,710 0.88
70–74 29,285 46,236 75,521 0.68
75–79 17,736 27,557 45,293 0.41
80+ 15,071 22,178 37,239 0.34
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 2,352,575 2,342,191 4,694,766 42.55
15–64 2,889,320 3,194,282 6,083,602 55.14
65+ 100,217 154,556 254,773 2.31

Structure of the population (DHS 2013; males 9,546, females 10,726, total 20,272):

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–4 16.2 14.5 15.3
5–9 15.2 13.5 14.3
10–14 14.0 12.6 13.3
15–19 10.3 9.9 10.1
20–24 8.2 9.0 8.6
25–29 8.3 8.3 8.3
30–34 7.2 7.3 7.3
35–39 4.4 4.9 4.7
40–44 3.5 4.3 4.0
45–49 3.1 3.6 3.3
50–54 3.1 3.4 3.3
55–59 2.1 2.3 2.2
60–64 1.7 2.1 1.9
65–69 1.0 1.5 1.3
70–74 0.6 1.1 0.9
75–79 0.5 0.6 0.6
80+ 0.6 0.9 0.8
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–14 45.4 40.6 42.9
15–64 51.9 55.3 53.5
65+ 2.7 4.1 3.6

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Rwanda not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 118,000 55,000 63,000 52.9 24.7 28.1 8.00 160
1955–1960 137,000 60,000 77,000 53.3 23.4 29.9 8.15 152
1960–1965 155,000 65,000 90,000 51.9 21.9 30.0 8.15 143
1965–1970 178,000 72,000 106,000 51.0 20.7 30.3 8.10 137
1970–1975 211,000 82,000 128,000 51.8 20.3 31.5 8.20 134
1975–1980 250,000 92,000 158,000 52.3 19.3 33.0 8.25 132
1980–1985 294,000 92,000 202,000 52.2 16.3 35.9 8.25 124
1985–1990 326,000 123,000 203,000 49.4 18.7 30.7 7.80 120
1990–1995 258,000 263,000 −5,000 40.7 41.5 −0.8 6.30 128
1995–2000 278,000 136,000 142,000 40.7 19.9 20.8 6.00 118
2000–2005 344,000 125,000 219,000 39.8 14.4 25.4 5.60 108
2005–2010 404,000 122,000 281,000 40.7 12.3 28.4 5.43 100
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [5]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2012 404,067 139,499 264,568

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1992 40.0 6.23 (4.2) 38.0 4.51 (3.3) 41.0 6.33 (4.3)
2000 5.8 (4.7) 5.2 (4.1) 5.9 (4.8)
2005 43.2 6.1 (4.6) 39.8 4.9 (3.6) 43.8 6.3 (4.8)
2007–08 39.2 5.5 (3.7) 37.4 4.7 (3.3) 39.6 5.7 (3.8)
2010 34.4 4.6 (3.1) 30.6 3.4 (2.6) 35.0 4.8 (3.2)
2014–15 32.6 4.2 (3.1) 34.3 3.6 (2.7) 32.3 4.3 (3.2)

Fertility data as of 2014–15 (DHS Program):[7]

Province Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Kigali 3.6 6.9 4.6
South 4.0 6.9 5.0
West 4.6 7.4 5.9
North 3.7 6.3 5.6
East 4.6 8.4 5.9

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

11,901,484
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS. This disease can result in lower life expectancy, population, and growth rates; higher infant mortality and death rates; and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.45% (2017 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.70 male(s)/female
total population: 1.00 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 64.3 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 66.3 years (2017 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 19 years
Male: 18.3 years
Female: 19.8 years (2017 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Rwandan(s)/Rwandese
adjective: Rwandan/Rwandese

Ethnic groups[8][edit]

Religions[8][edit]

Languages[8][edit]

  • Kinyarwanda only (official universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%
  • Kinyarwanda and other language(s) 6.2%
  • French (official) and other language(s) 0.1%
  • English (official) and other language(s) 0.1%
  • Swahili (or Kiswahili used in commercial centers) 0.02%
  • Other 0.03%
  • Unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.5%
male: 73.2%
female: 68% (2015 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

3.5% of GDP (2016)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Graphs/DemographicProfiles/
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  5. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/vitstats/serATab3.pdf
  6. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  7. ^ http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR316/FR316.pdf
  8. ^ a b c "Africa :: RWANDA". CIA The World Factbook.