Demographics of São Tomé and Príncipe
This article is about the demographic features of the population of São Tomé and Príncipe, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Of São Tomé and Príncipe's total population, about 131,000 live on São Tomé and 6,000 on Príncipe. All are descended from various ethnic groups that have migrated to the islands since 1485. Six groups are identifiable:
- Luso-Africans, or mixed-heritage, descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to the islands during the early years of settlement from Benin, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola (these people also are known as filhos da terra or "children of the land");
- Angolares, reputedly descendants of Angolan slaves who survived a 1540 shipwreck and now earn their livelihood fishing;
- Forros, descendants of freed slaves when slavery was abolished;
- Serviçais, contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde, living temporarily on the islands;
- Tongas, children of servicais born on the islands; and
- Europeans, primarily Portuguese.
- Asians, mostly Chinese minority, including Macanese people of mixed Portuguese and Chinese blood from Macau.
Although a small country, São Tomé and Príncipe has four national languages: Portuguese (the official language, spoken by 95% of the population), and the Portuguese-based creoles Forro (85%), Angolar (3%) and Principense (0.1%). French is also learned in schools, as the country is a member of Francophonie.
In the 1970s, there were two significant population movements—the exodus of most of the 4,000 Portuguese residents and the influx of several hundred São Toméan refugees from Angola. The islanders have been absorbed largely into a common Luso-African culture. Almost all belong to the Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, or Seventh-day Adventist churches, which in turn retain close ties with churches in Portugal. There is a small but growing Muslim population.
According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 199,910 in 2016, compared to only 60,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 40.3%, 55.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.9% was 65 years or older .
|Total population||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
Registration of vital events is in São Tomé & Príncipe not available for recent years. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. 
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR*||CDR*||NC*||TFR*||IMR*|
|1950-1955||3 000||1 000||2 000||47.7||21.0||26.7||6.20||124|
|1955-1960||3 000||1 000||2 000||47.7||18.5||29.2||6.20||112|
|1960-1965||3 000||1 000||2 000||47.0||16.8||30.1||6.30||99|
|1965-1970||3 000||1 000||2 000||42.7||13.1||29.6||6.40||88|
|1970-1975||3 000||1 000||2 000||40.7||13.2||27.6||6.52||80|
|1975-1980||4 000||1 000||3 000||41.1||11.0||30.1||6.50||70|
|1980-1985||4 000||1 000||3 000||40.4||11.5||28.9||6.24||66|
|1985-1990||4 000||1 000||3 000||38.8||10.7||28.1||5.66||63|
|1990-1995||5 000||1 000||3 000||37.0||9.8||27.1||5.16||61|
|1995-2000||5 000||1 000||4 000||35.9||9.2||26.7||4.80||58|
|2000-2005||5 000||1 000||4 000||34.8||8.8||26.0||4.34||55|
|2005-2010||5 000||1 000||4 000||32.4||8.2||24.2||3.85||52|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
Births and deaths 
|Year||Population||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase||TFR|
|2012||5 173||1 287||3 886||27.6||6.9||20.7|
|2015||5 022||1 226||3 796|
Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey)
 Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):
|Year||CBR (Total)||TFR (Total)||CBR (Urban)||TFR (Urban)||CBR (Rural)||TFR (Rural)|
|2008-2009||34,5||4,9 (3,3)||32,4||4,4 (3,0)||36,7||5,5 (3,7)|
Fertility data as of 2008-2009 (DHS Program):
|Region||Total fertility rate||Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant||Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49|
|Period||Life expectancy in |
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 65.25 years
male: 63.84 years
female: 66.7 years (2000 est.)
noun: São Toméan(s)
adjective: São Toméan
Mestiços, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), serviçais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of serviçais born on the islands) and Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73%
female: 62% (1991 est.)
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- ". Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
- "The DHS Program - Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
- "Inquérito Demográfico e Sanitário 2008-2009" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
- "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
- "Africa :: SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE". CIA The World Factbook.