Demographics of Sri Lanka

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Demographics of Sri Lanka
Sri-Lanka-demography.png
Population of Sri Lanka, 1961-2003 (FAO, 2005)
Population20,359,439 (2012 census)
Density325/km2 (2012 census)
Growth rate0.913% (2012 est.)
Birth rate17.04 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate5.96 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Life expectancy75.94 years (2012 est.)
 • male72.43 years (2012 est.)
 • female79.59 years (2012 est.)
Fertility rate2.17 children born/woman (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate9.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years25.2% (2012 census)
15–64 years66.9% (2012 census)
65 and over7.9% (2012 census)
Sex ratio
Total0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
At birth1.04 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Under 151.04 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
15–64 years0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
65 and over0.75 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
Major ethnicSinhalese (74.9%) (2012 census)
Minor ethnic
Language
OfficialSinhalese, Tamil
SpokenEnglish

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Sri Lanka, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean also called Ceylon and many other names. It is about the size of Ireland. It is about 28 kilometres (18 mi.) off the south-eastern coast of India with a population of about 20 million. Density is highest in the south west where Colombo, the country's main port and industrial center, is located. The net population growth is about 0.7%. Sri Lanka is ethnically, linguistically, and religiously diverse.

Overview[edit]

Population of Sri Lanka
YearPop.±%
1789[a] 1,200,000—    
1827[b] 889,584−25.9%
1871 2,400,380+169.8%
1881 2,759,738+15.0%
1891 3,007,789+9.0%
1901 3,565,954+18.6%
1911 4,106,350+15.2%
1921 4,498,605+9.6%
1931 5,306,871+18.0%
1946 6,657,339+25.4%
1953 8,097,895+21.6%
1963 10,582,064+30.7%
1971 12,689,897+19.9%
1981 14,846,750+17.0%
2012 20,359,439+37.1%
Source: [1][2][3][4][5]

According to the 2012 census the population of Sri Lanka was 20,359,439, giving a population density of 325/km2.[5] The population had grown by 5,512,689 (37.1%) since the 1981 census (the last full census), equivalent to an annual growth rate of 1.1%.[5] 3,704,470 (18.2%) lived in urban sectors - areas governed by municipal and urban councils.[6]

5,131,666 (25.2%) of the population were aged 14 or under whilst 2,525,573 (12.4%) were aged 60 or over, leaving a working age (15-59) population of 12,702,700.[7] The dependency ratio was 60.2%.[5] The mean age was 32 years and the median age was 31 years.[5] The sex ratio was 94 males per 100 females.[5] The fertility rate for married females aged 15 or over was 2.65 live births.[8] There were 5,264,282 households of which 3,986,236 (75.7%) were headed by males and 1,278,046 (24.3%) were headed by females.[5]

Of the 15,227,773 aged 15 or over, 10,322,105 (67.8%) were married, 3,927,602 (25.8%) were never married, 792,947 (5.2%) were widowed and 185,119 (1.2%) were divorced or separated.[9]

Of those aged 15 or over, 7,857,370 (51.6%) were economically active, 4,199,558 (27.6%) did housework, 1,431,105 (9.4%) were students, 914,934 (6.0%) were unable to work and 346,084 (2.3%) were pensioners.[10] 521,938 (6.6%) of the economically active were unemployed.[5] 604,540 Sri Lankans were living aboard for more than six months but were intending to return to Sri Lanka, mostly in the Gulf states (373,050 61.7%).[11]

The overall literacy rate for those aged 10 and over was 95.7% but amongst those living in the estate sector it was only 86.1%.[12] Of the 18,615,577 aged 5 or over, 499,563 (2.7%) had received a higher education qualification, 2,293,841 (12.3%) had passed G.C.E. A/L, 3,159,402 (17.0%) had passed G.C.E. O/L and 700,419 (3.8%) had no formal schooling.[13] The remaining 11,962,352 (64.3%) had left school with no qualifications or were currently at school.[13]

Sri Lanka's population is aging faster than any other nation in South Asia and has the fifth highest rapidly growing population of older people in Asia after China, Thailand, South Korea and Japan.[14][15][16] In 2015, Sri Lanka's population aged over 60 was 13.9%, by 2030 this will increase to 21% and by 2050 this number will reach 27.4%.[15][16] Sri Lanka's rapidly growing older population has ignited concerns of the socio-economic challenges that the country will face because of this.[17]

Ethnicity[edit]

Majority ethnicity by DS Division according to 2012 census

The Sinhalese make up 74.9% of the population (according to 2012 census) and are concentrated in the densely populated south-west and central parts of the island.[18] The Sri Lanka Tamils, who live predominantly in the north and east of the island, form the largest minority group at 11.1% (according to the 2012 census) of the population.[18]

The Moors, descendants of Arab traders that settled in Sri Lanka and married local women, form the third largest ethnic group at 9.3% of the population.[18] They are mostly concentrated in urban areas in the southern parts of the island with substantial populations in the Central and Eastern provinces. During times of Portuguese colonization, Moors were persecuted, and many forced to retreat to the central highlands and the eastern coast.[citation needed]

There are also Indian Tamils who form a distinct ethnic group comprising 4.1% of the population.[18] The British brought them to Sri Lanka in the 19th century as tea and rubber plantation workers, and they remain concentrated in the "tea country" of south-central Sri Lanka. The Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka were considered to be "stateless" and over 300 000 Indian Tamils were deported back to India, due to the agreement between Sri Lanka and India in 1964.[19] Under the pact, India granted citizenship to the remainder, some 200,000 of whom now live in India. Another 75,000 Indian Tamils, who themselves or whose parents once applied for Indian citizenship, now wish to remain in Sri Lanka. The government has stated these Tamils will not be forced to return to India, although they are not technically citizens of Sri Lanka. By the 1990s most Indian Tamils had received Sri Lankan citizenship, and some even were not granted Sri Lankan citizenship until 2003.[19][20]

Smaller minorities include the Malays who descend from Austronesian settlers, the Burghers, who are descendants of European colonists, principally from Portugal, the Netherlands and the UK and ethnic Chinese migrants who came to the island in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Population of Sri Lanka by ethnic group 1881 to 2012[18][21][22]
Year Sinhalese Sri Lankan Tamils[c] Sri Lankan Moors[d] Indian Tamils[c] Sri Lankan Malays Burghers/
Eurasian
Indian Moors[d] Others Total
No.
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
1881 Census 1,846,600 66.91% 687,200 24.90% 184,500 6.69% 8,900 0.32% 17,900 0.65% 14,500 0.53% 2,759,700
1891 Census 2,041,200 67.86% 723,900 24.07% 197,200 6.56% 10,100 0.34% 21,200 0.70% 14,200 0.47% 3,007,800
1901 Census 2,330,800 65.36% 951,700 26.69% 228,000 6.39% 11,900 0.33% 23,500 0.66% 20,000 0.56% 3,566,000
1911 Census 2,715,500 66.13% 528,000 12.86% 233,900 5.70% 531,000 12.93% 13,000 0.32% 26,700 0.65% 32,700 0.80% 25,600 0.62% 4,106,400
1921 Census 3,016,200 67.05% 517,300 11.50% 251,900 5.60% 602,700 13.40% 13,400 0.30% 29,400 0.65% 33,000 0.73% 34,600 0.77% 4,498,600
1931 Estimate 3,473,000 65.45% 598,900 11.29% 289,600 5.46% 818,500 15.43% 16,000 0.30% 32,300 0.61% 36,300 0.68% 41,800 0.79% 5,306,000
1946 Census[e] 4,620,500 69.41% 733,700 11.02% 373,600 5.61% 780,600 11.73% 22,500 0.34% 41,900 0.63% 35,600 0.53% 48,900 0.73% 6,657,300
1953 Census[f] 5,616,700 69.36% 884,700 10.93% 464,000 5.73% 974,100 12.03% 25,400 0.31% 46,000 0.57% 47,500 0.59% 39,500 0.49% 8,097,900
1963 Census 7,512,900 71.00% 1,164,700 11.01% 626,800 5.92% 1,123,000 10.61% 33,400 0.32% 45,900 0.43% 55,400 0.52% 19,900 0.19% 10,582,000
1971 Census 9,131,241 71.96% 1,423,981 11.22% 855,724 6.74% 1,174,606 9.26% 43,459 0.34% 45,376 0.36% 15,510 0.12% 12,689,897
1981 Census 10,979,561 73.95% 1,886,872 12.71% 1,046,926 7.05% 818,656 5.51% 46,963 0.32% 39,374 0.27% 28,398 0.19% 14,846,750
2001 Census[g]
2011 Census[h] 15,250,081 74.90% 2,269,266 11.15% 1,892,638 9.30% 839,504 4.12% 44,130 0.22% 38,293 0.19% 25,527 0.13% 20,359,439

Religion[edit]

Majority religion by DS Division according to 2012 census

Religion in Sri Lanka (2012)[23]

  Buddhism (70.2%)
  Hinduism (12.6%)
  Islam (9.7%)
  Roman Catholic (6.1%)
  Other Christian (1.3%)
  Other (0.05%)

According to the 2012 census Buddhists make up 70.1% of the population, Hindus 12.6%, Muslims 9.7% and Christians 7.6%.[24] Most Sinhalese are Buddhist; most Tamils are Hindu; and the Moors and Malays are mostly Muslim. Sizeable minorities of both Sinhalese and Tamils are Christians, most of whom are Roman Catholic. The Burgher population is mostly Roman Catholic or Presbyterian. The Veddahs have Animist and Buddhist practices. The 1978 constitution, while assuring freedom of religion, gives "the foremost place" Buddhism.[25][26]

Population of Sri Lanka by religion 1881 to 2012[24][27][28]
Year Buddhist Hindu Muslim Christian Others Total
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No.
1881 Census 1,698,100 61.53% 593,600 21.51% 197,800 7.17% 268,000 9.71% 2,300 0.08% 2,759,800
1891 Census 1,877,000 62.40% 615,900 20.48% 212,000 7.05% 302,100 10.04% 800 0.03% 3,007,800
1901 Census 2,141,400 60.06% 826,800 23.19% 246,100 6.90% 349,200 9.79% 2,500 0.07% 3,566,000
1911 Census 2,474,200 60.25% 938,300 22.85% 283,600 6.91% 409,200 9.96% 1,100 0.03% 4,106,400
1921 Census 2,769,800 61.57% 982,100 21.83% 302,500 6.72% 443,400 9.86% 800 0.02% 4,498,600
1931 Estimate 3,266,600 61.55% 1,166,900 21.99% 354,200 6.67% 518,100 9.76% 1,100 0.02% 5,306,900
1946 Census 4,294,900 64.51% 1,320,400 19.83% 436,600 6.56% 603,200 9.06% 2,200 0.03% 6,657,300
1953 Census 5,209,400 64.33% 1,610,500 19.89% 541,500 6.69% 724,400 8.95% 12,100 0.15% 8,097,900
1963 Census 7,003,300 66.18% 1,958,400 18.51% 724,000 6.84% 884,900 8.36% 11,400 0.11% 10,582,000
1971 Census 8,536,868 67.27% 2,238,666 17.64% 901,785 7.11% 1,004,326 7.91% 8,252 0.07% 12,689,897
1981 Census 10,288,325 69.30% 2,297,806 15.48% 1,121,717 7.56% 1,130,568 7.61% 8,334 0.06% 14,846,750
2001 Census[g]
2012 Census[h] 14,272,056 70.10% 2,561,299 12.58% 1,967,523 9.66% 1,552,161 7.62% 6,400 0.03% 20,359,439

Languages[edit]

Ethnicity in Sri Lanka (2012)[23]

  Sinhalese (74%)
  Tamil (18%)
  Other (8%)
A multi-lingual road sign

Sinhala, an Indo-European language, is the first language of the Sinhalese. Tamil, a Dravidian language, is the first language of the Tamils. Tamil is also the first language the majority of Moors and the Indian Tamils - according to the 2012 census 98% of Moors could speak Tamil but only 59% could speak Sinhala.[29]

Malays speak Sri Lanka Malay, a Creole language mixing Sinhala, Tamil and Malay. Many of the Burghers speak Sri Lankan Indo-Portuguese although its use has declined and the majority now speak Sinhala.[29] The Veddahs speak Vedda, a Creole language closely based on Sinhala. Use of English has declined since independence, but it continues to be spoken by many in the middle and upper middle classes, particularly in Colombo. According to the 2012 census 24% of the population could speak English.[29] The government is seeking to reverse the decline in the use of English, mainly for economic but also for political reasons. According to the constitution Sinhala and Tamil are official languages whilst English is the link language.[30]

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates:[31]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 322 000 171 000 151 000 37.4 19.8 17.5 5.80 103.9
1955–1960 367 000 143 000 223 000 38.6 15.1 23.5 5.80 86.7
1960–1965 377 000 128 000 248 000 35.5 12.1 23.4 5.20 77.5
1965–1970 391 000 116 000 276 000 32.9 9.7 23.2 4.70 69.3
1970–1975 383 000 103 000 280 000 29.1 7.8 21.3 4.00 55.4
1975–1980 401 000 99 000 302 000 27.8 6.9 20.9 3.61 38.8
1980–1985 401 000 96 000 305 000 25.6 6.1 19.5 3.19 30.3
1985–1990 362 000 110 000 253 000 21.6 6.5 15.1 2.64 24.1
1990–1995 349 000 119 000 230 000 19.6 6.7 12.9 2.39 22.1
1995–2000 329 000 146 000 183 000 17.8 7.9 9.9 2.16 18.9
2000–2005 360 000 121 000 239 000 18.7 6.3 12.4 2.27 15.9
2005–2010 386 000 132 000 253 000 19.0 6.5 12.5 2.36 12.4
2010–2015 16.4 6.6 9.8 2.11
2015–2020 14.9 7.1 7.8 2.03
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[32]

Year CBR (total) TFR (total) CBR (urban) TFR (urban) CBR (rural) TFR (rural) CBR (estate) TFR (estate)
1981-1983 3,1 2,4 3,2 3,4
1987 2,8 (2,4) 2,3 (1,9) 2,9 (2,4) 3,4 (3,2)
2006-2007 18,7 2,3 (2,1) 18,5 2,2 (2,0) 18,6 2,3 (2,1) 20,0 2,5 (2,1)

Births and deaths[edit]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1992 356 842 98 380 258 462 21.5 5.9 15.6
1993 350 707 96 179 254 528 20.8 5.7 15.1
1994 356 071 100 394 255 677 20.8 5.9 14.9
1995 343 224 104 707 238 517 19.9 6.0 13.9
1996 340 649 122 161 218 488 19.5 7.0 12.5
1997 333 219 114 591 218 628 18.8 6.4 12.4
1998 322 672 112 653 210 019 18.2 6.2 12.0
1999 328 725 115 330 213 395 18.1 6.3 11.8
2000 347 749 116 200 231 549 18.4 6.1 12.3
2001 358 583 112 858 245 725 18.9 5.9 13.0
2002 367 709 111 863 255 846 19.1 5.8 13.3
2003 370 643 115 495 255 148 18.9 5.9 13.0
2004 364 711 114 915 249 796 18.5 5.8 12.7
2005 370 731 132 097 238 634 18.1 6.5 11.6
2006 373 538 117 467 256 071 18.8 5.9 12.9
2007 386 573 118 992 267 581 19.2 5.9 13.3
2008 373 575 123 814 249 761 18.4 6.1 12.3
2009 368 304 127 776 240 528 18.0 6.2 11.8
2010 364 565 128 603 235 962 17.7 6.2 11.4
2011 363 415 123 261 240 154 17.4 5.9 11.5
2012 20 425 355 900 122 063 233 837 17.5 6.0 11.5
2013 20 585 365 792 127 124 238 668 17.9 6.2 11.7
2014 20 771 349 715 127 758 221 957 16.8 6.2 10.6
2015 20 966 334 821 131 634 203 187 16.0 6.3 9.7
2016 21 203 331 073 130 765 200 308 15.6 6.2 9.4
2017 326 052 139 822 186 230 15.2 6.5 8.7

[33]

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 54.5 1985–1990 68.9
1955–1960 58.3 1990–1995 70.0
1960–1965 60.3 1995–2000 69.1
1965–1970 62.9 2000–2005 73.2
1970–1975 65.2 2005–2010 74.1
1975–1980 67.0 2010–2015 74.6
1980–1985 69.1

Source: UN World Population Prospects[34]

Population pyramid[edit]

Provisional Estimates (01/07/2013) Because of rounding, totals are not in all cases the sum of the respective components.

Provisional estimates (01/07/2013) :

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 9 940 000 10 544 000 20 483 000 100
0-4 891 000 871 000 1 762 000 8.60
5-9 895 000 869 000 1 764 000 8.61
10-14 835 000 810 000 1 645 000 8.03
15-19 819 000 839 000 1 658 000 8.09
20-24 754 000 777 000 1 530 000 7.47
25-29 751 000 806 000 1 557 000 7.60
30-34 799 000 849 000 1 649 000 8.05
35-39 688 000 732 000 1 421 000 6.94
40-44 673 000 711 000 1 384 000 6.76
45-49 625 000 666 000 1 291 000 6.30
50-54 585 000 643 000 1 228 000 6.00
55-59 505 000 561 000 1 066 000 5.20
60-64 428 000 495 000 924 000 4.51
65-69 287 000 348 000 635 000 3.10
70-74 182 000 231 000 413 000 2.02
75-79 116 000 170 000 286 000 1.40
80+ 107 000 164 000 270 000 1.32
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 621 000 2 550 000 5 171 000 25.25
15-64 6 627 000 7 081 000 13 708 000 66.92
65+ 692 000 913 000 1 605 000 7.84

[35]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Ethnicity in Sri Lanka (2012)[23]

  Sinhalese (74.9%)
  Sri Lanka Tamils (11.2%)
  Sri Lankan Moors (9.3%)
  Indian Tamils (4.2%)
  Other (0.5%)
Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated:[36]

  • Population - 21,481,334 (July 2012 est.)[i]
  • Age structure - 0–14 years: 23.9% (male 2,594,815/female 2,493,002); 15–64 years: 68% (male 7,089,307/female 7,418,123); 65 years and over:8.1% (male 803,172/female 926,372) (2010 est.)
  • Median age - total: 31.1 years; male: 30.1 years; female: 32.2 years (2012 est.)
  • Population growth rate - 0.913% (2012 est.)
  • Birth rate - 17.04 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
  • Death rate - 5.96 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
  • Net migration rate - -1.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
  • Urbanization - urban population: 14% of total population (2010); rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
  • Sex ratio - at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female; 15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female; total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
  • Infant mortality rate - total: 9.47 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 10.44 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 8.45 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Life expectancy at birth - total population: 75.94 years; male: 72.43 years; female: 79.59 years (2012 est.)
  • Total fertility rate - 2.17 children born/woman (2012 est.)
  • Health expenditures - 4% of GDP (2009)
  • Physicians density - 0.492 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
  • Hospital bed density - 3.1 beds/1,000 population (2004)
  • HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate - less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
  • HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS - 2,800 (2009 est.)
  • HIV/AIDS - deaths - fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
  • Major infectious diseases - degree of risk: high; food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A; vectorborne disease: dengue fever and chikungunya; water contact disease: leptospirosis; animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
  • Nationality - noun: Sri Lankan(s);
    adjective: Sri Lankan
  • Ethnic group - Sinhalese 73.8%; Sri Lankan Tamil 11.15%; Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%; Indian Tamil 4.6%; other 0.5%; unspecified 2.75% (2001 census provisional data)[j]
  • Religion - Buddhism 70.19%; Hinduism 12.61%; Islam 9.71%; Christianity 7.45%; Other 0.05% (2012 [37] provisional data)
  • Languages - Sinhala 74%; Tamil 25%; other 1%[k]
  • Literacy - definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 91.2%; male: 92.6%; female:90% (2010 census)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Estimate.
  2. ^ Non scientific census of the whole island.
  3. ^ a b Indian Tamils were only classified as a separate ethnic group from 1911 onwards. Prior to this they were included with Sri Lankan Tamils.
  4. ^ a b Indian Moors were only classified as a separate ethnic group from 1911 to 1971. Prior to 1911 they were included with Sri Lankan Moors. After 1971 they were included with Others.
  5. ^ The 1941 Census was postponed due to World War II.
  6. ^ The 1951 Census was postponed due to a shortage of paper at the time.
  7. ^ a b 2001 Census was only carried out in 18 of the 25 districts. Inclusion of data would be misleading.
  8. ^ a b The official census dates for the 2011 Census was 20 March 2012.
  9. ^ Since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West (July 2010 est.) Aside from such migrants, there is an estimated 1.7 million Sri Lankans who are employed abroad (2010 est.), through which Sri Lanka earned USD 4.1 billion in annual worker remittances in 2010. Such remittances are a key source of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka.
  10. ^ These figures are based on the 2001 census which was only carried out partially in the Northern and Eastern provinces, where the majority of Sri Lankan Tamils and Hindus live. Therefore the Sri Lankan Tamil and Hindu percentage is grossly understated. The Sri Lankan government estimates that the Tamils (Sri Lankan and Indian) account for 18% of the population.
  11. ^ English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population as second language.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Census of Population Sri Lanka 1971 - General Report. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. 1977. p. 18. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24.
  3. ^ "Table 2.1: Population by sex and district, census years" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2013. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02.
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  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02.
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  8. ^ "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 - Table A44: Ever married female population aged 15 years and over by number of children born alive, average children per woman, age and sector" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-09-24.
  9. ^ "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 - Table A10: Population by marital status, age, sex and sector" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02.
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  11. ^ "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 - Table A47: Population living abroad temporary by country of usual residence, age and sex" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02.
  12. ^ "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 - Table A31: Population aged 10 years and over by literacy rate, age, sex and sector" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02.
  13. ^ a b "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012 - Table A30: Population aged 5 years and over, by educational attainment, age, sex and sector" (PDF). Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-02.
  14. ^ "The Future of Population in Asia: Asia's Aging Population" (PDF). Asia Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Ageing population and elderly care in Sri Lanka". Australian National University. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  16. ^ a b "How Asia's population is aging, 2015-2030 scenario". The Jakarta Post. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
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