Demographics of Sudan

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Demographics of Sudan
Sudan single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Sudan in 2020
Population47,958,856 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.55% (2022 est.)
Birth rate33.47 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy67.12 years
Fertility rate4.6 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate42.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years42.01%
65 and over3.03%
Nationality
NationalitySudanese
Language
OfficialArabic, English

The demographics of Sudan include the Sudanese people (Arabic: سودانيون) and their characteristics, Sudan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

In Sudan's 1993 census, the population was calculated at 30 million. No comprehensive census has been carried out since that time due to the Second Sudanese Civil War. Estimates of Sudan, including the population of South Sudan, ranged from 37 million (United Nations) to 45 million (CIA). Since the secession of South Sudan in July 2011, the current population of Sudan is estimated to be about 46 million[1][2]. The population of metropolitan Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and ranges from six to seven million, including around two million displaced persons from the southern war zone, as well as western and eastern drought-affected areas.

Population overview[edit]

The majority of the population in Sudan are the indigenous Nubian inhabitants of the Nile Valley. Due to the process of Arabisation common throughout the rest of the Arab world, today Arab culture predominates in Sudan. The majority of ethnic groups of Sudan fall under Arabs, and the minority being Other African ethnic groups such as the Beja,[3] Fur, Nuba, and Fallata.[4] When counted as one people Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan, however African ethnic groups are a large minority if counted as one group. They are almost entirely Muslim; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic; some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf, Kinanah and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic. In addition, Arab tribes like the Baggara and other Darfurians, both who speak Chadian Arabic.[5] Sudanese Arabs of northern and eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian Peninsula and some of the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, most predominantly the Nubian people who also share a common history with Egypt. Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century.[6] The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous African populations and introduced Islam.[7]

Population statistics[edit]

Beja nomads
American-Sudanese rap musician Ramey Dawoud is part of the Sudanese diaspora
Sudanese writer Leila Aboulela
Sudanese student from Khartoum
Arab Bedouin in north
Rashaida in the east
Demographics of Sudan (without South Sudan), Data of Our World in Data, year 2022; Number of inhabitants in millions.

Achieving good counts of the population is difficult in Sudan, because conducting a census has been difficult due to various conflicts and wars in the southern, eastern and western regions of Sudan over the past few decades. The government of South Sudan (led by the former SPLM resistance movement) has in the past accused Sudan of deliberately manipulating the census in oil-rich regions such as the Abyei district, on the border between Sudan and South Sudan. The population count is a determining factor for the share of wealth and power each part of Sudan receives after the secession of South Sudan (See: Naivasha Agreement). Another complication is the Southern Sudanese refugees present in the north, whose citizenship in Sudan after the secession of South Sudan is now in question.[8] 250,000 refugees from Syria live in Sudan.[9]

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2016):[10]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 20 105 842 19 541 779 39 647 621 100
0–4 3 506 328 3 377 853 6 884 181 17.36
5–9 2 801 266 2 677 988 5 479 254 13.82
10–14 2 325 624 2 196 472 4 522 096 11.41
15–19 2 073 006 1 952 605 4 025 611 10.15
20–24 1 816 041 1 721 450 3 537 491 8.92
25–29 1 547 613 1 519 393 3 067 006 7.74
30–34 1 295 965 1 329 629 2 625 594 6.62
35–39 1 085 101 1 136 535 2 221 636 5.60
40–44 891 195 949 131 1 840 327 4.64
45–49 732 711 762 251 1 494 962 3.77
50–54 589 400 586 304 1 175 703 2.97
55–59 458 118 441 240 899 359 2.27
60–64 340 396 314 518 654 915 1.65
65-69 248 570 225 431 474 001 1.20
70-74 170 069 152 437 322 506 0.81
75-79 109 224 97 712 206 936 0.52
80+ 115 214 100 828 216 042 0.54
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 8 633 218 8 252 313 16 885 531 42.59
15–64 10 829 547 10 713 058 21 542 605 54.34
65+ 643 077 576 408 1 219 485 3.08

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2020):[11]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 20 857 303 20 281 599 41 138 904 100
0–4 2 873 465 2 773 594 5 647 059 13.73
5–9 2 571 562 2 483 977 5 055 532 12.29
10–14 2 304 529 2 216 524 4 521 059 10.99
15–19 2 280 148 2 152 491 4 432 638 10.77
20–24 2 158 344 1 943 776 4 102 116 9.97
25–29 1 821 785 1 665 559 3 487 349 8.48
30–34 1 442 332 1 474 329 2 916 654 7.09
35–39 1 179 849 1 330 120 2 509 965 6.10
40–44 1 000 575 1 110 734 2 111 309 5.13
45–49 855 408 909 671 1 765 081 4.29
50–54 717 995 717 820 1 435 807 3.49
55–59 545 001 511 980 1 056 992 2.57
60–64 404 866 374 598 779 458 1.89
65-69 275 266 247 207 522 480 1.27
70-74 199 364 173 388 372 747 0.91
75-79 125 079 106 375 231 456 0.56
80+ 103 574 92 332 195 909 0.48
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 7 749 556 7 474 095 15 223 651 37.01
15–64 12 404 464 12 188 202 24 592 666 59.78
65+ 703 283 619 302 1 322 585 3.21

Vital statistics[edit]

The vital statistics below do not include South Sudan.

Year[12] Mid-year population (thousands) Live births (thousands) Deaths (thousands) Natural change (thousands) CBR* CDR* NC* IMR* TFR* Life expectancy (years)
1950 6 191   296   114   182 47.8 18.4 29.4 123.7 6.69 46.77
1951   6 380   305   116   189 47.8 18.2 29.6 122.5 6.68 47.05
1952   6 574   314   118   197 47.8 17.9 29.9 120.2 6.68 47.55
1953   6 774   324   119   204 47.7 17.6 30.1 118.0 6.68 47.92
1954   6 979   333   121   212 47.7 17.4 30.4 116.3 6.69 48.26
1955   7 193   343   123   220 47.7 17.1 30.6 114.5 6.69 48.65
1956   7 414   353   127   226 47.6 17.1 30.4 113.4 6.68 48.56
1957   7 639   362   132   230 47.4 17.3 30.1 112.1 6.66 48.11
1958   7 861   374   147   226 47.5 18.7 28.8 111.6 6.67 45.81
1959   8 087   383   149   235 47.4 18.4 29.0 109.9 6.65 46.26
1960   8 326   394   151   244 47.3 18.1 29.2 108.3 6.65 46.60
1961   8 577   405   152   252 47.2 17.8 29.4 106.9 6.63 47.02
1962   8 841   422   155   267 47.7 17.5 30.2 105.4 6.69 47.35
1963   9 115   438   167   272 48.1 18.3 29.8 105.2 6.75 46.19
1964   9 407   456   153   303 48.4 16.3 32.2 102.6 6.80 49.46
1965   9 713   471   172   299 48.5 17.8 30.8 102.7 6.85 46.94
1966   10 015   488   193   296 48.7 19.2 29.5 102.8 6.90 44.63
1967   10 321   504   195   309 48.9 18.9 30.0 101.8 6.94 45.06
1968   10 639   518   198   320 48.7 18.6 30.1 100.9 6.97 45.46
1969   10 966   535   206   329 48.8 18.8 30.0 101.4 7.00 45.15
1970   11 305   552   209   342 48.8 18.5 30.3 100.7 7.03 45.53
1971   11 669   571   186   384 48.9 16.0 32.9 99.7 7.06 49.65
1972   12 057   583   189   394 48.4 15.7 32.7 97.8 7.01 49.93
1973   12 470   596   173   423 47.8 13.9 33.9 94.5 6.96 53.07
1974   12 951   611   177   434 47.4 13.7 33.6 94.0 6.95 53.23
1975   13 498   636   183   454 47.3 13.6 33.7 93.5 6.93 53.38
1976   14 066   662   189   473 47.3 13.5 33.8 93.0 6.90 53.46
1977   14 667   690   195   495 47.2 13.3 33.9 92.4 6.87 53.65
1978   15 306   722   204   518 47.4 13.4 34.0 91.8 6.84 53.44
1979   15 973   753   212   541 47.3 13.3 34.0 91.2 6.78 53.56
1980   16 674   785   217   568 47.3 13.1 34.2 90.5 6.73 53.93
1981   17 404   819   225   594 47.3 13.0 34.3 89.9 6.68 54.08
1982   18 129   855   232   623 47.3 12.8 34.4 89.3 6.64 54.32
1983   18 734   882   323   559 47.0 17.2 29.8 113.1 6.60 47.45
1984   19 166   893   345   548 46.4 17.9 28.5 114.1 6.55 46.22
1985   19 517   898   347   551 45.8 17.7 28.1 112.8 6.49 46.46
1986   19 887   904   282   622 45.2 14.1 31.1 90.5 6.43 51.48
1987   20 231   906   393   513 44.5 19.3 25.2 102.9 6.36 43.44
1988   20 454   909   532   377 44.2 25.9 18.3 118.5 6.28 35.92
1989   20 719   912   315   597 43.8 15.1 28.7 91.5 6.23 49.34
1990   21 091   914   314   599 43.1 14.8 28.3 90.0 6.17 49.73
1991   21 454   921   313   608 42.7 14.5 28.2 88.4 6.12 50.21
1992   21 780   925   377   548 42.2 17.2 25.0 94.8 6.05 45.89
1993   22 163   925   370   555 41.7 16.7 25.0 93.0 5.96 46.58
1994   22 704   931   247   684 41.0 10.9 30.1 77.0 5.87 56.64
1995   23 291   940   308   632 40.3 13.2 27.1 82.3 5.79 51.99
1996   23 862   949   309   640 39.7 12.9 26.8 80.5 5.71 52.28
1997   24 454   956   308   649 39.1 12.6 26.5 78.8 5.60 52.83
1998   25 029   967   371   596 38.6 14.8 23.8 83.1 5.50 48.81
1999   25 634   986   265   721 38.4 10.3 28.1 70.4 5.45 57.02
2000   26 299   1 004   256   748 38.1 9.7 28.4 67.4 5.38 58.32
2001   26 947   1 024   258   766 37.9 9.6 28.3 65.3 5.33 58.56
2002   27 570   1 035   258   777 37.4 9.3 28.1 63.3 5.25 58.98
2003   28 189   1 044   274   770 36.9 9.7 27.3 63.1 5.17 58.20
2004   28 832   1 049   298   751 36.3 10.3 26.0 63.7 5.09 56.77
2005   29 541   1 062   297   764 35.9 10.1 25.9 62.2 5.04 57.28
2006   30 333   1 108   264   844 36.5 8.7 27.8 57.5 5.04 60.28
2007   31 191   1 159   260   899 37.1 8.3 28.8 55.3 5.07 61.26
2008   32 065   1 204   269   935 37.5 8.4 29.1 54.5 5.07 61.21
2009   32 948   1 239   257   982 37.6 7.8 29.8 52.0 5.05 62.64
2010   33 740   1 272   259   1 012 37.5 7.6 29.8 50.7 5.02 63.02
2011   34 420   1 277   261   1 016 36.9 7.5 29.4 49.6 4.96 63.25
2012   35 160   1 281   258   1 023 36.3 7.3 29.0 48.5 4.90 63.79
2013   35 991   1 311   266   1 046 36.3 7.4 29.0 47.5 4.90 63.68
2014   37 003   1 344   264   1 080 36.3 7.1 29.2 46.4 4.91 64.27
2015   38 171   1 390   268   1 122 36.4 7.0 29.4 45.3 4.90 64.66
2016   39 377   1 418   274   1 143 36.0 7.0 29.1 44.2 4.83 64.78
2017   40 680   1 448   273   1 175 35.7 6.7 28.9 43.1 4.76 65.45
2018   41 999   1 479   279   1 200 35.2 6.6 28.6 42.0 4.68 65.68
2019   43 232   1 506   285   1 221 34.8 6.6 28.2 41.0 4.62 65.88
2020   44 440   1 521   296   1 225 34.2 6.7 27.6 39.9 4.54 65.61
2021   45 657   1 534   311   1 224 33.6 6.8 26.8 38.8 4.46 65.27
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

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Ethnic groups[edit]

Languages[edit]

The most widely spoken languages in Sudan are:

  1. Arabic language:
    1. Sudanese Arabic.
    2. Najdi and Hejazi Arabic, (mainly in mid-north and mid-east regions).
    3. Chadian Arabic in western region, (mainly spoken by Baggara and various Arabized African tribes).
  2. Nubian language in far north, (mainly spoken by Nubians of Mahas, Dongola and Halfa).
  3. Beja language knows as Bedawit in far east alongside Red sea, (mainly spoken by Beja of Hadandawa, Ababda and Bisharin).

Before 2005, only Arabic was the official language.[14] In the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became Arabic and English:[15]

Article 8:

  1. All indigenous languages of Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted.
  2. Arabic is a widely spoken national language in Sudan.
  3. Arabic, as a major language at the national level and English shall be the official working languages of the national government and the languages of instruction for higher education.
  4. In addition to Arabic and English, the legislature of any sub-national level of government may adopt any other national language as an additional official working language at its level.
  5. There shall be no discrimination against the use of either Arabic or English at any level of government or stage of education.

The working constitution of the post-2019 Revolution transitional period specifies no national language.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Sudan[16]
religion percent
Islam
97%
African Traditional Religion
1.5%
Christianity
1.5%
Men praying at the Sidah Sanhory Mosque, in Khartoum

In Sudan, 97% of the population adheres to Islam, with the overwhelming majority being adherents of the Sunni Sufi branch and the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence.[17] The remainder of the population follows either animist and indigenous beliefs or Christianity, especially in Khartoum and in southern regions of the country bordering South Sudan.

Christians in Sudan which are refugees or immigrants from the south belong to various churches including the Roman Catholic Church, small Melkite and Maronite communities in the north, as well as Anglicans followers in the Episcopal Church of Sudan and the recently formed Reformed Episcopal Church. There are significant but long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians in Khartoum and other northern cities.

There are also Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities in Khartoum and eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past few decades. Other Christian groups with smaller followings in the country include the Africa Inland Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Sudan Church of Christ, the Sudan Interior Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Sudan Pentecostal Church, the Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church (in the North).

Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions. Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political and economic system since independence. The NCP draws much of its support from Islamists, Salafis/Wahhabis and other conservative Arab Muslims in the north. The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab followers of the Ansar sect of Sufism as well as non-Arab Muslims from Darfur and Kordofan.

The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both Arab and non-Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in the Khatmia Sufi sect.

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[18]

  • One birth every 22 seconds
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 29 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 29 seconds

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[19] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

47,958,856 (2022 est.)
43,120,843 (July 2018 est.)
35,482,233 (July 2014 est.)
Population pyramid in 2020

Religions[edit]

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 42.01% (male 9,726,937/female 9,414,988)
15-24 years: 20.94% (male 4,852,903/female 4,687,664)
25-54 years: 29.89% (male 6,633,567/female 6,986,241)
55-64 years: 4.13% (male 956,633/female 923,688)
65 years and over: 3.03% (2020 est.) (male 729,214/female 649,721)

Birth rate[edit]

33.47 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th
34.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 23rd

Death rate[edit]

6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 146th
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 139th

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.6 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th
4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th

Population growth rate[edit]

2.55% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 19th
2.93% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 9th

Median age[edit]

total: 18.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 211st
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.5 years (2020 est.)
total: 17.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 214th
male: 17.7 years
female: 18.1 years (2018 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

12.2% (2014)

Net migration rate[edit]

-1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163rd
1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 81.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 75.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 15.9 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 36% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 3.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 34.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)0

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 67.12 years. Country comparison to the world: 193rd male: 64.89 years female: 69.46 years (2022 est.)

total population: 65.8 years
male: 63.7 years
female: 68.1 years (2018 est.)
total population: 63.32 years
male: 61.27 years
female: 65.46 years (2014 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Nationality[edit]

noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0–14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.18 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 60.7%
male: 65.4%
female: 56.1% (2018)
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
total population: 71.9%
male: 80.7%
female: 63.2%
note: pre-secession of South Sudan (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 32.6%
male: 27.4%
female: 43.5% (2011 est.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  3. ^ "Copts migration".
  4. ^ "The World Factbook". 19 April 2022.
  5. ^ The Darfur Conflict: Geography Or Institutions? Osman Suliman, Mohamed Osman Suliman, p.115
  6. ^ "وزير خارجية السودان الاسبق حسين ابوصالح ل"الشرق" : التهديدات الامريكية للسودان كانت تصلنا في ورقة صغيرة دون ترويسة اوامضاء".
  7. ^ Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, JSTOR (Organization) (1888). Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 17. p. 16. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  8. ^ Broere, Kees. "Uitstel voor census Soedan". de Volkskrant, 15 April 2008, p. 5.
  9. ^ "Sudan imposes security clearance ahead of citizenship for Syrian refugees". 9 August 2017.
  10. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  11. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2022 Revision".
  13. ^ "Africa: Sudan". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.
  14. ^ Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Soudan" Archived 2012-10-23 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "text of the 2005 constitution in English" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-09. (492 KB)
  16. ^ "Religion in Sudan according to the CIA World Factbook". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  17. ^ "Sudan Overview". UNDP Sudan. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  18. ^ "Sudan Population 2022", World Population Review
  19. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World FactBook - Sudan", The World Factbook, 2022