Demographics of Swaziland

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Swaziland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Swazi people dancing in a cultural village show.

The majority of Swaziland's population is ethnic Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulus and white Africans, predominantly of British and Afrikaner origin. This population also includes a small segment within it that is mixed with any number of these ancestries.

Traditionally Swazis have been subsistence farmers and herders, but most now work in the growing urban formal economy and in government. Some Swazis work in the mines in South Africa. Swaziland also received Portuguese settlers and black refugees from Mozambique. Christianity in Swaziland is sometimes mixed with traditional beliefs and practices. Most Swazis ascribe a special spiritual role to the Swazi Royal Family.

The country's official languages are Siswati (a language related to Zulu) and English. Government and commercial business is conducted mainly in English. Asians, Afrikaners, Portuguese, and black Mozambicans speak their own languages.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Swaziland, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Swaziland's population is 1,467,152 according to the 2017 estimate from the CIA World Factbook. The 2007 Census put the nation's population at 912,229. This number is lower than the 1997 Census, which gave 929,718 residents. The small difference is believed to be the result of massive emigration of Swazis to South Africa in search of work.[1]

According to the 2010 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 1,186,000 in 2010, compared to only 273,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 38.4%, 58.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.4% was 65 years or older .[2]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 273 43.0 54.3 2.7
1955 307 44.2 53 2.8
1960 349 45.2 52 2.8
1965 392 46.3 51.0 2.7
1970 446 47.2 50.1 2.7
1975 517 48.0 49.3 2.7
1980 603 48.8 48.5 2.7
1985 706 48.9 48.3 2.8
1990 863 48.1 49.2 2.7
1995 964 47.6 49.6 2.8
2000 1 064 44.6 52.4 3.0
2005 1 105 41.8 55 3.2
2010 1 186 38.4 58.2 3.4

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Swaziland not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 14 000 7 000 7 000 48.1 22.6 25.5 6.70 174
1955-1960 16 000 7 000 9 000 47.6 20.8 26.8 6.70 160
1960-1965 18 000 7 000 10 000 47.9 19.6 28.2 6.75 150
1965-1970 20 000 8 000 13 000 49.0 18.5 30.4 6.85 141
1970-1975 24 000 8 000 16 000 49.3 16.4 32.9 6.87 124
1975-1980 27 000 8 000 19 000 48.5 14.2 34.2 6.73 108
1980-1985 31 000 8 000 23 000 47.7 12.0 35.7 6.54 90
1985-1990 36 000 8 000 28 000 46.1 10.3 35.8 6.13 77
1990-1995 36 000 9 000 28 000 39.9 9.4 30.4 5.30 69
1995-2000 35 000 12 000 22 000 34.1 11.9 22.1 4.49 80
2000-2005 34 000 17 000 17 000 31.8 15.7 16.1 4.01 87
2005-2010 34 000 17 000 17 000 30.1 14.9 15.2 3.57 76
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[3]


Year CBR Total TFR Total CBR Urban TFR Urban CBR Rural TFR Rural
1986 6,4
1991 5,6
1997 4,5
1999-2002 4,2
2006-2007 31,1 3,8 (2,1) 31,9 3,0 (1,8) 31,0 4,2 (2,2)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects)[4]:

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 41.44
1955–1960 Increase 43.47
1960–1965 Increase 45.05
1965–1970 Increase 46.69
1970–1975 Increase 49.61
1975–1980 Increase 52.61
1980–1985 Increase 56.15
1985–1990 Increase 59.66
1990–1995 Decrease 59.44
1995–2000 Decrease 52.50
2000–2005 Decrease 45.93
2005–2010 Increase 48.41
2010–2015 Increase 54.99

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

1,467,152 (July 2017 est.)[5]
note: Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Median age[edit]

total: 21.7 years
male: 21.5 years
female: 21.9 years (2017 est.)

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 35.01% (male 259,646/female 253,976)
15-24 years: 22.12% (male 164,117/female 160,478)
25-54 years: 34.6% (male 264,262/female 243,362)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 25,319/female 37,763)
65 years and over: 3.97% (male 22,113/female 36,116) (2017 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.02 (2017, 2003 est.), 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
0-14 years: 1.02 (2017 est.), 0.99 male(s)/female (2003, 2000 est.)
15-24 years: 1.08 (2017 est.)
25-54 years: 0.66 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
65 years and over: 0.64 (2017 est.), 0.78 (2003 est.), 0.7 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
total population: 1 (2017 est.), 0.99 (2003 est.), 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.08% (2017 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

24 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate[edit]

13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 23.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Maternal mortality rate[edit]

389 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

male: 52.7 years (2017 est.)
female: 51.5 years (2017 est.)
total population:
52.1 years (2017 est.)
49.06 (2012 est.)
47.85 (2010 est.)
33.22 (2005 est.)
39.47 (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

2.69 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

7.1% of GDP (2014)

Health expenditures[edit]

9.3% of GDP (2014)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate[edit]

16.5% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight[edit]

5.8% (2014)

Physicians density[edit]

0.15 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density[edit]

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 27.4% (2017 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 210,000 (2017 est.)
deaths: 3,500 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Swazi(s) adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups[edit]

Religions[5][edit]

Languages[5][edit]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.5% (2015 est.), 81.6% (2003 est.), 76.7% (1995 est.)
male: 87.4% (2015 est.), 82.6% (2003 est.), 78% (1995 est.)
female: 87.5% (2015 est.), 80.8% (2003 est.), 75.6% (1995 est.)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nolen, Stephanie (2009-04-03). "Where have all the Swazis gone?". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on December 26, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
  2. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ http://www.safaids.net/files/Swaziland%20Demographic%20and%20Health%20Survey%202006-2007.pdf
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  5. ^ a b c "Africa :: ESWATINI". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  6. ^ http://www.populstat.info/Africa/swazilag.htm