Demographics of Tanzania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Demographics of Tanzania
Tanzania single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Tanzania in 2020
Population63,852,892
Growth rate2.78% (2022 est.)
Birth rate33.3 births/1,000 population
Death rate5.09 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy70.19 years
 • male68.42 years
 • female72.02 years
Fertility rate4.39 children
Infant mortality rate30.87 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio
Total1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityTanzanian
Language
OfficialKiswahili or Swahili, English

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tanzania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

The population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.[1]: page 1252  Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in Dar es Salaam.[2]: page 6  Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967.[3] Dar es Salaam is the de facto capital and largest city. Dodoma, located in the centre of Tanzania, is the de jure capital, although action to move government buildings to Dodoma has stalled.

The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups.[4] The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples have more than 1 million members each.[5]: page 4 

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[6] Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan.[6] Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages.[6] Swahili belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family.[7] The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate.[8] The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.[9] Other languages are Indian languages and Portuguese (spoken by Goans and Mozambicans).

Although much of Zanzibar's native population came from the mainland, one group known as Shirazis traces its origins to the island's early Persian settlers. Non-Africans residing on the mainland and Zanzibar account for 1 percent of the total population. The Asian community, including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi'a and Sunni Muslims, Parsis, and Goans, has declined by 50 percent in the 2000s and early 2010s to 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 20,000 Europeans (90 percent of which are from the British diaspora) reside in Tanzania. Over 100,000 people living in Tanzania are of Asian or European ancestry.[10]

Based on 1999–2003 data, over 74,000 Tanzanian-born people were living in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, with 32,630 residing in the United Kingdom; 19,960 in Canada; 12,225 in the United States; 1,714 in Australia; 1,180 in the Netherlands; and 1,012 in Sweden.[11]

Population[edit]

Demographics of Tanzania, Data of Our World in Data, year 2022 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
The Bantu Sukuma are Tanzania's largest ethnic group.

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923 compared to 12,313,469 in 1967,[2]: page 1  resulting in an annual growth rate of 2.9 percent. The under 15 age group represented 44.1 percent of the population, with 35.5 percent being in the 15–35 age group, 52.2 percent being in the 15–64 age group, and 3.8 percent being older than 64.[12]

According to the 2012 revision of the World Population Prospects, children below the age of 15 constituted 44.8 percent of the total population, with 52.0 percent aged 15–64 and 3.1 percent aged 65 or older.[13]

Total population[13] Population aged 0–14 (%)[13] Population aged 15–64 (%)[13] Population aged 65+ (%)[13]
1950 7,650,000 46.0 51.8 2.2
1955 8,741,000 45.7 52.0 2.3
1960 10,074,000 45.8 51.8 2.4
1965 11,683,000 45.8 51.7 2.4
1970 13,605,000 46.2 51.3 2.5
1975 15,978,000 46.4 51.1 2.6
1980 18,687,000 46.5 50.8 2.6
1985 21,850,000 46.4 51.0 2.7
1990 25,485,000 46.0 51.3 2.7
1995 29,944,000 45.3 51.9 2.8
2000 34,021,000 44.8 52.3 2.9
2005 38,824,000 44.6 52.4 3.0
2010 44,793,000 44.8 52.0 3.1

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2013) (Estimates):[14]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 23 267 957 23 864 623 47 132 580 100
0-4 4 191 004 4 121 103 8 312 107 17,64
5-9 3 608 891 3 551 955 7 160 846 15,19
10-14 2 735 494 2 728 687 5 464 181 11,59
15-19 2 494 983 2 490 960 4 985 943 10,58
20-24 2 179 173 2 160 970 4 340 143 9,21
25-29 1 730 600 1 754 007 3 484 607 7,39
30-34 1 289 114 1 563 083 2 852 197 6,05
35-39 1 207 182 1 394 428 2 601 610 5,52
40-44 1 032 605 1 088 697 2 121 302 4,50
45-49 770 149 797 868 1 568 017 3,33
50-54 604 621 629 580 1 234 201 2,62
55-59 422 141 459 343 881 484 1,87
60-64 347 604 387 334 734 938 1,56
65-69 223 365 243 517 466 882 0,99
70-74 179 960 207 795 387 755 0,82
75-79 115 076 130 796 245 872 0,52
80+ 135 995 154 500 290 495 0,62
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 10 535 389 10 401 745 20 937 134 44,42
15-64 12 078 172 12 726 270 24 804 442 52,63
65+ 654 396 736 608 1 391 004 2,95

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2020): [15]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 28 229 599 29 408 029 57 637 628 100
0–4 4 972 289 4 878 738 9 851 027 17.09
5–9 4 013 263 3 968 953 7 982 216 13.85
10–14 3 582 899 3 568 790 7 151 689 12.41
15–19 3 014 118 3 041 114 6 055 232 10.51
20–24 2 656 362 2 674 122 5 330 484 9.25
25–29 2 042 003 2 333 256 4 375 259 7.59
30–34 1 642 384 1 971 517 3 613 901 6.27
35–39 1 464 246 1 732 225 3 196 471 5.55
40–44 1 241 782 1 330 290 2 572 072 4.46
45–49 1 032 732 1 113 792 2 146 524 3.72
50–54 758 908 762 341 1 521 249 2.64
55–59 605 139 713 099 1 318 238 2.29
60–64 411 344 406 728 818 072 1.42
65-69 312 655 351 895 664 550 1.15
70-74 199 196 211 801 410 997 0.71
75-79 141 944 180 717 322 661 0.56
80+ 138 335 168 651 306 986 0.53
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 12 568 451 12 416 481 24 984 932 43.35
15–64 14 869 018 16 078 484 30 947 502 53.69
65+ 792 130 913 064 1 705 194 2.96

Vital statistics[edit]

The Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey 2010 estimated that the infant mortality rate for 2005–10 was 51.[16] Registration of other vital events in Tanzania is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[17]

Mid-year population
(thousands)
Live births
(thousands)
Deaths
(thousands)
Natural change
(thousands)
Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 births)
1950 7 632   365   168   197 47.7 22.0 25.8 6.49 145.0
1951   7 835   376   170   205 48.0 21.7 26.2 6.51 144.0
1952   8 045   387   174   213 48.1 21.7 26.5 6.53 143.1
1953   8 264   399   178   221 48.3 21.6 26.8 6.56 142.1
1954   8 490   411   182   229 48.5 21.4 27.0 6.58 141.2
1955   8 726   425   186   239 48.7 21.4 27.3 6.61 140.4
1956   8 970   439   191   248 48.9 21.3 27.6 6.65 139.7
1957   9 224   454   196   258 49.2 21.2 28.0 6.69 138.9
1958   9 488   467   201   266 49.2 21.1 28.1 6.70 138.1
1959   9 760   482   206   276 49.3 21.1 28.3 6.72 137.4
1960   10 042   496   211   285 49.4 21.0 28.4 6.73 136.6
1961   10 338   512   216   296 49.6 20.9 28.7 6.75 135.8
1962   10 645   528   221   307 49.6 20.8 28.8 6.76 134.9
1963   10 960   544   226   318 49.7 20.6 29.0 6.77 133.9
1964   11 290   560   231   329 49.6 20.4 29.2 6.78 132.7
1965   11 631   576   235   341 49.5 20.2 29.3 6.78 131.5
1966   11 982   593   239   354 49.5 20.0 29.5 6.79 130.1
1967   12 346   609   243   367 49.4 19.7 29.7 6.80 128.6
1968   12 740   628   245   383 49.4 19.2 30.1 6.84 127.1
1969   13 168   651   248   403 49.5 18.8 30.7 6.88 125.6
1970   13 618   675   252   423 49.7 18.5 31.1 6.91 124.0
1971   14 092   701   257   444 49.8 18.3 31.6 6.94 122.3
1972   14 596   725   262   463 49.8 18.0 31.8 6.95 120.5
1973   15 124   752   266   487 49.8 17.6 32.2 6.96 118.7
1974   15 671   781   272   510 49.9 17.4 32.6 7.00 116.7
1975   16 244   808   277   531 49.8 17.1 32.7 7.00 114.7
1976   16 839   832   281   551 49.5 16.7 32.8 6.99 112.6
1977   17 455   860   285   576 49.3 16.3 33.0 6.99 110.5
1978   18 080   887   289   598 49.1 16.0 33.1 6.98 108.7
1979   18 699   909   292   617 48.6 15.6 33.0 6.95 107.1
1980   19 298   930   297   632 48.1 15.4 32.7 6.91 106.2
1981   19 891   950   303   647 47.7 15.2 32.5 6.85 105.8
1982   20 500   973   311   663 47.4 15.1 32.3 6.80 105.8
1983   21 171   998   320   678 47.2 15.1 32.1 6.75 106.0
1984   21 857   1 017   329   688 46.5 15.1 31.4 6.67 106.1
1985   22 570   1 038   337   700 46.1 15.0 31.1 6.57 105.8
1986   23 324   1 059   345   714 45.4 14.8 30.6 6.48 105.0
1987   24 099   1 082   353   729 45.0 14.7 30.3 6.40 103.8
1988   24 844   1 110   360   749 44.6 14.5 30.1 6.37 102.5
1989   25 523   1 130   369   761 44.2 14.4 29.8 6.29 101.1
1990   26 206   1 149   380   769 43.8 14.5 29.3 6.20 99.9
1991   26 891   1 171   391   781 43.5 14.5 29.0 6.14 98.9
1992   27 581   1 190   404   787 43.1 14.6 28.5 6.08 98.2
1993   28 469   1 211   414   798 42.8 14.6 28.2 6.01 97.1
1994   29 598   1 250   426   824 42.5 14.5 28.0 5.93 96.2
1995   30 560   1 300   440   860 42.5 14.4 28.1 5.87 95.0
1996   31 141   1 334   450   884 42.5 14.3 28.2 5.85 93.4
1997   31 786   1 353   460   893 42.5 14.5 28.1 5.84 91.5
1998   32 626   1 386   464   922 42.4 14.2 28.2 5.79 88.7
1999   33 500   1 415   459   956 42.2 13.7 28.5 5.73 85.4
2000   34 464   1 453   457   996 42.1 13.3 28.9 5.69 81.6
2001   35 414   1 495   452   1 043 42.1 12.7 29.4 5.67 77.4
2002   36 354   1 525   447   1 078 41.9 12.3 29.6 5.62 73.1
2003   37 334   1 565   437   1 128 41.8 11.7 30.2 5.61 69.0
2004   38 361   1 613   433   1 179 42.0 11.3 30.7 5.61 65.4
2005   39 440   1 662   430   1 232 42.1 10.9 31.2 5.61 62.1
2006   40 562   1 696   428   1 269 41.7 10.5 31.2 5.56 59.2
2007   41 716   1 719   424   1 295 41.1 10.2 31.0 5.49 56.4
2008   42 871   1 748   422   1 325 40.7 9.8 30.8 5.43 54.0
2009   43 958   1 773   415   1 358 40.2 9.4 30.8 5.36 51.5
2010   45 111   1 795   401   1 394 39.7 8.9 30.8 5.29 49.5
2011   46 416   1 816   392   1 424 39.1 8.4 30.6 5.21 47.4
2012   47 786   1 833   382   1 451 38.3 8.0 30.3 5.10 45.5
2013   49 254   1 908   375   1 533 38.7 7.6 31.1 5.12 43.9
2014   50 815   1 978   369   1 609 38.9 7.3 31.6 5.12 42.2
2015   52 543   2 032   365   1 667 38.7 7.0 31.8 5.09 41.1
2016   54 402   2 086   361   1 725 38.4 6.7 31.7 5.03 39.8
2017   56 267   2 140   360   1 780 38.1 6.4 31.7 4.99 38.6
2018   58 090   2 181   359   1 822 37.5 6.2 31.3 4.92 37.3
2019   59 873   2 224   360   1 864 37.1 6.0 31.1 4.86 36.3
2020   61 705   2 262   381   1 881 36.7 6.2 30.5 4.80 35.3
2021   63 588   2 303   396   1 907 36.2 6.2 30.0 4.73 34.3

Life expectancy[edit]

Development of life expectancy
Period Life expectancy in
Years[18]
1950–1955 41.25
1955–1960 Increase 43.03
1960–1965 Increase 44.31
1965–1970 Increase 45.83
1970–1975 Increase 47.70
1975–1980 Increase 49.90
1980–1985 Increase 50.64
1985–1990 Increase 50.86
1990–1995 Decrease 49.61
1995–2000 Decrease 50.06
2000–2005 Increase 53.65
2005–2010 Increase 58.82
2010–2015 Increase 62.78
2020 Increase 66.40
2021 Decrease 66.20

Population[edit]

Source:[19]

Region 1967 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1978 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 1988 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2002 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate) 2012 (Population / Crude Birth Rate / Total Fertility Rate)
Tanzania, including Zanzibar 12,313,469 / 47 / 7.3 17,036,499 / 49 / 6.3 22,455,207 / 47 / 5.4 33,461,849 / 43 / 4.2 44,928,923 / /
Zanzibar 354,815 / 48 / 7.3 476,111 / 48 / 7.1 640,675 / 49 / 6.4 981,754 / 43 / 4.5 1,303,569 / /

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[20]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural) CBR (Zanzibar) TFR (Zanzibar)
1991-1992 42.8 6.25 (5.57) 42.1 5.14 43.0 6.59 (5.91)
1996 40.8 5.82 (5.1) 36.3 4.11 (3.5) 41.9 6.34 (5.5)
1999 41.4 5.55 (4.8) 34.4 3.16 (2.9) 43.5 6.48 (5.5)
2004-2005 42.4 5.7 (4.9) 34.6 3.6 (3.1) 44.8 6.5 (5.6) 38.0 5.3 (4.6)
2010 38.1 5.4 (4.7) 35.0 3.7 (3.3) 39.0 6.1 (5.3) 35,9 5.1 (4.8)
2015-16 37.2 5.2 (4.5) 35.1 3.8 (3.4) 38.1 6.0 (5.1) 36.3 5.1 (4.6)
2017 35.5 4.9 31.0 3.5 37.3 5.7 33.7 4.5

Total fertility rate in Tanzania[edit]

Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

Fertility rates are estimated by Surveys (TDHS) and Census in different times. TDHS surveys estimated these fertility rates :6.3 (1991–92), 5.8 (1996), 5.7 (2004–05), 5.4 (2010) and 2002 Census said 6.3 [21]

Region 1967[22] 1978[22] 1988[22] 2006-09[16] 2017[23]
Tanzania (country total) 7.3 6.3 5.4 5.4 4.9
Dodoma (capital) 7.6 6.2 5.9 6.0
Arusha 7.5 7.0 6.0 3.2
Kilimanjaro 8.9 7.5 5.8 3.4
Tanga 7.7 6.2 5.1 4.6
Morogoro 6.2 6.5 4.3 3.7
Pwani 5.8 6.1 5.4 3.8
Dar es Salaam 5.0 5.4 3.4 2.8
Lindi - 5.4 4.6 3.9
Mtwara 5.7 4.9 4.5 3.3
Ruvuma 7.1 6.1 5.0 3.7
Iringa 7.8 6.3 4.9 4.5
Mbeya 8.1 6.3 4.7 4.7
Singida 6.3 5.9 5.7 7.4
Tabora 6.7 6.0 5.4 6.9
Rukwa - 6.1 6.2 5.7
Kigoma 6.6 7.2 6.5 5.7
Shinyanga 8.7 6.9 6.3 5.5
Kagera 7.5 7.3 6.9 4.7
Mwanza 8.1 7.1 6.1 6.0
Mara 8.0 6.9 5.9 6.4
Manyara - - - 6.0
Njombe - - - 4.2
Simiyu - - - 7.6
Geita - - - 6.9
Katavi - - - 6.7
Songwe - - - 5.4
Tanzania Mainland 7.3 6.3 5.4 5.4 4.9
North Unguja - 7.1 7.0 4.5
South Unguja - 6.2 6.5 3.2
Urban West - 6.1 5.2 3.6
North Pemba - 8.3 6.9 6.3
South Pemba - 8.2 7.6 5.5
Tanzania Zanzibar 7.3 7.1 6.4 5.1 4.5

Other demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics of Tanzania in 2022 are from the World Population Review.[24]

Old Tanzanian woman in Arusha, 2008.
  • One birth every 14 seconds
  • One death every 1 minutes
  • One net migrant every 13 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 18 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[25]

Population[edit]

63,852,892 (2022 est.)
55,451,343 (July 2018 est.)
48,261,942 (July 2013 est.)

Religions[edit]

Christian 63.1%, Muslim 34.1%, folk religion 1.1%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, unspecified 1.6% (2020 est.)
note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Tanzania in 2017
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 12,632,772/female 12,369,115)
15-24 years: 20.39% (male 5,988,208/female 5,948,134)
25-54 years: 30.31% (male 8,903,629/female 8,844,180)
55-64 years: 3.52% (male 954,251/female 1,107,717)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 747,934/female 1,056,905) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 43.4% (male 12,159,482 /female 11,908,654)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 5,561,922 /female 5,543,788)
25-54 years: 30.02% (male 8,361,460 /female 8,284,229)
55-64 years: 3.51% (male 872,601 /female 1,074,480)
65 years and over: 3.04% (male 706,633 /female 978,094) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 18.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 212nd
male: 17.9 years
female: 18.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 17.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 215th
male: 17.6 years
female: 18.2 years (2018 est.)
total: 17.3 years
male: 17.0 years
female: 17.6 years (2013 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

33.3 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 21st
35.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 19th

Death rate[edit]

5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 192nd
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 112nd

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.39 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th
4.71 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th

Population growth rate[edit]

2.78% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 13rd
2.74% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 14th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.8 years (2015/16 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

38.4% (2015/16)

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 123rd
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 127th

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 93.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 36.7% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 33.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 5.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies

Ethnic groups[edit]

A Muslim man in Bagamoyo.

mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African. Around 100,000 people living in Tanzania are from Europe or Asia.

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–54 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 estimate)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 70.19 years. Country comparison to the world: 169th
male: 68.42 years
female: 72.02 years (2022 est.)
total population: 63.1 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2018 est.)
total population: 60.76 years
male: 59.48 years
female: 62.09 years (2013 estimate)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Age 15-49 HIV infection rates:

4.5 percent overall,[26] with 6.2 percent of women[27] and 3.8 percent of men[28] being infected.[29]

People living with HIV/AIDS:

1.5 million (2017 est.)[30]

Deaths:

32,000 (2017 est.)

Languages[edit]

Education expenditures[edit]

3.1% of GDP (2020) Country comparison to the world: 146th

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Swahili, English, or Arabic

total population: 77.9%
male: 83.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
total population: 69.4%
male: 77.5%
female: 62.2% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 3.9%
male: 3.1%
female: 4.6% (2014 est.)

Religions[edit]

Most Tanzanians are nowadays Christians and Muslims. The numerical relationship between followers of the two religions is regarded as politically sensitive and questions about religious affiliation have not been included in census questionnaires since 1967.

For many years estimates have been repeated that about a third of the population each follows Islam, Christianity and traditional religions.[32] As there is likely no longer such a large percentage of traditional religionists,[33] a range of competing estimates has been published giving one side or the other a large share or trying to show equal shares.

Estimates from the Pew Report Islam and Christianity (2010) were 60% Christian and 36% Muslim.[34]

The remainder of the population are Hindus, Buddhists, animists, and unaffiliated. Most Christians are Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican or Pentecostal, though a number of other churches, as Seventh-Day Adventist, and Eastern Orthodox Christians are also represented in the country. Most Tanzanian Muslims are Sunni Muslims, though there are also populations of Ibadi, Shia, Ahamadiya, Bohora. Muslims are concentrated in coastal areas and in mainland areas along former caravan trade routes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Economy", authored by Joseph Lake, in Africa South of the Sahara, edited by Europa Publications and Iain Frame, Routledge, 2013
  2. ^ a b Population Distribution by Administrative Units, United Republic of Tanzania, 2013 Archived May 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ ""Report reveals rapid rural-urban migration", The Citizen, reported by Athuman Mtulya, 26 September 2013".
  4. ^ Levinson, David (26 August 1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Oryx Press. ISBN 9781573560191 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Otiso, Kefa M. (24 January 2013). Culture and Customs of Tanzania. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313087080 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ a b c "East Africa", authored by Silvester Ron Simango, in Sociolinguistics: Regional overview, edited by Ulrich Ammon, published by Walter de Gruyter, 2006, pages 1966-7. 2005. ISBN 9783110184181.
  7. ^ "Swahili - A language of Tanzania". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  8. ^ Blench, Roger (22 June 2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759114210 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ ""Iraqw", Ethnologue: Languages of the World, edited by M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig, SIL International, Seventeenth edition, Dallas, Texas, USA, accessed 14 October 2014".
  10. ^ "Tanzania History and Information - Safari Info for Tanzania". www.eyesonafrica.net. Retrieved 2020-05-28.
  11. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Tanzania in figures 2012, National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, June 2013, page 23" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-26.
  13. ^ a b c d e "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org.
  14. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org.
  15. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  16. ^ a b Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, Tanzania National Bureau of Standards, funding provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania), Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Department for International Development (United Kingdom), World Health Organization/Zanzibar, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, United Nations Children's Fund, World Food Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and Irish Aids, technical assistance provided by ICF Macro through its MEASURE DHS programme, survey conducted 19 December 2010 to 23 May 2011, with results applying to the preceding three-year period Archived September 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  18. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  19. ^ "Analytical Report, 2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  20. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org.
  21. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2012-01-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ a b c "2002 Census, United Republic of Tanzania" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  23. ^ "STATcompiler". www.statcompiler.com. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  24. ^ "Tanzania Population 2022", World Population Review, June 6, 2018
  25. ^ Tanzania: People, CIA World Factbook, 2022 Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  26. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 4.6 to 5.6 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  27. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 5.5 to 6.8 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  28. ^ At a 95 percent confidence level, the rate was 3.2 to 4.5 percent. Refer to page 202 of the survey.
  29. ^ "Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12, authorized by the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the Zanzibar Commission for AIDS; implemented by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician (Zanzibar); funded by the United States Agency for International Development, TACAIDS, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with support provided by ICF International; data collected 16 December 2011 to 24 May 2012; report published in Dar es Salaam in March 2013". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014.
  30. ^ "UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report 2012, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, page 7" (PDF).
  31. ^ a b c "Africa :: TANZANIA". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.
  32. ^ So repeated here: (USA government), Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Fact Book". Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  33. ^ note continued adherence to traditional beliefs also among Christians and Muslims:"(In Tanzania) more than half the people surveyed believe that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm." see Pew report Christians and Muslims in Subsaharan Africa (2010)
  34. ^ "Tolerance and Tension: Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. April 2010. p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 25 April 2018.