Demographics of Texas

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Texas is the second-most populous U.S. state, with an estimated July 2019 population of 28.996 million.[1] In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850212,592
1860604,215184.2%
1870818,57935.5%
18801,591,74994.5%
18902,235,52740.4%
19003,048,71036.4%
19103,896,54227.8%
19204,663,22819.7%
19305,824,71524.9%
19406,414,82410.1%
19507,711,19420.2%
19609,579,67724.2%
197011,196,73016.9%
198014,229,19127.1%
199016,986,51019.4%
200020,851,82022.8%
201025,145,56120.6%
2019 (est.)28,995,88115.3%
1910 – 2010 census[2]
2016 Estimate[3]

Population[edit]

2000 Texas Population Density Map.

The 2010 US Census recorded Texas as having a population of 25.1 million—an increase of 4.3 million since the year 2000, involving an increase in population in all three subcategories of population growth: natural increase (births minus deaths), net immigration, and net migration. Texas passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California. The state also is the most populous state in the South Central United States, and the most populous state in the South.[4]

Texas' population growth between 2000 and 2010 represents the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during this time period. The large population increase can somewhat be attributed to Texas' relative insulation from the US housing bubble.

As of 2012, the state has an estimated 4.1 million foreign-born residents, constituting approximately 15% of the state population.[5] An estimated 1.7 million people are undocumented immigrants.[6]

U.S. Census data from 2010 indicate that 7.7% of Texas' population is under 5 years old, 27.3% is under 18, and 10.3% is aged 65 and older. Females make up 50.4% of the population.

The center of population of Texas is located at 30°54′19″N 97°21′56″W / 30.905244°N 97.365594°W / 30.905244; -97.365594 in Bell County, in the town of Holland.[7]

Net domestic migration[edit]

Year[8] In-migrants Out-migrants Net migration
2010 486,558 411,641 74,917
2011 514,726 404,839 109,887
2012 507,752 402,187 105,565
2013 548,034 409,977 138,057
2014 538,572 435,107 103,465
2015 553,032 445,343 107,689
2016 531,996 444,340 87,656
2017 524,511 467,338 57,173
2018 563,945 462,140 101,805

Ethnicity[edit]

Racial Makeup of Texas excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[9]
NH=Non-Hispanic

  White NH (41.40%)
  Black NH (11.88%)
  Asian NH (4.93%)
  Native American NH (0.25%)
  Pacific Islander NH (0.07%)
  Two or more races NH (1.72%)
  Other NH (0.16%)
  Hispanic Any Race (39.61%)

As of the 2010 US Census, the racial distribution in Texas was as follows: 70.4% of the population of Texas was White American; 11.8% African American; 3.8% Asian American; 0.7% American Indian; 0.1% native Hawaiian or Pacific islander only; 10.5% of the population were of some other race only; and 2.7% were of two or more races. Hispanics (of any race) were 37.6% of the population of the state, while Non-Hispanic Whites composed 45.3%.

According to the 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, the population of Texas was 73.5% White (41.4% Non-Hispanic White and 32.1% Hispanic White), 12.3% Black or African American, 5.0% Asian, 0.5% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.0% Some Other Race, and 2.7% from two or more races.[9] The White population continues to remain the largest racial category as Hispanics in Texas primarily identify as White (81.1%) with others identifying as Some Other Race (14.6%), Multiracial (2.4%), Black (1.0%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (0.7%), Asian (0.2%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%).[9] By ethnicity, 39.6% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 60.4% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). If treated as a separate category, Hispanics are the largest minority group in Texas.[9]

English Americans predominate in eastern, central, and northern Texas; German Americans, in central and western Texas. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in parts of northern, eastern and east-central Texas as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.

As in other Southern states settled largely in the 19th century, the vast majority have European ancestry: Irish, English and German.[10] Texas includes a diverse set of European ancestries, due both to historical patterns of settlement from the Southeastern United States, as well as contemporary dynamics. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels. Many Romanians, Dutch, Germans from Switzerland and Austria, Poles, Russians, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, and French immigrated at least in part because of the European revolutions of 1848. This immigration continued until World War I and the 1920s. The influence of these diverse European immigrants survives in the town names, architectural styles, music, and cuisine in Texas.

Lavaca County, for example, is over one-quarter Czech American, Seguin has a large Slovak American community, and Nederland has many Dutch Americans whose ancestors immigrated from the Netherlands.

Demographics of Texas (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 84.54% 12.09% 1.09% 3.13% 0.16%
2000 (Hispanic only) 31.14% 0.42% 0.40% 0.13% 0.06%
2005 (total population) 84.14% 12.09% 1.10% 3.62% 0.17%
2005 (Hispanic only) 34.16% 0.52% 0.42% 0.15% 0.06%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 9.10% 9.62% 10.56% 27.02% 21.27%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 2.59% 8.66% 8.69% 27.07% 17.81%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 20.26% 36.40% 13.80% 25.99% 27.72%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English, forming 3,083,323 or 27% of the population.[10] Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry.

The Texas city of San Antonio.

As of 2010, 37% of Texas residents had Hispanic ancestry; these include recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as Tejanos, whose ancestors have lived in Texas as early as the 1700s. Tejanos are the largest ancestry group in southern Duval County and amongst the largest in and around Bexar County, including San Antonio, where over one million Hispanics live. The state has the second largest Hispanic population in the United States, behind California.

Hispanics dominate southern, south-central, and western Texas and form a significant portion of the residents in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and Austin. The Hispanic population contributes to Texas having a younger population than the American average, because Hispanic births have outnumbered non-Hispanic white births since the early 1990s. In 2007, for the first time since the early nineteenth century, Hispanics accounted for more than half of all births (50.2%), while non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 34%.

In 2016 the state had 59,115 persons of Cuban origin. 6,157 of them lived in Travis County.[11]

Houston

Texas has one of the largest African-American populations in the country.[12] African Americans are concentrated in northern, eastern and east central Texas as well as the Dallas, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.[citation needed] African Americans form 24 percent of both the cities of Dallas and Houston, 19% of Fort Worth, 8.1 percent of Austin, and 7.5 percent of San Antonio. They form a majority in sections of eastern San Antonio, southern Dallas, eastern Fort Worth, and southern Houston.[citation needed] A strong labor market between 1995 and 2000 contributed to Texas being one of three states in the South receiving the highest numbers of black college graduates in an increasing New Great Migration.[12]

In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in west Houston, Fort Bend County southwest of Houston, the western and northern suburbs of Dallas, and Arlington near Fort Worth. Vietnamese Americans, South Asian Americans, Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas. The Gulf Coast also has large numbers of Asian Americans, because the shrimp fishing industry attracted tens of thousands of Vietnamese, Filipinos, and Chinese from the coast of the South China Sea in the late 1970s and 1980s.[citation needed]

As of 2016, there is also an emerging Asian immigrant population in Amarillo consisting primarily of Southeast Asian refugees.

Native American tribes who once lived or resettled inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Coushatta, Hueco, the Karankawa of Galveston, Kiowa, Lipan Apache, Muscogee, Natchez, Quapaw, Seminole, Tonkawa, Wichita, and many others.

Three federally recognized Native American tribes currently are headquartered in Texas:

According to Steve H. Murdock, a demographer with the Hobby Center for the Study of Texas at Rice University and a former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, the White American population is aging, while minority populations remain relatively young. As of 2011, according to Murdock, two out of three children in Texas are not non-Hispanic Whites. Murdock also predicted that, between 2000 and 2040 (assuming that the net migration rate will equal half that of 1990-2000), Hispanic public school enrollment will increase by 213 percent, while non-Hispanic white enrollment will decrease by 15 percent.[15]

Birth data[edit]

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[16] 2014[17] 2015[18] 2016[19] 2017[20] 2018[21]
White: 318,211 (82.1%) 326,480 (81.7%) 327,429 (81.1%) ... ... ...
> Non-Hispanic White 136,608 (35.3%) 140,992 (35.3%) 140,553 (34.8%) 134,262 (33.7%) 127,533 (33.4%) 125,549 (33.2%)
Black 49,039 (12.7%) 51,274 (12.4%) 53,144 (13.2%) 58,562 (14.2%) 58,642 (14.6%) 48,144 (12.7%)
Asian 18,861 (4.9%) 20,844 (5.2%) 21,775 (5.4%) 20,889 (5.2%) 20,385 (5.3%) 19,850 (5.2%)
American Indian 1,229 (0.3%) 1,168 (0.3%) 1,270 (0.3%) 782 (0.2%) 664 (0.2%) 721 (0.2%)
Pacific Islander ... ... ... 498 (0.1%) 510 (0.1%) 487 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 185,467 (47.9%) 189,462 (47.4%) 191,157 (47.4%) 188,393 (47.3%) 180,216 (47.2%) 179,142 (47.3%)
Total Texas 387,340 (100%) 399,766 (100%) 403,618 (100%) 398,047 (100%) 382,050 (100%) 378,624 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Languages[edit]

The most common American English accent spoken was Texan English, which is a mix of Southern American English and Western American English dialects. Louisiana Creole language is spoken mostly in Southeast Texas. Chicano English is also widely spoken, as well as African American Vernacular English, and General American English.

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Texas
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[22]
Spanish 29.21%
Vietnamese 0.75%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese) 0.56%
German 0.33%
Tagalog 0.29%
French 0.25%
Korean and Urdu (tied) 0.24%
Hindi 0.23%
Arabic 0.21%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.15%

As of 2010, 65.80% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 29.21% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75% (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.[22]

Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137,) Tagalog with 0.29% (73,137) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans.[22]

In total, 34.20% (7,660,406) of Texas's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[22]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Texas (2014)[23]

  Protestantism (50%)
  Catholicism (23%)
  Mormonism (1%)
  Other Christians (3%)
  No religion (18%)
  Judaism (1%)
  Other religion (3%)
  No response given/Unknown (1%)

Texas is a part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt.[24] The Dallas-Fort Worth area is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.[24]

In 2010, the religious demographics of Texas were: 50% Protestant, (31% Evangelical Protestant, 13% Mainline Protestant, and 6% Black church) 23% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 3% Other Christian, 4% Other Religions, (1% Jew, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist, 0.5% Hindu and 0.5% Other) and 18% are Unaffiliated.[23]

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church (4,673,500); the Southern Baptist Convention (3,721,318); Non-denominational Churches (1,546,542); and the United Methodist Church with (1,035,168).[25] Evangelical Protestant Christian influence has had a strong social, cultural, and political impact in Texas throughout its history, but not all Texans share this view of Christian religious doctrine. Austin, the state capital, is perceived as a more secular and liberal community.

Other religious groups in Texas include Jewish Texans. Most of the state's estimated 128,000 Jews live in or around Dallas and Houston.[26]

Settlements[edit]

Dallas

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[27] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.

Largest city in Texas by year[28]
Year(s) City
1850–1870 San Antonio[29]
1870–1890 Galveston[30]
1890–1900 Dallas[28]
1900–1930 San Antonio[29]
1930–present Houston[31]

Three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.[32] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities.[33] These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[34]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[35] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.[36] Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2018 Estimated Population of Texas, Its Counties, and Places" (PDF). Texas Demographic Center. December 2019. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  2. ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
  3. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  4. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2010 Archived 2015-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
  5. ^ "United State Census Bureau". 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
  6. ^ "Pew Research Center". Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.
  7. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2010 Archived 2015-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
  8. ^ "State-to-State Migration Flows".
  9. ^ a b c d "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - Texas - 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2012-02-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Bagden, Samantha. "Cubans in Texas see some hope in new relations" (Archive) Austin American-Statesman. Monday January 18, 2016. Retrieved on January 19, 2016.
  12. ^ a b William H. Frey, "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965-2000", May 2004, The Brookings Institution, p.1 Archived April 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, accessed 19 Mar 2008
  13. ^ a b "Tribal Governments by Area: Southern Plains." Archived March 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 28 Feb 2012.
  14. ^ "Tribal Governments by Area: Southwest." Archived March 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 28 Feb 2012.
  15. ^ Scharrer, Gary. "Texas demographer: 'It's basically over for Anglos' Archived 2011-08-19 at Wikiwix" Houston Chronicle. February 24, 2011. Retrieved on February 27, 2011.
  16. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2017-09-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-09-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-09-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_01.pdf
  20. ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_08-508.pdf
  21. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2019-12-21.
  22. ^ a b c d "Texas". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Adults in Texas". Pew Research Center.
  24. ^ a b Connolly, Ceci (2003-01-21). "Texas Teaches Abstinence, With Mixed Grades". Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on 2005-10-03. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
  25. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  26. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports". Thearda.com. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
  27. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. June 10, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.[dead link]
  28. ^ a b "100 Largest Cities by Decade". U.S. Bureau of the Census. June 15, 1998.
  29. ^ a b Fehrenbach, T. R. (March 30, 2017) [June 15, 2010]. "San Antonio, TX". Handbook of Texas (online ed.). Texas State Historical Association.
  30. ^ McComb, David G. (May 5, 2016) [June 15, 2010]. "Galveston, TX". Handbook of Texas (online ed.). Texas State Historical Association.
  31. ^ McComb, David G. (February 15, 2017) [June 15, 2010]. "Houston, TX". Handbook of Texas (online ed.). Texas State Historical Association.
  32. ^ Neuman, Michael. "The Texas Urban Triangle: Framework for Future Growth". Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC). Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  33. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved March 1, 2009.
  34. ^ Hellmann, Paul T. (February 14, 2006). "Georgia". Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135948597. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  35. ^ a b Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Office of Community Affairs. "Colonias FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions)". Texas Secretary of State. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  36. ^ Grinberg, Emmanuella. "Impoverished border town grows from shacks into community". CNN. July 8, 2011. Retrieved on July 9, 2011.
  37. ^ Brinkhoff, Thomas (February 19, 2011). "Texas (USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places". City Population. Retrieved May 28, 2012.

External links[edit]