Demographics of Tiruchirappalli

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Tiruchirappalli is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the fourth most populous city and is the densest regional urban area in the state. According to the 2001 census, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 752,066 with in the city limits and an extended urban agglomeration population of 866,354.[1] According to the 2011 provisional population totals, the city has a population of 846,915 while the regional urban area has 1,021,717 residents.[2][3] The city's sex ratio of 1025 is among the best for any city in India which has a population of one million or more.

The most widely spoken language is Tamil followed by Telugu, Saurashtra and Kannada.

History of enumeration[edit]

According to the 1871 Indian census, the first in British India, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 76,530 making it the second largest city in Madras Presidency, next only to the capital city of Madras.[4] The population grew further by 10.3% and 7.3% over the next two decades respectively,[4][5] thus reaching 0.1 million in 1901.[5] Tiruchirappalli along with Madras and Madurai were the three cities with a population of 0.1 million or more at the time.[9][10] The city experienced a negative growth rate during the decade 1911—21.[5] After that it grew steadily and attained a growth rate of 37.2% during 1941—51.[6] During the 1970s, it fell behind other cities such as Madurai and Coimbatore. As of 2011, it is the fourth largest city in Tamil Nadu after Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai. The concept of urban agglomeration (UA) was introduced in the 1991 census. The UA had a population of 711,862.[11] After the city was made a Municipal corporation in 1994 by annexing Srirangam and Golden Rock municipalities,[12] its population almost doubled in 2001.


The majority of the population of Tiruchirappalli follow Hinduism. There is a considerable population that follow Islam and Christianity.[13][14] Sikhs and Jains also form a small amount of the total population.[15][16] Tamil, the official language of the state is the most commonly used language,[17] followed by Telugu,[18] Saurashtrian[19] and Kannada[20] Unlike other regions of Tamil Nadu, the people of Tiruchirappalli follow the standard dialect of Tamil, the Central Tamil dialect.[21][22] Saurashtrian is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century AD.[23] There is also a substantial population of Sri Lankan Tamil migrants, most of whom are housed in refugee camps on the outskirts of the city.[24] Roman Catholics in Tiruchirappalli are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli[25] while Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.[26] As a separate division of the Southern Railway is headquartered at Tiruchirappalli city, there is a considerably strong Anglo-Indian population in the city.[27]



  1. ^ "Primary Census Abstract Data of Tamil Nadu". Directorate of Census Operations. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Table 2: Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals. Government of India. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "Table 3: Urban agglomerations having population 1 Lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals. Government of India. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, p. 43.
  5. ^ a b c d Census of India 1941.
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 1966, p. 226.
  7. ^ Rajendran, Arumugam & Chandrasekaran 2002, p. 3.
  8. ^ Malayala Manorama 2007, p. 707.
  9. ^ Francis 1989, p. 26.
  10. ^ Hunter 1908, p. 257.
  11. ^ Johnson 2001, p. 257.
  12. ^ Palanithurai 2007, p. 80.
  13. ^ Census of India 1971, p. 88.
  14. ^ "Bakrid celebrated in Trichy with gaiety". The Hindu. India. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  15. ^ "Lt. Governor felicitated". The Hindu. India. 29 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  16. ^ "Jain Sangh celebrates Mahaveer Jayanthi". The Hindu. India. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  17. ^ Sen 1991, p. 606.
  18. ^ Ramappa & Singh 1984, p. 116.
  19. ^ Ramesh, T. A. (15 January 2006). "The Unwritten History of the Saurashtrians of South India". 
  20. ^ Muthanna 1962, p. iii.
  21. ^ Agesthialingom & Gowda 1976, p. 264.
  22. ^ "Language Variation in Tamil". Language Information Service. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  23. ^ Thurston 1913, p. 123.
  24. ^ "Sri Lankan Tamil refugees wish for Indian citizenship". The Hindu. India. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  25. ^ "Tiruchirapalli Diocese – History". Catholic Bishops Conference of India. 12 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. 
  26. ^ "Provincial Directory: Trichy-Tanjore". Anglican Consultative Council. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  27. ^ Deefholts, & Acharya 2006, p. 205.


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  • Manorama Yearbook 2007. Malayala Manorama. 2007. 
  • Census Commissioner (1941). Census of India, 1941: Vol 2. Government of India. 
  • Chockalingam, K. (1979). Census of India, 1971: Tamil Nadu. Government of India. 
  • Rural Urban Relationship Committee, India (1966). Report. 3. Govt.of India, Ministry of Health & Family Planning. 
  • Rajendran, S.; Arumugam, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. A. (2002). Potential Use of High Resolution IRS 1-C Satellite Data and Deletion of Urban Growth in and around of Tiruchirapalli city (PDF). Federation Internationale des Geometres. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  • Sen, Ajoy Kumar (1991). Tourism in India. Modern Book Agency. 
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  • Palanithurai, Ganapathy (2007). A handbook for panchayati raj administration (Tamil Nadu). Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-8069-340-6, ISBN 978-81-8069-340-3. 
  • Francis, W. (1989). Gazetteer of South India. Mittal Publications. GGKEY:4Y158YFPNGZ. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  • Ramappa, M.; Singh, Sudershan (1984). Directory of Telugu associations outside Andhra Pradesh. International Telugu Institute. 
  • Muthanna, I. M. (1962). History of Karnataka: History, Administration & Culture. Usha Press. 
  • Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India. Clarendon Press. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  • Thurston, Edgar (1913). Provincial Geographies of India Vol 4: The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Cambridge University. p. 123. 
  • Agesthialingom, S.; Gowda, K. Kushalappa (1976). Dravidian case system. 1. Annamalai University. 
  • Johnson, Basil Leonard Clyde (1 June 2001). Geographical dictionary of India. Vision Books. ISBN 978-81-7094-428-7. 
  • Deefholts, Glenn; Acharya, Quentine (2006). The way we were: Anglo-Indian chronicles. Calcutta Tiljallah Relief Inc. ISBN 0975463934, ISBN 978-0-9754639-3-2.