Demographics of Turkey
|Demographics of Republic of Turkey|
(18 March 2020)
|Growth rate||1.47% (2018)|
|Birth rate|| 15.3 births/1,000|
|Life expectancy||78.3 years (2019)|
|• male||75.6 years (2019)|
|• female||81 years (2019)|
|Fertility rate||1.88 children born/woman (2019)|
|Infant mortality rate||11.6 deaths/1000 infants (2012)|
|0–14 years||23.1% (2019)|
|15–64 years||67.8% (2019)|
|65 and over||9.1% (2019)|
|At birth||1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|Under 15||1.04 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.84 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish|
|Major ethnic||Turks, Kurds|
|Minor ethnic||Albanians, Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Azerbaijanis, Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Chechens, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Lazi|
|Spoken||Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Circassian, Crimean Tatar, Georgian, Laz, Greek, Kurdish, Zazaki, Ladino, Neo-Aramaic|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The population is relatively young, with 23.6% falling in the 0–14 age bracket. According to OECD/World Bank population statistics, from 1990 to 2008 the population growth in Turkey was 16 million or 29%.
|Period||Life expectancy in
|Period||Life expectancy in|
The figures from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs:
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Registered births and deaths
Birth statistics of Turkey from 2001 onward are from the Central Population Administrative System (MERNIS) database which is available on-line. Birth statistics are updated continually because MERNIS has dynamic structure.
In 2010 Turkey had a crude birth rate of 17.2 per 1000, in 2011 16.7, down from 20.3 in 2001. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2010 was 2.05 children per woman, in 2011 2.02. The crude birth rate in 2010 ranged from 11.5 per 1,000 in West Marmara (TFR 1.52) (11,5;1.55 in 2011), similar to neighbouring Bulgaria, to 27.9 per 1,000 in Southeast Anatolia (TFR 3.53) (27.1;3,42 in 2011), similar to neighbouring Syria. Similarly, in 2012, the TFR ranged from 1.43 in Kırklareli, to 4.39 in Şanlıurfa. Death statistics from MERNIS are available as of 2009. Mortality data prior to 2009 are incomplete.
|Population (31.12.)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death (per 1000)||Natural increase (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (TFR)|
Birth and death rate by region and year
Total births and deaths by region and year
Natural increase by region and year
Historical fertility rate
Total fertility rate (TFR) by province and year
Structure of the population
Immigration to Turkey is the process by which people migrate to Turkey to reside in the country. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and following Turkish War of Independence, an exodus by the large portion of Turkish (Turkic) and Muslim peoples from the Balkans (Balkan Turks, Albanians, Bosniaks, Pomaks), Caucasus (Abkhazians, Ajarians, 'Circassians', Chechens), Crimea (Crimean Tatar diaspora), and Crete (Cretan Turks) took refuge in present-day Turkey and moulded the country's fundamental features. Trends of immigration towards Turkey continue to this day, although the motives are more varied and are usually in line with the patterns of global immigration movements — Turkey, for example, receives many economic migrants from nearby countries such as Armenia, the Moldova, Georgia, Iran, and Azerbaijan, but also from Central Asia. Turkey's migrant crisis is a period during 2010s characterized by high numbers of people arriving in Turkey.
|Regions||İstanbul||West Marmara||Aegean||East Marmara||West Anatolia||Mediterranean||Central Anatolia||West Black Sea||East Black Sea||Northeast Anatolia||Central East Anatolia||Southeast Anatolia||Total Population|
|West Black Sea||2,637,016||186,103||252,628||458,730||956,151||133,053||54,578||3,982,185||42,935||18,878||21,757||27,735||8,771,749|
|East Black Sea||1,918,805||96,494||152,843||529,110||241,801||70,823||19,104||198,869||2,382,704||33,854||11,852||13,140||5,669,399|
|Central East Anatolia||1,293,157||86,315||359,161||299,390||167,451||393,102||31,612||22,064||11,070||31,709||3,438,577||133,862||6,267,470|
Ethnic groups and languages
No exact data are available concerning the different ethnic groups in Turkey. The last census data according to language date from 1965 and major changes may have occurred since then. However, it is clear that the Turkish are in the majority, while the largest minority groups are Kurds and Arabs. Smaller minorities are the Armenians, Greeks. All ethnic groups are discussed below.
|Language||Census 1935||Census 1945||Census 1965|
The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in a historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity. The question of ethnicity in modern Turkey is a highly debated and difficult issue. Figures published in several different sources prove this difficulty by varying greatly.
It is necessary to take into account all these difficulties and be cautious while evaluating the ethnic groups. A possible list of ethnic groups living in Turkey could be as follows:
- Turkic-speaking peoples: Turks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Karachays, Uzbeks, Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs
- Indo-European-speaking peoples: Kurds, Zazas, Bosniaks, Albanians, Pomaks, Ossetians, Armenians, Hamshenis, Goranis and Greeks
- Semitic-speaking peoples: Arabs, Jews and Assyrians/Syriacs
- Caucasian-speaking peoples: Circassians, Georgians, Lazs and Chechens
According to the 2016 edition of the CIA World Factbook, 70-75% of Turkey's population consists of ethnic Turks, with Kurds accounting for 19% and other minorities between 7 and 12%. According to Milliyet, a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia suggested that there are approximately 55 million ethnic Turks, 9.6 million Kurds, 3 million Zazas, 2.5 million Circassians, 2 million Bosniaks, 500,000-1.3 million Albanians, 1,000,000 Georgians, 870,000 Arabs, 600,000 Pomaks, 80,000 Laz, 60,000 Armenians, 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs, 20,000 Jews, and 15,000 Greeks, 500 Yazidis living in Turkey.
Since the immigration to the big cities in the west of Turkey, interethnic marriage has become more common. A recent study estimates that there are 2,708,000 marriages between Turks and Kurds.
|Anatolian Turks||53,402,000||70.6%||Turkish||1 (National)|
|Kurmanji Kurds||8,127,000||10.7%||Kurmanji||3 (Wider communication)|
|Turcophones Kurds||5,881,000||7.7%||Turkish||1 (National)|
|Lebanese Arabs||1,133,000||1.4 %||Levantine Arabic|
|Kabardians Circassians||1,062,000||1.4 %||Kabardian||5 (Developing)|
|Iraqi Arabs||722,000||0.9%||Mesopotamian Arabic||6a (Vigorous)|
|Romani||500,000 (1985)||0.7%||Romani, Domari|
|Gagauzes||418,000||0.5%||Balkan Gagauz Turkish||7 (Shifting)|
|Pontic Greeks||321,000||0.4 %||Pontic Greek||6a (Vigorous)|
|Adyghe Circassians||316,000||0.4%||Adyghe||5 (Developing)|
|Alevi Kurds||184,000||0.2 %||Zazaki|
|Georgians||151,000||0,1 %||Georgian||6b (Threatened)|
|Crimean Tatars||100,000||0.1%||Crimean Tatar||5 (Developing)|
|Lazs||93,000||0.1%||Laz language||6b (Threatened)|
|Albanians||66,000||Tosk Albanian||6b (Threatened)|
|Jews||30,000||Turkish, Ladino||7 (Shifting)|
|Turks other (Hemshin, Meskhetian Turks, Gajal)||57,000||Turkish|
|Kurds other (Herki and Shikaki)||62,000||Kurdish|
Scale of Ethnologue:
a^ Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue:
0 (International): "The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy."
1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level."
2 (Provincial): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivisions of a nation."
3 (Wider Communication): "The language is used in work and mass media without official status to transcend language differences across a region."
4 (Educational): "The language is in vigorous use, with standardization and literature being sustained through a widespread system of institutionally supported education."
5 (Developing): "The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable."
6a (Vigorous): "The language is used for face-to-face communication by all generations and the situation is sustainable."
6b (Threatened): "The language is used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users."
7 (Shifting): "The child-bearing generation can use the language among themselves, but it is not being transmitted to children."
8a (Moribund): "The only remaining active users of the language are members of the grandparent generation and older."
8b (Nearly Extinct): "The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language."
9 (Dormant): "The language serves as a reminder of heritage identity for an ethnic community, but no one has more than symbolic proficiency."
10 (Extinct): "The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language."
Although numerous modern genetic studies have indicated that the present-day Turkish population is primarily descended from historical Anatolian groups, the first Turkic-speaking people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia and were palpable after the 6th century BC. Seventh-century Chinese sources preserve the origins of the Turks stating that they were a branch of the Hsiung-nu (Huns) and living near the "West Sea", perhaps the Caspian Sea. Modern sources tends to indicate that the Turks' ancestors lived within the state of the Hsiung-nu in the Transbaikal area and that they later, during the fifth century, migrated to the southern Altay.
The word Türk was used only referring to Anatolian villagers back in the 19th century. The Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks. In the late 19th century, as European ideas of nationalism were adopted by the Ottoman elite, and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers will commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and will consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered to be Turks. The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt (Kurd), which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish. Thus, the category Türk, like other ethnic categories popularly used in Turkey, does not have a uniform usage. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multi-cultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey. Currently, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship".
The Kurdish identity remains the strongest of the many minorities in modern Turkey. This is perhaps due to the mountainous terrain of the southeast of the country, where they predominate and represent a majority. They inhabit all major towns and cities across Turkey. However, no accurate up-to-date figures are available for the Kurdish population, since the Turkish government has outlawed ethnic or racial censuses. An estimate by the CIA World Factbook places their proportion of the population at approximately 19%. Another estimate, according to Ibrahim Sirkeci, in his book The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, based on the 1990 Turkish Census and 1993 Turkish Demographic Health Survey, is 17.8%. Other estimates include 15.7% of the population according to the newspaper Milliyet, and 23% by Kurdologist David McDowall.
The Minority Rights Group report of 1985 (by Martin Short and Anthony McDermott) gave an estimate of 15% Kurds in the population of Turkey in 1980, i.e. 8,455,000 out of 44,500,000, with the preceding comment "Nothing, apart from the actual 'borders' of Kurdistan, generates as much heat in the Kurdish question as the estimate of the Kurdish population. Kurdish nationalists are tempted to exaggerate it, and governments of the region to understate it. In Turkey only those Kurds who do not speak Turkish are officially counted for census purposes as Kurds, yielding a very low figure." In Turkey: A Country Study, a 1995 online publication of the U.S. Library of Congress, there is a whole chapter about Kurds in Turkey where it is stated that "Turkey's censuses do not list Kurds as a separate ethnic group. Consequently, there are no reliable data on their total numbers. In 1995 estimates of the number of Kurds in Turkey is about 8.5 million" out of 61.2 million, or 13% of the population at that time. Turkish government statistics show that Kurdish women in Turkey give birth to about four children, more than double the rate for the rest of the Turkish population. Prime Minister Erdogan stated that Kurds could become a majority by 2038. In some Kurdish dominated provinces women give birth to 7.1 children on average. Even though many Kurds have been migrating to cities in Western Turkey or Western Europe, cities in south-east Turkey are still growing at a faster rate than others. Women in Kurdish dominated provinces of eastern Turkey also have an illiteracy rate about three times higher than men, a factor which correlates with higher birth rates. In Şırnak 66 percent of 15-year-old girls could not read or write.
Kurdish national identity is far from being limited to the Kurmanji-language community, as many Kurds whose parents migrated towards Istanbul or other large non-Kurdish cities mostly speak Turkish, which is one of the languages used by the Kurdish nationalist publications.
The population of Arabs in Turkey varies according to different sources. Al Jazeera and the Washington Institute for Near East Policy estimates the Arab population before the Syrian Civil War in 2011 from 1,500,000 to more than 2,000,000, with recent Syrian refugees 2,748,367, so Arabs in Turkey constituency now numbers anywhere from 4.5 to 5.1% of the population. Put another way, with nearly 4-5 million Arab inhabitants.
Armenians in Turkey are indigenous to Anatolia & Armenian highlands well over 3000 years, an estimated population of 40,000 (1995) to 70,000. Most are concentrated around Istanbul. The Armenians support their own newspapers and schools. The majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith, with smaller numbers of Armenian Catholics and Armenian Evangelicals. Their original population during the dying days of the Ottoman Empire was estimated in excess of 3 million, from 1915 to the early 1920s it is estimated that over 1.5 million of them perished during the Armenian Genocide and forced relocations into the Syrian desert.
An estimated 40,000-50,000 Assyrians/Syriacs live in Turkey, with about 17,000 in Istanbul and the other 23-33,000 scattered in southeast Turkey primarily in Turabdin, Diyarbakir, Adiyaman, and Harput respectively. They belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church, and Chaldean Catholic Church. Some Mhallami, a Muslim ethnic group who usually are described as Arabs, have Assyrian/Syriac ancestry. They live in the area between Mardin and Midyat, called in Syriac "I Mhalmayto" (ܗܝ ܡܚܠܡܝܬܐ).
It is difficult to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey, as ethnicity is a rather fluid concept in Turkey, especially amongst Turkic-speaking and Caucasian groups who have been more readily and easily assimilated into mainstream Turkish culture. Up to 300,000 of Azeris who reside in Turkey are citizens of Azerbaijan. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azeris are sometimes referred to as acem (see Ajam) or tat. They currently are the largest ethnic group in the city of Iğdır and second largest ethnic group in Kars.
Since linguistically the two are so similar, the safest way to count or estimate the number of Azeris from the Turks in Turkey is to note the fact that Azeris are practically all Shia Muslims while their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors are Sunni Muslims
Towards the end of the Russo-Circassian War (1763–1864), many Circassians fled their homelands in the North Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Most ethnic Circassians have fully assimilated into Turkish culture, making it difficult to trace, count, or even estimate their ethnic presence.
The Greeks constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, including its district Princes' Islands, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada), and historically also in western Asia Minor (centred on Izmir/Smyrni), the Pontic Alps (centred on Trebzon and Sumelia, see Pontic Greeks), and central Anatolia (Cappadocia) and northeastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus region (Erzinjan, Erzerum, Kars, and Ardahan, see Caucasus Greeks). The Istanbul Greeks are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks permitted under the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange, which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and East Thrace and of half a million Turks from all of Greece except for Western Thrace. After years of persecution (e.g. the Varlık Vergisi (1942–1944) and the Istanbul Pogrom of 1955), emigration of ethnic Greeks from the Istanbul region greatly accelerated, reducing the 120,000-strong Greek minority to about 7,000 by 1978. The 2008 figures released by the Turkish Foreign Ministry places the current number of Turkish citizens of Greek descent at the 2,000–3,000 mark. According to Milliyet there are 15,000 Greeks in Turkey, while according to Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey was estimated at 2,500 in 2006.
Most Laz today live in Turkey, but the Laz minority group has no official status in Turkey. Their number today is estimated to be around 250,000 and 500,000. Only a minority are bilingual in Turkish and their native Laz language which belongs to the South Caucasian group. The number of the Laz speakers is decreasing and is now limited chiefly to the Rize and Artvin areas. The historical term Lazistan — formerly referring to a narrow tract of land along the Black Sea inhabited by the Laz as well as by several other ethnic groups — has been banned from official use and replaced with Doğu Karadeniz (which includes Trabzon). During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the Muslim population of Russia near the war zones was subjected to ethnic cleansing; many Lazes living in Batum fled to the Ottoman Empire, settling along the southern Black Sea coast to the east of Samsun.
The Roma in Turkey descend from the times of the Byzantine Empire. According to some reports, there are about 500,000-700,000 Roma in Turkey. The neighborhood of Sulukule, located in Western Istanbul, is the oldest Roma settlement in Europe. 
Zazas are a people in eastern Anatolia who natively speak the Zaza language. Their heartland, the Dersim region, consists of Tunceli, Bingöl provinces and parts of Elazığ, Erzincan and Diyarbakır provinces. The exact number of Zazas is unknown, due to the absence of recent and extensive census data. The most recent official statistics concerning native language are available for the year 1965, where 147,707 (0.5%) chose Zaza as their native language in Turkey.
According to the latest sources by Ipsos, in 2016 Islam was the major religion in Turkey comprising 82% of the total population, followed by religiously unaffiliated people, comprising 13% of the population, and Christians, forming 0.2%.
There are no official statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim, mostly Sunni, some 10 to 15 million are Alevis. The remaining 0.2% is other - mostly Christians and Jews. However, these are based on the existing religion information written on every citizen's national id card, that is automatically passed on from the parents to every newborn, and do not necessarily represent individual choice. Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations. Therefore, the official number of Muslims also includes people with no religion; converted from Islam to a different religion than Islam; and anyone who is of a different religion than their parents but has not applied for a change of their individual records. It should also be noted that the state allows the individual records to be changed and can have their religion information removed from the identification card, but such change does not affect the official record.
The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 reported that in a poll 96% of Turkish citizens answered that "they believe there is a God", while 1% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". In a Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Turkey's Muslims said that "religion is very important in their lives". Based on the Gallup Poll 2006–08, Turkey was defined as More religious, in which over 63 percent of people believe religion is important. According to the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, 33% of women wear the headscarf or hijab in Turkey however most of them wear a cultural headscarf which is not a symbol of Islam and is used by women in small villages that work under the sun to protect themselves from the sun. 18% of male Muslim citizens regularly attend Friday prayers.
A poll conducted by Eurobarometer, KONDA and some other research institutes in 2013 showed that around 4.5 million of the 15+ population had no religion. Another poll conducted by the same institutions in 2015 showed that that number has reached 5.5 million, which makes roughly 9.4% of the population.
The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:
- 52.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
- 34.3 % defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
- 9.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
- 2.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
- 0.9% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).
- 51% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
- 34% defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
- 10% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
- 2% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
- 3% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).
Among those aged between 15 and 29 years old :
- 43% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
- 45% defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
- 5% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
- 4% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
- 4% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).
Census of 1927
|Language||Mother tongue||Only language spoken||Second best language spoken|
|Province / Language||Turkish||Kurdish||Arabic||Zazaki||Circassian||Greek||Georgian||Armenian||Laz||Pomak||Bosnian||Albanian||Jewish|
Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority
Modern Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as secular (Laiklik, Turkish adaptation of French Laïcité), i.e. without a state religion, or separate ethnic divisions/ identities. The concept of "minorities" has only been accepted by the Republic of Turkey as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) and thence strictly limited to Greeks, Jews and Armenians, only on religious matters, excluding from the scope of the concept the ethnic identities of these minorities as of others such as the Kurds who make up 15% of the country; others include Assyrians/Syriacs of various Christian denominations, Alevis and all the others.
There are many reports from sources such as (Human Rights Watch, European Parliament, European Commission, national parliaments in EU member states, Amnesty International etc.) on persistent yet declining discrimination.
Certain current trends are:
- Turkish imams get salaries from the state, whereas Turkish Alevi as well as non-Orthodox and non-Armenian clerics are not paid
- Imams can be trained freely at the numerous religious schools and theology departments of universities throughout the country; minority religions can not re-open schools for training of their local clerics due to legislation and international treaties dating back to the end of Turkish War of Independence. The closing of the Theological School of Halki is a sore bone of contention between Turkey and the Eastern Orthodox world;
- The Turkish state sends out paid imams, working under authority from the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) to various European or Asian countries with Turkish- or Turkic-speaking populations, with as local heads officials from the Turkish consulates;
- Turkey has recently engaged in promulgating a series of legal enactments aiming at removal of the procedural hurdles before the use of several local languages spoken by Turkish citizens such as Kurdish (Kurmanji), Arabic and Zaza as medium of public communication, together with several other smaller ethnic group languages. A few private Kurdish teaching centers have recently been allowed to open. Kurdish-language TV broadcasts on 7/24 basis at the public frequency denominated in the government-owned TRT 6, while the private national channels show no interest yet. However, there are already several satellite Kurdish TV stations operating from Kurdish Autonomous Region at Northern Iraq and Western Europe, broadcasting in Kurdish, Turkish and Neo-Aramaic languages, Kurdistan TV, KurdSAT, etc.;
- Non-Muslim minority numbers are said to be falling rapidly, mainly as a result of aging, migration (to Israel, Greece, the United States and Western Europe).
- There is concern over the future of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which suffers from a lack of trained clergy due to the closure of the Halki school. The state does not recognise the Ecumenical status of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
According to figures released by the Foreign Ministry in December 2008, there are 89,000 Turkish citizens designated as belonging to a minority, two thirds of Armenian descent.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
0–14 years: 24.26% (male 10,085,558/female 9,627,967)
15–24 years: 15.88% (male 6,589,039/female 6,311,113)
25–54 years: 43.26% (male 17,798,864/female 17,349,228)
55–64 years: 8.82% (male 3,557,329/female 3,606,120)
65 years and over: 7.79% (male 2,825,738/female 3,506,283) (2018 est.)
total population: 32.4 years
male: 31.7 years
female: 33.1 years (2019 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 78.3 years
male: 75.6 years
female: 81.0 years (2019 est.)
urban population: 75.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
female: 93.6% (2016 est.)
- "Turkish Statistical Institute". tuik.gov.tr. 2020-02-04. Retrieved 2020-02-23.
- "Turkish Statistical Institute". Turkstat.gov.tr. 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 (pdf Archived 2012-01-06 at the Wayback Machine pages 83–85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57
- "TurkStat". TurkStat. 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
- "Population Statistics And Projections". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Census of Population ; Social and Economic Characteristics of Population, Turkey". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-16.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". Esa.un.org. 2018-10-08.
- "::Welcome to Turkish Statistical Institute(TurkStat)'s Web Pages". TurkStat. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Turkish Statistical Institute". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) (2012-08-31). "Turkish Statistical Institute Birth Statistics 2012". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "The DHS Program - Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Spatial Distribution of Total Fertility Rate in Turkey" (PDF). Ankara University. 2004. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
- "TurkStat". TurkStat. 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
- "İllerin aldığı, verdiği göç, net göç ve net göç hızı, 1980-2018". Turk.gov.ty. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- (TurkStat), Turkish Statistical Institute. "Turkish Statistical Institute The Results of Address Based Population Registration System 2015". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "İllerin aldığı, verdiği göç, net göç ve net göç hızı, 1980-2016". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Yaş grubu ve cinsiyete göre il/ilçe merkezi ve belde/köy nüfusu, 2007-2016". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- Modern Turkey, Bill Park, Taylor & Francis, 2011, page 10
- "UN Demographic Yearbooks". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Icduygu, A., Toktas, S., & Soner, B. A. (2008). The politics of population in a nation-building process: Emigration of non-muslims from turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(2), 358-389.
- American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition - "Turk"". Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
- Andrews, Peter A. Ethnic groups in the Republic of Turkey., Beiheft Nr. B 60, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Wiesbaden: Reichert Publications, 1989, ISBN 3-89500-297-6 ; + 2nd enlarged edition in 2 vols., 2002, ISBN 3-89500-229-1
-  Archived October 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Turkey. The World Factbook. CIA
- "Türkiyedeki Kürtlerin Sayısı!". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- Kurdish Life in Contemporary Turkey: Migration, Gender and Ethnic Identity, Anna Grabolle Celiker, page 160, I.B.Tauris, 2013
- "Turkey". Ethnologue.
- "Turquie: situation générale". Axl.cefan.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- Yardumian, A.; Yardumian, T. G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks?". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 50: 6–42. doi:10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101. S2CID 142580885.
- Hodoğlugil, U. U.; Mahley, R. W. (2012). "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 76 (2): 128–141. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x. PMC 4904778. PMID 22332727.
- Rosser, Z.; Zerjal, T.; Hurles, M.; Adojaan, M.; Alavantic, D.; Amorim, A.; Amos, W.; Armenteros, M.; Arroyo, E.; Barbujani, G.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Bertranpetit, J.; Bosch, E.; Bradley, D. G.; Brede, G.; Cooper, G.; Côrte-Real, H. B.; De Knijff, P.; Decorte, R.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Evgrafov, O.; Gilissen, A.; Glisic, S.; Gölge, M.; Hill, E. W.; Jeziorowska, A.; Kalaydjieva, L.; Kayser, M.; Kivisild, T. (2000). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–1543. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479.
- Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (March 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Hum. Genet. 112 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050. S2CID 13232436. Archived 2013-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Kivisild, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Cavalleri, G. L.; Lillie, A. S.; Roseman, C. C.; Lin, A. A.; Prince, K.; Oefner, P. J.; Shen, P.; Semino, O.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Underhill, P. A. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–148. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. S2CID 10763736.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Karin, M.; Bendikuze, N.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Moscoso, J.; Silvera, C.; Oguz, F. S.; Sarper Diler, A.; De Pacho, A.; Allende, L.; Guillen, J.; Martinez Laso, J. (2001). "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 308–317. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004308.x. PMID 11380939.
- Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.; Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Pitchappan, R.; Shanmugalakshmi, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Read, M.; Pearson, N. M.; Zerjal, T.; Webster, M. T.; Zholoshvili, I.; Jamarjashvili, E.; Gambarov, S.; Nikbin, B.; Dostiev, A.; Aknazarov, O.; Zalloua, P.; Tsoy, I.; Kitaev, M.; Mirrakhimov, M.; Chariev, A.; Bodmer, W. F. (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (18): 10244–10249. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9810244W. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236.
- Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p.64
- Leiser, Gary (2005), "Turks", in Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization, Routledge
- (Kushner 1997: 219; Meeker 1971: 322)
- Similarly, the Hellene was a derogatory term among Greeks in the same period, its renewed popularity in the 19th Century – like that of Türk – deriving from European ideas of nationalism
- (Kushner 1997: 220-221)
- (Meeker 1971: 322)
- (Meeker 1971: 323)
- (Kushner 1997: 230)
- Milliyet. "55 milyon kişi 'etnik olarak' Türk". Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- KONDA Research and Consultancy, Social Structure Survey 2006 Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. "Country Profile: Turkey" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- CIA. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- "Kürt Meselesi̇ni̇ Yeni̇den Düşünmek" (PDF). KONDA. July 2010. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "CIA World Factbook". CIA. 2018. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim (2006). The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-0-7734-5739-3. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
- David McDowall. A Modern History of the Kurds. Third Edition. I.B.Tauris, May 14, 2004 - 504 pages, page 3.
- "Turkey - Kurds". countrystudies.us.
- "Turkey - Arabs". countrystudies.us.
- "Turkey's demographic challenge". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response/ Turkey". UNHCR. 31 December 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- Ibrahim, KAYA (8 November 2017). "The Iraqi Refugee Crisis and Turkey: a Legal Outlook". Cadmus.eui.eu. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Turkey". Washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays.com. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Hür, Ayşe (2008-08-31). "Türk Ermenisiz, Ermeni Türksüz olmaz!". Taraf (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
Sonunda nüfuslarını 70 bine indirmeyi başardık.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2016-12-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Life of Azerbaijanis in Turkey Archived 2003-12-29 at the Wayback Machine. An interview with Sayyad Aran, Consul General of the Azerbaijan Republic to Istanbul. Azerbaijan Today
- "DomRaider - Decentralized Blockchain Auction". DomRaider / ICO. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- (in Turkish) Iğdır Sevdası, Mücahit Özden Hun
- (in Turkish) KARS: AKP'nin kozu tarım desteği. Milliyet. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2008
- "Η μειονότητα των Ορθόδοξων Χριστιανών στις επίσημες στατιστικές της σύγχρονης Τουρκίας και στον αστικό χώρο". Demography-lab.prd.uth.gr. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-07). "Sermaye nasıl el değiştirdi?". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-25.
6-7 Eylül olaylarından önce İstanbul'da 135 bin Rum yaşıyordu. Sonrasında bu sayı 70 bine düştü. 1978'e gelindiğinde bu rakam 7 bindi.
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Archived from the original on 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- Lois Whitman Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity: The Greeks of Turkey. Human Rights Watch, Sep 1, 1992 - 54 pages. Page 2 
- Hunter, Shireen (2010). Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 9780313381942.
- MacMillan, Margaret. The Uses and Abuses of History. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- bianet.org Archived April 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "僕が突き進む道はこれだ！人生山あり谷ありのものでも僕はめげないとキメた日は今日という日になります。 – 人生は楽しい。". Lightningturkish.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "ecoi.net". ecoi.net. Archived from the original on 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Turkey - General Information". Usefoundation.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2005-07-22). "Refworld | Roma rights organizations work to ease prejudice in Turkey". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Roma Rights Organizations Work to Ease Prejudice in Turkey". EurasiaNet.org. 2005-07-21. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
-  Archived July 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "Sulukule". rroma.org. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "AMONG SOCIAL KURDISH GROUPS – GENERAL GLANCE AT ZAZAS". Zazaki.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Malmisanıj - Kırd, Kırmanc, Dımıli veya Zaza Kürtleri".
- "Religion, Ipsos Global Trends". Ipsos. 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
- "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005" (PDF). Eurobarometer. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Wike, Richard; Juliana Menasce Horowitz. "Lebanon's Muslims: Relatively Secular and Pro-Christian". Pew Global Attitudes Project.
- "2009 Gallup poll Gallup Poll". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Gallup World View Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Lamb, Christina (2007-04-23). "Head scarves to topple secular Turkey?". The Times. London.
- Lamb, Christina (2007-05-06). "Headscarf war threatens to split Turkey". Times Online. London.
- Clark-Flory, Tracy (2007-04-23). "Head scarves to topple secular Turkey?". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- "Türkiye'deki Ateist Nüfus Hızla Artıyor". Onedio.com. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- tr:Türkiye demografisi#N.C3.BCfus Piramidi[circular reference]
- Religious Freedom Report U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2009-09-15.
- KONDA Research and Consultancy (2007-09-08). "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in daily life" (PDF). Milliyet. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25.
- "KONDA Toplumsal Değişim Raporu: Türkiye'de inançsızlık yükselişte". euronews (in Turkish). 2019-01-03. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
- "Hayat Tarzı - 10 Yılda Ne Değişti?". interaktif.konda.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
- "Hayat Tarzı - 10 Yılda Gençlerde Ne Değişti?". interaktif.konda.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
- "1927 yılı Genel Nüfus Sayımı Sonuçları". Wowturkey.com. 1927-10-28. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, ISBN 2-7637-7044-4
- Ahmet Buran Ph.D., Türkiye'de Diller ve Etnik Gruplar, 2012
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Archived from the original on 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- "Türkiye'nin nüfusu (2020) belli oldu". www.sozcu.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-08-04.
- "Türkiye'de yaşlı nüfus arttı". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-08-04.
- All data taken from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Data is for xxxx-12-31.
- Including Osmaniye
- Including Kırıkkale
- Including parts of Düzce
- Including parts of Karabük
- Including Bayburt
- Including parts of Şırnak
- Including Ardahan and Iğdır
- Including parts of Düzce
- Including Karaman
- Including parts of Batman and parts of Şırnak
- Including Aksaray
- Including parts of Batman and parts of Şırnak
- Including Bartın and parts of Karabük
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demographics of Turkey.|