Demographics of Uganda

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Uganda, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population[edit]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[1] the total population was 41,487,965 in 2016, compared to only 5,158,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2015 was 48.1 percent, 49.4 percent was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.5 percent was 65 years or older.[2]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 5,158,000 43.1 54.0 3.0
1955 5,899,000 45.1 52.1 2.8
1960 6,788,000 45.9 51.5 2.6
1965 8,014,000 46.6 50.9 2.6
1970 9,446,000 46.9 50.5 2.6
1975 10,827,000 47.3 50.0 2.6
1980 12,548,000 47.6 49.7 2.6
1985 14,631,000 47.8 49.6 2.7
1990 17,384,000 48.0 49.3 2.7
1995 20,413,000 48.5 48.8 2.7
2000 23,758,000 48.7 48.6 2.7
2005 28,042,000 48.8 48.7 2.5
2010 33,149,000 49.1 48.5 2.5
2014 Census Results 34,856,000 47.9 49.2 2.7

United Nations population projections[edit]

Numbers are in thousands.

UN medium var 2050 101,873

Refugee population[edit]

According to the UNHCR, Uganda hosts over 1.1 million refugees on its soil as of November 2018.[3] Most come from neighbouring countries in the African Great Lakes region, particularly South Sudan (68.0 percent) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (24.6%).[3]

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of births and deaths in Uganda is not yet complete. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs prepared the following estimates. [2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 283 000 135 000 148 000 51.3 24.5 26.8 6.90 160
1955–1960 317 000 139 000 178 000 50.0 22.0 28.0 6.95 145
1960–1965 365 000 144 000 220 000 49.3 19.5 29.8 7.05 130
1965–1970 428 000 152 000 276 000 49.0 17.4 31.6 7.12 117
1970–1975 494 000 156 000 338 000 48.7 16.7 33.3 7.10 112
1975–1980 573 000 187 000 386 000 48.9 16.6 32.8 7.10 111
1980–1985 673 000 222 000 451 000 49.3 16.9 32.8 7.10 113
1985–1990 802 000 269 000 533 000 49.6 18.1 32.8 7.10 116
1990–1995 955 000 353 000 602 000 49.8 19.0 31.3 7.06 110
1995–2000 1 096 000 399 000 686 000 48.8 18.1 30.4 6.95 98
2000–2005 1 261 000 381 000 845 000 47.8 14.7 32.1 6.75 81
2005–2010 1 411 000 363 000 1 026 000 46.1 11.9 33.2 6.38 70
2010–2015 1 576 000 370 000 1 207 000 43.7 10.2 33.2 6.38 61
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)(Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4][5][6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1982-1984 7.4 6.1 7.6
1985-1988 7.4 5.7 7.6
1995 47.8 6.86 (5.6) 47.7 4.97 (3.8) 47.8 7.17 (5.9)
2000-2001 47.3 6.9 (5.3) 41.3 4.0 (3.2) 48.0 7.4 (5.7)
2006 44.8 6.7 41.0 4.4 45.3 7.1
2011 42.1 6.2 (5.1) 40.3 3.8 (3.6) 42.4 6.8 (5.5)
2014 census[7] 5.8
2016 38.7 5.4 (4.3) 37.0 4.0 (3.4) 39.3 5.9 (4.6)

Fertility data as of 2011 and 2016 (DHS Program):[8]

Region Total fertility rate (Wanted fertility rate) 2011 Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant 2011 Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 2011
Kampala 3.3 (2.9) 8.3 5.0
Buganda 1 5.6 (4.2) 9.9 7.2
Buganda 2 6.3 (4.6) 9.6 7.1
East Buganda 6.9 (4.4) 13.7 7.9
Eastern 7.5 (5.3) 12.5 7.5
Karamoja 6.4 (5.8) 18.7 7.5
North 6.3 (4.3) 12.4 7.3
West Nile 6.8 (5.1) 10.4 7.4
Western 6.4 (4.7) 13.2 7.4
Southwest 6.2 (4.4) 11.3 7.2
Region Total fertility rate (Wanted fertility rate) 2016 Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant 2016 Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 2016
Kampala 3.5 (3.1) 6.6 4.7
Karamoja 7.9 (7.4) 15.1 7.8
West Nile 6.0 (5.0) 8.9 6.7
South Buganda 4.7 (3.9) 8.5 6.4
North Buganda 5.4 (4.3) 10.3 6.9
Busoga 6.1 (4.5) 12.4 7.5
Bukedi 6.1 (4.3) 13.7 7.4
Bugisu 5.6 (4.3) 9.3 6.8
Teso 6.0 (4.8) 10.4 7.8
Lango 5.1 (3.9) 10.4 7.1
Acholi 5.5 (3.8) 9.6 7.1
Bunyoro 6.0 (4.4) 8.5 6.8
Tooro 5.4 (4.4) 10.6 7.0
Kigezi 4.6 (3.8) 9.7 6.1
Ankole 4.9 (4.2) 8.8 6.4
An ethnolinguistic map of Uganda.

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[9]
1950–1955 40.00
1955–1960 Increase 42.60
1960–1965 Increase 45.39
1965–1970 Increase 48.12
1970–1975 Increase 49.14
1975–1980 Increase 49.33
1980–1985 Decrease 49.05
1985–1990 Decrease 46.86
1990–1995 Decrease 44.57
1995–2000 Increase 44.98
2000–2005 Increase 49.92
2005–2010 Increase 55.15
2010–2015 Increase 58.61

South Asians and Arabs[edit]

During the Uganda Protectorate period, the British colonialists used South Asian immigrants as intermediaries. Following independence they constituted the largest non-indigenous ethnic group in Uganda, at around 80,000 people, and they dominated trade, industry, and the professions. This caused resentment among the native African majority, which was exploited by post-Independence leaders.

After Idi Amin came to power in 1971, he declared "economic war" on the Indians, culminating in the Expulsion of Asians in Uganda in 1972. Since Amin's overthrow in 1979 some Asians have returned. There are between 15,000 and 25,000 in Uganda today, nearly all in the capital Kampala.

There are also about 10,000 Europeans, mostly of native English origin, and 3,000 Arabs of various national origins in Uganda.

Other demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics of Uganda in 2019 are from the World Population Review.[10]

The population of Uganda (2005 FAO data; number of inhabitants in millions)
  • One birth every 17 seconds
  • One death every 1 minutes
  • One net migrant every 18 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 22 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[11]

Population[edit]

40,853,749 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Uganda in 2017
0-14 years: 47.84% (male 9,753,880 /female 9,789,455)
15-24 years: 21.04% (male 4,250,222 /female 4,347,313)
25-54 years: 26.52% (male 5,422,096 /female 5,412,112)
55-64 years: 2.64% (male 522,637 /female 554,287)
65 years and over: 1.96% (male 351,481 /female 450,266) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 15.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 225th
male: 15.8 years
female: 16 years (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

42.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 5th
42.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate[edit]

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 40th
10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

5.62 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 7th

Population growth rate[edit]

3.18% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th
3.2% (2017 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

18.9 years (2011 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

38.4% (2017)

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 133th

Demographic profile[edit]

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.[11]

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.[11]

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.[11]

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 101.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 97.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 23.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 estimate)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 56.3 years
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.8 years (2018 est.)
total population: 63.3 years
male: 62.2 years
female: 64.2 years (2014 population census Ubos)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Ugandan
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups[edit]

[12]

Religions[edit]

Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)

Languages[edit]

English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Swahili (recently made second official language, important regionally but spoken by very few people in Uganda) Luganda (most widely used of the Niger–Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Bantu languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, and Arabic.

Education expenditures[edit]

2.6% of GDP (2017) Country comparison to the world: 159th

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 2.6%
male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b "Uganda Comprehensive Refugee Response Portal". Operational Data Portal. UNHCR. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  4. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  5. ^ "The DHS Program - Uganda: Standard DHS, 2011". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  6. ^ "The DHS Program - Uganda: Standard DHS, 2016". Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. ^ "National Population and Housing Census 2014" (PDF). Ubos.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Uganda : Demographic and Health Survey 2011" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  10. ^ "Uganda Population 2019", World Population Review, June 6, 2018
  11. ^ a b c d Uganda: People, CIA World Factbook, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ "Africa :: UGANDA". CIA The World Factbook.