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Demographics of Metro Vancouver

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The demographics of Metro Vancouver indicate a multicultural and multiracial region. Metro Vancouver is a metropolitan area, with its major urban centre being Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The Vancouver census metropolitan area, as defined by Statistics Canada, encompasses roughly the same territory as the Metro Vancouver Regional District, a regional district in British Columbia. The regional district includes 23 local authorities. Figures provided here are for the Vancouver census metropolitan area and not for the City of Vancouver.

Population growth

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The following table shows the development of the number of inhabitants according to census data of Statistics Canada. The former municipalities of Point Grey and South Vancouver are not included in the data prior to 1931.[1][a]

Population by municipality

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The Metro Vancouver Regional District comprises 23 member authorities — 21 municipalities, one electoral area, and one treaty First Nation.[3]

Metro Vancouver member populations (edit)
Member Census subdivision Population (2021) Population (2016) % change (2016–2021) 2021 provincial rank
Anmore Village 2,356 2,210 +6.6% 185th
Belcarra Village 687 643 +6.8% 301st
Bowen Island Island municipality 4,256 3,680 +15.7% 118th
Burnaby City 249,125 232,755 +7.0% 3rd
Coquitlam City 148,625 139,284 +6.7% 6th
Delta City 108,455 102,238 +6.1% 10th
City of Langley City 28,963 25,888 +11.9% 30th
Township of Langley District municipality 132,603 117,285 +13.1% 8th
Lions Bay Village 1,390 1,334 +4.2% 251st
Maple Ridge City 90,990 82,256 +10.6% 15th
Metro Vancouver A Regional district electoral area 18,612 16,133 +15.4% 39th
New Westminster City 78,916 70,996 +11.2% 17th
City of North Vancouver City 58,120 52,898 +9.9% 20th
District of North Vancouver District municipality 88,168 85,649 +2.9% 16th
Pitt Meadows City 19,146 18,573 +3.1% 37th
Port Coquitlam City 61,498 58,612 +4.9% 19th
Port Moody City 33,535 33,551 ±0.0% 28th
Richmond City 209,937 198,309 +5.9% 4th
Surrey City 568,322 517,887 +9.7% 2nd
Tsawwassen First Nation 2,256 816 +176.5% 191st
Vancouver City 662,248 631,486 +4.9% 1st
West Vancouver District municipality 44,122 42,473 +3.9% 23rd
White Rock City 21,939 19,952 +10.0% 33rd
Metro Vancouver 2,642,825 2,463,431 +7.3%
Source: Statistics Canada[4]; Metro Vancouver Regional District[5]

Ethnic diversity

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The demographics of Metro Vancouver reveal a multi-ethnic society. There remains a small population, less than 2%, of Aboriginal peoples, who according to archeological and historical records, have inhabited this region for more than 3,000 years.[citation needed]

From the time of the region's first non-indigenous settlement in the second half of the 19th century, people from Britain and Ireland were the largest group of immigrants and, collectively, remain the largest ethnic grouping in Vancouver to this day. The largest non British or Irish ethnic groups situated in Vancouver include Chinese, Indians and Germans.

The metropolitan area has one of the most diverse Chinese-speaking communities with several varieties of Chinese being represented. Metro Vancouver contains the second-largest Chinatown in North America (after San Francisco's), and many multicultural neighbourhoods such as the Punjabi Market, Greektown, and Japantown. Commercial Drive, the core of the historic Little Italy, which is also the main Portuguese area, has become an alternative-culture focus, though traditional Italian and Portuguese and other establishments and residents remain in the area. Bilingual street signs can be seen in Chinatown and the Punjabi Market, and commercial signs in a wide array of languages can be seen all over the metropolitan area.

Metro Vancouver

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Ethnic origin Population (2016)[6] Percent of 2016 population (2,426,235) Population (2006)[7] Percent of 2006 population (2,097,960)
Cornish 245 0% 225 0.02%
English 470,340 19.4% 500,340 24.09%
Irish 275,355 11.3% 251,695 12.00%
Manx 770 0% 640 0.03%
Scottish 341,075 14.1% 337,230 16.07%
Welsh 44,935 1.9% 41,805 1.99%
British n.i.e. 55,695 2.3% 35,505 1.69%
Acadians 1,520 0.1% 1,280 0.06%
French 147,835 6.1% 137,270 6.54%
Inuit 600 0% 580 0.03%
Métis 24,505 1% 17,110 0.82%
North American Indian 52,305 2.2% 43,190 2.06%
American 32,115 1.3% 27,000 1.29%
Canadian 331,205 13.7% 278,350 13.27%
Newfoundlander 660 0% 390 0.02%
Nova Scotian 75 0% 120 0.01%
Ontarian 35 0% 20 less than 0.01%
Québécois 750 0% 350 0.02%
Other North American provincial or regional groups 170 0% 150 0.01%
Antiguan 130 0% 105 0.01%
Bahamian 160 0% 50 less than 0.01%
Barbadian 1,310 0.1% 925 0.04%
Bermudan 155 0% 100 less than 0.01%
Carib 60 0% 85 less than 0.01%
Cuban 870 0% 640 0.03%
Dominican n.o.s. 535 0% 295 0.01%
Grenadian 280 0% 175 0.01%
Guyanese 1,240 0.1% 825 0.04%
Haitian 635 0% 405 0.02%
Jamaican 6,455 0.3% 4,645 0.22%
Kittitian/Nevisian 95 0% 15 less than 0.01%
Martinican 20 0% 40 less than 0.01%
Montserratian 15 0% 20 less than 0.01%
Puerto Rican 280 0% 260 0.01%
St. Lucian 115 0% 80 less than 0.01%
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 3,120 0.1% 2,185 0.10%
Vincentian/Grenadinian 325 0% 120 0.01%
West Indian 1,440 0.1% 1,245 0.06%
Caribbean n.i.e. 1,485 0.1% 620 0.03%
Aboriginal from Central/South America 1,790 0.1% 830 0.04%
Argentines 1,360 0.1% 790 0.04%
Belizean 35 0% 160 less than 0.01%
Bolivian 185 0% 190 less than 0.01%
Brazilian 4,065 0.2% 1,115 0.05%
Chilean 3,840 0.2% 2,935 0.14%
Colombian 4,600 0.2% 2,125 0.10%
Costa Rican 460 0% 355 0.02%
Ecuadorian 740 0% 225 0.01%
Guatemalan 1,985 0.1% 1,405 0.07%
Hispanic 1,200 0% 555 0.03%
Honduran 1,120 0% 745 0.04%
Maya 620 0% 575 0.03%
Mexican 15,115 0.6% 7,680 0.37%
Nicaragua 1,060 0% 860 0.04%
Panamanian 195 0% 145 0.01%
Paraguayan 285 0% 170 0.01%
Peruvian 3,100 0.1% 1,910 0.09%
Salvadoran 5,310 0.2% 5,760 0.27%
Uruguayan 285 0% 60 less than 0.01%
Venezuelan 1,555 0.1% 535 0.03%
Latin, Central or South American n.i.e. 2,450 0.1% 1,225 0.06%
Austrian 21,260 0.9% 21,500 1.02%
Belgian 8,205 0.3% 6,555 0.31%
Dutch (Netherlands) 77,635 3.2% 71,710 3.42%
Flemish 955 0% 815 0.04%
Frisian 195 0% 155 0.01%
German 222,025 9.2% 203,715 9.71%
Luxembourger 330 0% 235 0.01%
Swiss 11,340 0.5% 10,130 0.48%
Finnish 14,085 0.6% 12,745 0.61%
Danish 23,025 0.9% 22,800 1.09%
Icelandic 11,055 0.5% 9,630 0.46%
Norwegian 49,335 2% 46,260 2.20%
Swedish 40,690 1.7% 39,920 1.90%
Northern European n.i.e. 5,320 0.2% 3,830 0.18%
Estonian 2,540 0.1% 2,590 0.12%
Latvian 2,455 0.1% 2,160 0.10%
Lithuanian 4,155 0.2% 3,100 0.15%
Belarusian 1,825 0.1% 820 0.04%
Czech 11,710 0.5% 10,385 0.50%
Czechoslovak 2,560 0.1% 2,810 0.13%
Slovak 6,345 0.3% 5,700 0.27%
Hungarian (Magyar) 25,860 1.1% 23,365 1.11%
Polish 70,590 2.9% 60,715 2.89%
Romanian 17,490 0.7% 14,055 0.67%
Russian 58,535 2.4% 47,935 2.28%
Ukrainian 94,400 3.9% 81,725 3.90%
Albanian 1,330 0.1% 650 0.03%
Bosnian 2,675 0.1% 2,535 0.12%
Bulgaria 2,940 0.1% 1,960 0.09%
Croatian 15,670 0.6% 12,475 0.59%
Cypriot 345 0% 270 0.01%
Greek 16,085 0.7% 15,025 0.72%
Italian 87,875 3.6% 76,345 3.64%
Kosovar 170 0% 85 less than 0.01%
Macedonian 865 0% 600 0.03%
Maltese 1,185 0% 990 0.05%
Montenegrin 600 0% 370 0.02%
Portuguese 24,575 1% 20,335 0.97%
Serbian 10,160 0.4% 7,690 0.37%
Sicilian 210 0% 180 0.01%
Slovenian 3,050 0.1% 2,475 0.12%
Spanish 43,990 1.8% 36,000 1.72%
Yugoslavs 3,275 0.1% 5,525 0.26%
Basque 475 0% 405 0.02%
Gypsy (Roma) 325 0% 250 0.01%
Jewish 11,230 0.5% 21,465 1.02%
misc. Slav (European) 505 0% 760 0.04%
Other European n.i.e. 6,470 0.3% 3,975 0.19%
Afrikaner 365 0% 290 0.01%
Akan 30 0% 25 less than 0.01%
Amhara 115 0% 65 less than 0.01%
Angolan 55 0% 70 less than 0.01%
Ashanti 65 0% 65 less than 0.01%
Bantu 235 0% 170 0.01%
Black 1,460 0.1% 3,005 0.14%
Burundian 195 0% 90 less than 0.01%
Congolese (Zairian) people 675 0% 75 less than 0.01%
Congolese n.o.s. 400 0% 85 less than 0.01%
Dinka 15 0% 25 less than 0.01%
East African people 1,390 0.1% 610 0.03%
Eritrean 950 0% 335 0.02%
Ethiopian 2,020 0.1% 1,625 0.08%
Gabonese 10 0% 10 less than 0.01%
Gambian 20 0% 15 less than 0.01%
Ghanaian 1,270 0.1% 1,100 less than 0.01%
Guinean n.o.s. 125 0% 95 less than 0.01%
Ibo 200 0% 15 less than 0.01%
Ivoirian 45 0% 15 less than 0.01%
Kenyan 1,170 0% 765 0.04%
Malagasay 80 0% 35 less than 0.01%
Mauritian 760 0% 325 0.02%
Nigerian 1,680 0.1% 880 0.04%
Oromo 120 0% 145 0.01%
Rwandan 305 0% 225 0.01%
Senegalese 45 0% 20 less than 0.01%
Seychellois 15 0% 20 less than 0.01%
Sierra Leonean 90 0% 115 0.01%
Somali 2,105 0.1% 1,320 0.06%
South African 6,485 0.3% 4,120 0.20%
Sudanese 940 0% 705 less than 0.01%
Tanzanian 425 0% 135 0.01%
Tigrian 180 0% 50 less than 0.01%
Togolese 80 0% 15 less than 0.01%
Ugandan 595 0% 360 0.02%
Yoruba 130 0% 80 less than 0.01%
Zambian 120 0% 40 less than 0.01%
Zimbabwean 565 0% 230 0.01%
Zulu 65 0% 70 less than 0.01%
African n.i.e. 10,325 0.4% 6,490 0.31%
Egyptian 3,405 0.1% 2,120 0.10%
Iraqi 5,205 0.2% 1,805 0.09%
Jordanian 585 0% 300 0.01%
Kuwaiti 100 0% 75 less than 0.01%
Lebanese 5,320 0.2% 6,175 0.29%
Libyan 210 0% 25 less than 0.01%
Algerian 615 0% 390 0.02%
Berber 185 0% 150 0.01%
Moroccan 1,480 0.1% 635 0.03%
Tunisian 380 0% 70 less than 0.01%
Maghrebi origins n.i.e. 170 0% 160 0.01%
Palestinian 2,245 0.1% 1,050 0.05%
Saudi Arabian 550 0% 255 0.01%
Syrian 2,780 0.1% 925 0.04%
Yemeni 255 0% 75 less than 0.01%
Arab n.i.e. 4,655 0.2% 3,075 0.15%
Afghan 7,500 0.3% 4,620 0.22%
Armenian 2,845 0.1% 2,700 0.15%
Assyrian 450 0% 355 0.02%
Azeribaijani 890 0% 405 0.02%
Georgian 550 0% 240 0.01%
Iranian 44,355 1.8% 27,155 1.29%
Israeli 2,075 0.1% 765 0.04%
Kurd 1,980 0.1% 1,145 0.05%
Pashtun 325 0% 170 0.01%
Tatar 650 0% 235 0.01%
Turk 5,185 0.2% 3,380 0.16%
West Asian n.i.e. 2,135 0.1% 1,350 0.06%
Bangladeshi 1,510 0.1% 785 0.04%
Bengali 755 0% 415 0.02%
Indian 243,135 10% 181,895 8.67%
Goan 320 0% 280 0.01%
Gujarati 615 0% 515 0.02%
Kashmiri 145 0% 70 less than 0.01%
Nepali 1,155 0% 460 0.02%
Pakistani 10,825 0.4% 6,875 0.33%
Punjabi 30,670 1.3% 13,735 0.65%
Sinhalese 530 0% 415 0.02%
Sri Lankan 5,065 0.2% 3,740 0.18%
Tamil 1,060 0% 740 0.04%
South Asian n.i.e. 7,200 0.3% 6,495 0.31%
Burmese 1,970 0.1% 865 0.04%
Cambodian 2,510 0.1% 1,525 0.07%
Chinese 499,175 20.6% 402,000 19.16%
Filipino 133,925 5.5% 83,760 3.99%
Hmong 115 0% 75 less than 0.01%
Indonesian 4,935 0.2% 3,140 0.15%
Japanese 37,630 1.6% 30,230 1.44%
Khmer 0 0% 135 0.01%
Korean 55,505 2.3% 46,040 2.19%
Laotian 1,775 0.1% 1,065 0.05%
Malaysian 4,230 0.2% 3,365 0.16%
Mongolian 1,000 0% 680 0.03%
Singaporean 895 0% 515 0.02%
Taiwanese 20,345 0.8% 9,810 0.47%
Thai 3,330 0.1% 1,565 0.07%
Tibetan 445 0% 100 Less than 0.01%
Vietnamese 34,915 1.4% 26,115 1.24%
East or Southeast Asian n.i.e. 630 0% 1,170 0.06%
Asian n.o.s. 1,805 0.1% 80 less than 0.01%
Australian 8,360 0.3% 5,525 0.26%
New Zealander 3,340 0.1% 2,390 0.11%
Fijian 13,085 0.5% 8,920 0.43%
Hawaiian 865 0% 660 0.03%
Māori 565 0% 375 0.02%
Polynesia 345 0% 265 0.01%
Samoan 245 0% 160 0.01%
Pacific Islander n.i.e. 680 210 0.01%
Note: Percentages total more than 100% due to multiple responses, e.g. German–East Indian, Norwegian–Irish–Polish


Panethnic groups in Metro Vancouver (1981–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[8][9] 2016[10][11] 2011[12][13] 2006[14] 2001[15] 1996[16][17][18] 1981[17][18][19]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[b][c] 1,124,475 43.13% 1,179,100 48.6% 1,197,985 52.53% 1,182,355 56.36% 1,204,970 61.24% 1,218,195 67.16% 1,066,460 85.28%
East Asian[d] 606,920 23.28% 557,745 22.99% 488,240 21.41% 451,790 21.53% 395,540 20.1% 318,005 17.53% 98,895 7.91%
South Asian 369,295 14.17% 291,005 11.99% 252,405 11.07% 207,165 9.87% 164,365 8.35% 120,140 6.62% 34,820 2.78%
Southeast Asian[e] 198,940 7.63% 168,075 6.93% 156,315 6.85% 112,365 5.36% 85,485 4.34% 61,085 3.37% 17,270 1.38%
Middle Eastern[f] 87,090 3.34% 62,440 2.57% 48,870 2.14% 35,590 1.7% 27,340 1.39% 18,155 1% 4,525 0.36%
Indigenous 63,345 2.43% 61,455 2.53% 52,375 2.3% 40,310 1.92% 36,855 1.87% 31,140 1.72% 10,850 0.87%
Latin American 51,500 1.98% 34,805 1.43% 29,125 1.28% 22,695 1.08% 18,715 0.95% 13,830 0.76% 3,025 0.24%
African 41,180 1.58% 29,830 1.23% 23,545 1.03% 20,670 0.99% 18,405 0.94% 16,400 0.9% 2,570 0.21%
Other/multiracial[g] 65,350 2.51% 41,780 1.72% 31,835 1.4% 25,035 1.19% 15,810 0.8% 16,990 0.94% 12,195 0.98%
Total visible minority 1,420,275 54.48% 1,185,680 48.87% 1,030,335 45.18% 875,310 41.72% 725,660 36.88% 564,600 31.13% 173,300 13.86%
Total responses 2,607,015 98.65% 2,426,235 98.49% 2,280,695 98.59% 2,097,965 99.12% 1,967,480 99.02% 1,813,935 99.03% 1,250,610 98.61%
Total population 2,642,825 100% 2,463,431 100% 2,313,328 100% 2,116,581 100% 1,986,965 100% 1,831,665 100% 1,268,183 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses

Visible minorities

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In the city of Vancouver and four adjacent municipalities (Surrey, Burnaby, Richmond, and Coquitlam), there is no visible majority. Hence, the term visible minority is used here in contrast to the overall Canadian population which remains predominantly of European descent. In Metro Vancouver, at the 2021 census, 54.5% of the population were members of non-European ethnic groups, 43.1% were members of European ethnic groups, and 2.4% of the population identified as Indigenous.

Greater Vancouver has more interracial couples than Canada's two largest cities, Toronto and Montreal. In 2011, 9.6% of married and common-law couples in Greater Vancouver are interracial; double the Canadian average of 4.6%,[20] and higher than in the Toronto CMA (8.2%) and the Greater Montreal (5.2%). Vancouver has less residential segregation of its ethnic minorities compared to Canadian cities like Montreal.[21] However, residential segregation in Greater Vancouver continues to persist in certain parts of the metropolitan area.

Population statistics for visible minorities in Greater Vancouver
Population group 2021[8][9] 1981[22][17]
Pop. % Pop. %
Total European population 1,124,475 43.1% 1,066,460 85.3%
Total Indigenous population 63,345 2.4% 10,850 0.9%
Visible minority group Chinese 512,260 19.6% 83,845 6.7%
South Asian 369,295 14.2% 34,820 2.8%
Filipino 142,125 5.5% 12,830 1%
Korean 63,465 2.4% 3,335 0.3%
West Asian 64,645 2.5% 2,220 0.2%
Southeast Asian 56,815 2.2% 4,440 0.4%
Latin American 51,500 2% 3,025 0.2%
Japanese 31,195 1.2% 11,715 0.9%
Black 41,180 1.6% 2,570 0.2%
Arab 22,445 0.9% 2,305 0.2%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 14,745 0.6% N/A N/A
Multiple visible minorities 50,605 1.9% N/A N/A
Total visible minority population 1,420,275 54.5% 173,300[19] 13.9%
Total responses 2,607,015 98.6% 1,250,610 98.6%
Total population 2,642,825 100% 1,268,183 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses.

Municipalities

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Panethnic origins by Metro Vancouver municipalities (2021 census)
Municipality Total population European[h] East Asian[d] South Asian Southeast Asian[e] Middle Eastern[f] Indigenous Latin American African Other[g]
Metro Vancouver 2,642,825 43.13% 23.28% 14.17% 7.63% 3.34% 2.43% 1.98% 1.58% 2.51%
Vancouver 662,248 43.22% 29.26% 6.90% 9.10% 2.44% 2.25% 2.78% 1.31% 2.74%
Surrey 568,322 30.78% 10.91% 37.81% 9.71% 2.24% 2.16% 1.57% 2.29% 2.53%
Burnaby 249,125 30.46% 38.62% 9.42% 8.37% 3.65% 1.70% 2.50% 2.03% 3.24%
Richmond 209,937 18.94% 57.09% 7.38% 8.85% 1.86% 0.74% 1.03% 0.85% 3.26%
Coquitlam[23] 148,625 41.51% 31.45% 5.02% 5.2% 8.19% 1.98% 2.27% 1.45% 2.92%
Langley Township[24] 132,603 69.53% 10.94% 6.66% 4.15% 1.10% 3.85% 1.31% 1.11% 1.35%
Delta[25] 108,455 51.71% 10.29% 26.09% 4.12% 0.83% 2.96% 0.96% 1.02% 1.99%
Maple Ridge[26] 90,990 73.70% 5.81% 4.72% 4.31% 2.52% 4.68% 1.46% 1.60% 1.20%
North Vancouver (district)[27] 88,168 69.11% 10.27% 3.18% 2.90% 9.04% 1.81% 1.44% 0.54% 1.72%
New Westminster[28] 78,916 50.07% 14.19% 10.38% 10.33% 2.27% 3.11% 3.28% 3.45% 2.91%
Port Coquitlam[29] 61,498 57.35% 16.16% 5.78% 6.52% 4.90% 2.97% 1.91% 2.05% 2.36%
North Vancouver (city)[30] 58,120 61.59% 9.03% 3.65% 7.34% 11.32% 2.14% 2.10% 0.96% 1.87%
West Vancouver 44,122 55.77% 23.03% 3.24% 1.77% 12.24% 0.98% 0.99% 0.43% 1.54%
Port Moody 33,535 64.25% 17.23% 3.00% 2.85% 4.74% 3.08% 1.73% 1.18% 1.96%
Langley City 28,963 69.60% 4.10% 6.99% 6.26% 2.09% 5.69% 1.82% 2.16% 1.27%
[edit]
Panethnic groups in Vancouver (1911–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[8][31] 2016[10][32] 2011[12][33] 2006[34] 2001[35] 1996[36] 1991[37][38] 1986[39][40][41]: 111  1981[42]: 127 [43][44] 1971[45]: 74 [46]: 129  1961[47]: 60 [48]: 99  1931[49]: 486&498  1911[50]: 170&343 [i]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 281,105 43.22% 285,295 46.15% 272,645 46.19% 268,715 46.49% 264,695 49.05% 269,535 53.07% 268,595 57.73% 295,265 69.53% 302,720 74.18% 372,320 87.34% 357,915 93.08% 223,887 90.79% 111,731 86.58%
East Asian[d] 190,270 29.26% 186,855 30.23% 182,090 30.85% 186,725 32.3% 175,520 32.53% 152,020 29.93% 117,415 25.23% 78,205 18.42% 64,845 15.89% 35,685 8.37% 18,355 4.77% 21,339 8.65% 6,480 5.02%
Southeast Asian[e] 59,190 9.1% 53,580 8.67% 53,360 9.04% 43,455 7.52% 36,755 6.81% 29,095 5.73% 23,785 5.11% 8,080 1.9% 9,970 2.44%
South Asian 44,850 6.9% 37,130 6.01% 35,140 5.95% 32,515 5.63% 30,655 5.68% 26,040 5.13% 23,000 4.94% 17,410 4.1% 14,175 3.47% 7,870 1.85% 1,560 0.41% 529 0.21% 843 0.65%
Latin American 18,080 2.78% 10,935 1.77% 9,595 1.63% 8,225 1.42% 6,490 1.2% 5,665 1.12% 5,530 1.19% 4,170 0.98% 2,580 0.63%
Middle Eastern[f] 15,885 2.44% 11,595 1.88% 9,860 1.67% 7,230 1.25% 4,625 0.86% 3,810 0.75% 3,610 0.78% 2,430 0.57% 1,605 0.39%
Indigenous 14,660 2.25% 13,905 2.25% 11,945 2.02% 11,145 1.93% 10,440 1.93% 10,965 2.16% 13,400 2.88% 10,840 2.55% 6,285 1.54% 2,995 0.7% 530 0.14% 104 0.04% 700 0.54%
African 8,515 1.31% 6,345 1.03% 5,720 0.97% 5,290 0.92% 4,780 0.89% 4,965 0.98% 3,355 0.72% 1,280 0.3% 910 0.22% 785 0.18% 572 0.15% 257 0.1% 170 0.13%
Other[g] 17,825 2.74% 12,570 2.03% 9,855 1.67% 8,310 1.44% 5,665 1.05% 5,830 1.15% 6,610 1.42% 6,990 1.65% 4,995 1.22% 6,610 1.55% 5,590 1.45% 477 0.19% 9,119 7.07%
Total responses 650,380 98.21% 618,210 97.9% 590,205 97.8% 571,600 98.89% 539,630 98.89% 507,930 98.82% 465,300 98.61% 424,670 98.5% 408,085 100% 426,265 100% 384,522 100% 246,593 100% 129,043 100%
Total population 662,248 100% 631,486 100% 603,502 100% 578,041 100% 545,671 100% 514,008 100% 471,844 100% 431,147 100% 408,085 100% 426,265 100% 384,522 100% 246,593 100% 129,043 100%
Panethnic groups in Surrey (1981–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[8][51] 2016[10][52] 2011[12][53] 2006[54] 2001[55] 1996[36] 1991[37][38] 1986[39][40][41]: 109  1981[42]: 126 [43][44]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
South Asian 212,680 37.81% 168,040 32.85% 142,445 30.74% 107,810 27.47% 75,680 21.89% 49,805 16.36% 24,000 9.86% 9,070 5.03% 4,465 3.05%
European[h] 173,155 30.78% 198,835 38.87% 208,625 45.03% 203,815 51.93% 211,870 61.27% 210,530 69.14% 190,960 78.45% 160,190 88.85% 131,795 90.16%
East Asian[d] 61,360 10.91% 52,025 10.17% 39,270 8.48% 29,965 7.64% 23,600 6.83% 16,845 5.53% 8,650 3.55% 2,885 1.6% 2,565 1.75%
Southeast Asian[e] 54,635 9.71% 44,875 8.77% 39,560 8.54% 25,795 6.57% 16,440 4.75% 10,210 3.35% 5,295 2.18% 950 0.53% 1,525 1.04%
African 12,870 2.29% 9,455 1.85% 6,150 1.33% 5,015 1.28% 3,810 1.1% 2,670 0.88% 1,440 0.59% 415 0.23% N/A N/A
Middle Eastern[f] 12,620 2.24% 9,485 1.85% 5,615 1.21% 3,595 0.92% 2,300 0.67% 1,790 0.59% 1,015 0.42% 380 0.21% 255 0.17%
Indigenous 12,175 2.16% 13,460 2.63% 10,955 2.36% 7,630 1.94% 6,895 1.99% 5,070 1.67% 7,330 3.01% 4,315 2.39% 1,855 1.27%
Latin American 8,830 1.57% 7,065 1.38% 5,340 1.15% 3,785 0.96% 3,315 0.96% 2,140 0.7% 1,670 0.69% 790 0.44% 615 0.42%
Other[g] 14,240 2.53% 8,315 1.63% 5,385 1.16% 5,050 1.29% 1,880 0.54% 3,695 1.21% 3,065 1.26% 1,290 0.72% 3,105 2.12%
Total responses 562,565 98.99% 511,540 98.77% 463,340 98.95% 392,450 99.36% 345,780 99.41% 302,750 99.43% 243,425 99.29% 180,285 99.36% 146,180 99.35%
Total population 568,322 100% 517,887 100% 468,251 100% 394,976 100% 347,825 100% 304,477 100% 245,173 100% 181,447 100% 147,138 100%
Panethnic groups in Burnaby (1981–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[8][56] 2016[10][57] 2011[12][58] 2006[59] 2001[60] 1996[36] 1991[37][38] 1986[39][40][41]: 93  1981[42]: 120 [43][44]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
East Asian[d] 94,895 38.62% 89,470 38.89% 79,205 35.96% 71,435 35.57% 59,090 30.88% 45,825 25.92% 25,070 16.03% 11,490 8.06% 9,635 7.2%
European[h] 74,860 30.46% 79,575 34.59% 86,015 39.05% 86,560 43.1% 95,165 49.73% 104,735 59.23% 111,210 71.1% 117,070 82.08% 112,765 84.27%
South Asian 23,155 9.42% 18,735 8.14% 17,480 7.94% 16,840 8.38% 14,960 7.82% 10,695 6.05% 7,945 5.08% 6,170 4.33% 3,880 2.9%
Southeast Asian[e] 20,560 8.37% 17,620 7.66% 16,850 7.65% 10,915 5.43% 7,965 4.16% 4,390 2.48% 3,060 1.96% 570 0.4% 1,385 1.03%
Middle Eastern[f] 8,975 3.65% 6,660 2.89% 5,975 2.71% 3,700 1.84% 3,580 1.87% 2,400 1.36% 1,245 0.8% 1,775 1.24% 770 0.58%
Latin American 6,155 2.5% 4,630 2.01% 3,765 1.71% 2,785 1.39% 3,020 1.58% 1,825 1.03% 1,425 0.91% 890 0.62% 335 0.25%
African 4,985 2.03% 3,670 1.6% 3,445 1.56% 2,450 1.22% 2,480 1.3% 2,605 1.47% 1,030 0.66% 545 0.38% 385 0.29%
Indigenous 4,175 1.7% 4,195 1.82% 3,295 1.5% 3,005 1.5% 3,145 1.64% 2,500 1.41% 3,745 2.39% 2,635 1.85% 1,305 0.98%
Other[g] 7,965 3.24% 5,530 2.4% 4,220 1.92% 3,170 1.58% 1,975 1.03% 1,835 1.04% 1,685 1.08% 1,490 1.04% 3,360 2.51%
Total responses 245,725 98.64% 230,080 98.85% 220,255 98.67% 200,855 99.04% 191,380 98.67% 176,825 98.67% 156,415 98.46% 142,635 98.26% 133,820 98.04%
Total population 249,125 100% 232,755 100% 223,218 100% 202,799 100% 193,954 100% 179,209 100% 158,858 100% 145,161 100% 136,494 100%
Panethnic groups in Richmond (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[8][61] 2016[10][62] 2011[12][63] 2006[64] 2001[65][66]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
East Asian[d] 118,980 57.09% 109,415 55.64% 94,180 49.75% 80,245 46.23% 68,785 42.1%
European[h] 39,465 18.94% 45,050 22.91% 54,050 28.55% 59,335 34.19% 65,845 40.3%
Southeast Asian[e] 18,435 8.85% 15,530 7.9% 14,820 7.83% 11,035 6.36% 8,445 5.17%
South Asian 15,370 7.38% 14,360 7.3% 14,515 7.67% 13,860 7.99% 12,120 7.42%
Middle Eastern[f] 3,875 1.86% 2,715 1.38% 2,205 1.16% 2,115 1.22% 2,030 1.24%
Indigenous 1,540 0.74% 1,595 0.81% 1,935 1.02% 1,275 0.73% 1,165 0.71%
Latin American 2,155 1.03% 1,585 0.81% 1,680 0.89% 1,265 0.73% 1,165 0.71%
African 1,775 0.85% 1,270 0.65% 1,245 0.66% 1,390 0.8% 1,470 0.9%
Other[g] 6,800 3.26% 5,155 2.62% 4,675 2.47% 3,040 1.75% 2,380 1.46%
Total responses 208,400 99.27% 196,660 99.17% 189,305 99.39% 173,565 99.49% 163,395 99.42%
Total population 209,937 100% 198,309 100% 190,473 100% 174,461 100% 164,345 100%
Panethnic groups in Coquitlam (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[23] 2016[10][67] 2011[12][68] 2006[69] 2001[70]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 61,220 41.51% 65,730 47.6% 67,655 54.12% 68,120 59.99% 71,755 64.4%
East Asian[d] 46,375 31.45% 40,400 29.26% 30,715 24.57% 26,710 23.52% 25,030 22.46%
Middle Eastern[f] 12,080 8.19% 9,140 6.62% 7,375 5.9% 4,885 4.3% 2,965 2.66%
Southeast Asian[e] 7,675 5.2% 7,205 5.22% 6,415 5.13% 4,110 3.62% 3,710 3.33%
South Asian 7,405 5.02% 6,220 4.5% 5,245 4.2% 4,185 3.69% 3,280 2.94%
Latin American 3,345 2.27% 2,190 1.59% 1,895 1.52% 1,530 1.35% 1,110 1%
Indigenous 2,915 1.98% 3,095 2.24% 2,610 2.09% 1,565 1.38% 1,480 1.33%
African 2,135 1.45% 1,515 1.1% 1,265 1.01% 1,005 0.88% 1,130 1.01%
Other[g] 4,300 2.92% 2,590 1.88% 1,840 1.47% 1,455 1.28% 970 0.87%
Total responses 147,465 99.22% 138,095 99.15% 125,015 98.56% 113,560 99.12% 111,425 98.7%
Total population 148,625 100% 139,284 100% 126,840 100% 114,565 100% 112,890 100%
Panethnic groups in Langley Township (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[24] 2016[10][71] 2011[12][72] 2006[73] 2001[74]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 91,055 69.53% 89,920 77.63% 85,840 83.23% 81,310 87.39% 78,195 90.69%
East Asian[d] 14,330 10.94% 9,255 7.99% 6,470 6.27% 4,820 5.18% 3,000 3.48%
South Asian 8,720 6.66% 5,140 4.44% 2,765 2.68% 1,445 1.55% 1,485 1.72%
Southeast Asian[e] 5,435 4.15% 3,515 3.03% 2,455 2.38% 1,475 1.59% 905 1.05%
Indigenous 5,045 3.85% 4,310 3.72% 3,495 3.39% 2,450 2.63% 1,950 2.26%
Latin American 1,715 1.31% 1,100 0.95% 650 0.63% 395 0.42% 190 0.22%
African 1,450 1.11% 1,205 1.04% 470 0.46% 575 0.62% 275 0.32%
Middle Eastern[f] 1,440 1.1% 715 0.62% 410 0.4% 295 0.32% 60 0.07%
Other[g] 1,770 1.35% 680 0.59% 600 0.58% 280 0.3% 170 0.2%
Total responses 130,960 98.76% 115,835 98.76% 103,140 99% 93,040 99.27% 86,220 99.22%
Total population 132,603 100% 117,285 100% 104,177 100% 93,726 100% 86,896 100%
Panethnic groups in Delta (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[25] 2016[75] 2011[76] 2006[77] 2001[78]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 55,465 51.71% 61,835 61.32% 66,630 67.48% 68,400 71.19% 72,375 75.1%
South Asian 27,990 26.09% 20,485 20.31% 17,030 17.25% 14,220 14.8% 12,035 12.49%
East Asian[d] 11,040 10.29% 9,320 9.24% 7,065 7.16% 7,280 7.58% 6,675 6.93%
Southeast Asian[e] 4,420 4.12% 3,240 3.21% 3,165 3.21% 2,280 2.37% 2,060 2.14%
Indigenous 3,180 2.96% 2,710 2.69% 2,290 2.32% 1,700 1.77% 1,495 1.55%
African 1,095 1.02% 795 0.79% 595 0.6% 495 0.52% 610 0.63%
Latin American 1,035 0.96% 815 0.81% 710 0.72% 710 0.74% 490 0.51%
Middle Eastern[f] 890 0.83% 515 0.51% 240 0.24% 280 0.29% 220 0.23%
Other[g] 2,140 1.99% 1,120 1.11% 1,010 1.02% 715 0.74% 420 0.44%
Total responses 107,270 98.91% 100,845 98.64% 98,740 98.88% 96,075 99.33% 96,370 99.4%
Total population 108,455 100% 102,238 100% 99,863 100% 96,723 100% 96,950 100%
Panethnic groups in Maple Ridge (2001−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[26] 2016[79] 2011[80] 2006[81] 2001[82]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 66,230 73.7% 65,040 80.33% 63,550 84.58% 58,970 86.52% 55,795 89.44%
East Asian[d] 5,225 5.81% 3,750 4.63% 2,800 3.73% 2,545 3.73% 1,760 2.82%
South Asian 4,245 4.72% 2,480 3.06% 1,785 2.38% 1,675 2.46% 1,375 2.2%
Indigenous 4,205 4.68% 3,815 4.71% 2,695 3.59% 1,870 2.74% 1,555 2.49%
Southeast Asian[e] 3,870 4.31% 2,515 3.11% 1,960 2.61% 1,365 2% 550 0.88%
Middle Eastern[f] 2,265 2.52% 900 1.11% 465 0.62% 360 0.53% 250 0.4%
African 1,440 1.6% 945 1.17% 940 1.25% 695 1.02% 635 1.02%
Latin American 1,310 1.46% 875 1.08% 480 0.64% 385 0.56% 200 0.32%
Other[g] 1,075 1.2% 660 0.82% 470 0.63% 290 0.43% 255 0.41%
Total responses 89,860 98.76% 80,970 98.44% 75,140 98.8% 68,160 98.86% 62,380 98.75%
Total population 90,990 100% 82,256 100% 76,052 100% 68,949 100% 63,169 100%
Panethnic groups in North Vancouver (District) (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[27] 2016[83] 2011[84] 2006[85] 2001[86]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 60,390 69.11% 61,770 72.77% 64,095 76.71% 62,950 76.85% 65,110 79.72%
East Asian[d] 8,975 10.27% 8,720 10.27% 7,555 9.04% 8,260 10.08% 7,450 9.12%
Middle Eastern[f] 7,900 9.04% 5,705 6.72% 4,680 5.6% 3,755 4.58% 3,505 4.29%
South Asian 2,780 3.18% 3,060 3.61% 2,245 2.69% 2,605 3.18% 2,310 2.83%
Southeast Asian[e] 2,530 2.9% 2,250 2.65% 2,285 2.73% 1,765 2.15% 1,165 1.43%
Indigenous 1,580 1.81% 1,360 1.6% 1,080 1.29% 755 0.92% 830 1.02%
Latin American 1,255 1.44% 780 0.92% 790 0.95% 740 0.9% 660 0.81%
African 475 0.54% 470 0.55% 235 0.28% 455 0.56% 295 0.36%
Other[g] 1,505 1.72% 765 0.9% 595 0.71% 630 0.77% 355 0.43%
Total responses 87,385 99.11% 84,880 98.77% 83,555 98.98% 81,910 99.21% 81,675 99.23%
Total population 88,168 100% 85,935 100% 84,412 100% 82,562 100% 82,310 100%
Panethnic groups in New Westminster (2001−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[28] 2016[87] 2011[88] 2006[89] 2001[90]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 39,080 50.07% 40,400 57.79% 40,225 61.8% 38,920 67.28% 38,805 72.11%
East Asian[d] 11,075 14.19% 9,465 13.54% 7,475 11.48% 5,270 9.11% 3,850 7.15%
South Asian 8,105 10.38% 5,790 8.28% 5,500 8.45% 4,660 8.06% 4,220 7.84%
Southeast Asian[e] 8,065 10.33% 6,550 9.37% 5,415 8.32% 3,680 6.36% 2,795 5.19%
African 2,695 3.45% 1,740 2.49% 1,155 1.77% 1,370 2.37% 1,120 2.08%
Latin American 2,560 3.28% 1,275 1.82% 1,155 1.77% 815 1.41% 350 0.65%
Indigenous 2,425 3.11% 2,295 3.28% 2,240 3.44% 1,835 3.17% 1,590 2.95%
Middle Eastern[f] 1,775 2.27% 1,300 1.86% 1,315 2.02% 890 1.54% 680 1.26%
Other[g] 2,275 2.91% 1,085 1.55% 610 0.94% 405 0.7% 400 0.74%
Total responses 78,055 98.91% 69,905 98.46% 65,090 98.66% 57,850 98.81% 53,810 98.45%
Total population 78,916 100% 70,996 100% 65,976 100% 58,549 100% 54,656 100%
Panethnic groups in Port Coquitlam (2001−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[29] 2016[91] 2011[92] 2006[93] 2001[94]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 34,635 57.35% 37,125 64.12% 38,070 68.25% 37,900 72.56% 38,440 75.66%
East Asian[d] 9,760 16.16% 8,420 14.54% 7,250 13% 6,755 12.93% 5,635 11.09%
Southeast Asian[e] 3,940 6.52% 3,090 5.34% 2,345 4.2% 1,595 3.05% 1,245 2.45%
South Asian 3,490 5.78% 2,790 4.82% 2,815 5.05% 2,445 4.68% 2,285 4.5%
Middle Eastern[f] 2,960 4.9% 1,745 3.01% 1,155 2.07% 1,030 1.97% 830 1.63%
Indigenous 1,795 2.97% 1,985 3.43% 1,790 3.21% 905 1.73% 1,030 2.03%
African 1,235 2.05% 885 1.53% 845 1.51% 550 1.05% 710 1.4%
Latin American 1,155 1.91% 925 1.6% 955 1.71% 440 0.84% 285 0.56%
Other[g] 1,425 2.36% 940 1.62% 560 1% 605 1.16% 330 0.65%
Total responses 60,390 98.2% 57,895 98.78% 55,780 99% 52,230 99.13% 50,805 99.12%
Total population 61,498 100% 58,612 100% 56,342 100% 52,687 100% 51,257 100%
Panethnic groups in North Vancouver (city) (2001−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[30] 2016[95] 2011[96] 2006[97] 2001[98]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[h] 35,420 61.59% 34,695 66.48% 32,800 68.78% 32,160 71.69% 32,960 75.03%
Middle Eastern[f] 6,510 11.32% 4,575 8.77% 3,655 7.66% 3,155 7.03% 3,015 6.86%
East Asian[d] 5,195 9.03% 4,260 8.16% 3,775 7.92% 3,995 8.91% 3,255 7.41%
Southeast Asian[e] 4,220 7.34% 3,715 7.12% 3,470 7.28% 2,150 4.79% 1,650 3.76%
South Asian 2,100 3.65% 1,840 3.53% 1,475 3.09% 1,340 2.99% 980 2.23%
Indigenous 1,230 2.14% 1,150 2.2% 970 2.03% 925 2.06% 1,015 2.31%
Latin American 1,210 2.1% 840 1.61% 585 1.23% 430 0.96% 470 1.07%
African 550 0.96% 485 0.93% 390 0.82% 315 0.7% 315 0.72%
Other[g] 1,075 1.87% 630 1.21% 575 1.21% 385 0.86% 275 0.63%
Total responses 57,505 98.94% 52,185 98.65% 47,685 98.94% 44,860 99.32% 43,930 99.16%
Total population 58,120 100% 52,898 100% 48,196 100% 45,165 100% 44,303 100%

Federal electoral districts

[edit]
Panethnic origins by federal electoral districts in Metro Vancouver (2021 census)
Riding Total population European[h] East Asian[d] South Asian Southeast Asian[e] Middle Eastern[f] Indigenous Latin American African Other[g]
Langley—Aldergrove[99] 133,168 69.04% 10.04% 8.34% 3.73% 1.11% 3.93% 1.31% 1.16% 1.33%
Coquitlam—Port Coquitlam[100] 132,004 46.03% 27.02% 4.75% 5.17% 8.52% 2.21% 2.15% 1.47% 2.69%
Surrey Centre[101] 131,670 22.19% 7.45% 40.04% 14.46% 4.17% 2.82% 2.27% 3.5% 3.12%
Cloverdale—Langley City[102] 130,665 53.12% 6.48% 21.26% 7.97% 1.5% 3.66% 1.72% 2.15% 2.13%
Vancouver Centre[103] 126,995 56.77% 17.66% 5.04% 3.43% 6.79% 2.1% 4.54% 1.39% 2.27%
New Westminster—Burnaby[104] 125,253 40.74% 20.98% 11.34% 11.06% 3.48% 2.53% 2.92% 3.73% 3.2%
Fleetwood—Port Kells[105] 124,987 22.28% 17.97% 34.56% 14.97% 2.13% 1.59% 1.46% 1.96% 3.1%
North Vancouver[106] 123,025 64.42% 9.69% 3.46% 4.95% 11.04% 2.2% 1.77% 0.66% 1.81%
Surrey—Newton[107] 122,264 15.05% 2.97% 66.73% 5.85% 1.97% 1.63% 1.24% 2.3% 2.25%
Burnaby South[108] 120,305 25.18% 43.09% 10.66% 9.01% 3.12% 1.48% 2.65% 1.53% 3.29%
South Surrey—White Rock[109] 119,672 60.08% 18.65% 12.09% 2.69% 0.84% 2.12% 1.02% 1.14% 1.37%
Vancouver East[110] 118,675 51.5% 22.49% 3.38% 8.15% 1.5% 5.22% 2.93% 1.9% 2.92%
Port Moody—Coquitlam[111] 114,853 52.24% 23.73% 5.07% 5.17% 4.89% 2.65% 2.03% 1.64% 2.58%
Delta[112] 110,721 51.7% 10.46% 25.68% 4.13% 0.86% 3.15% 0.97% 1.02% 2.01%
Pitt Meadows—Maple Ridge[113] 110,416 73.24% 5.92% 4.82% 4.51% 2.47% 4.76% 1.47% 1.48% 1.32%
Vancouver Granville[114] 109,799 46.17% 34.77% 4.6% 5.16% 1.81% 1.62% 2.22% 1.12% 2.52%
Vancouver South[115] 109,339 18.68% 38.14% 17.84% 16% 1% 1.41% 2.33% 1.25% 3.35%
Vancouver Quadra[116] 109,328 53.96% 31.58% 3.46% 2.37% 2.42% 1.87% 1.59% 0.8% 1.96%
Burnaby North—Seymour[117] 108,794 49.05% 29.13% 4.94% 4.69% 3.48% 2.51% 2.16% 1.42% 2.6%
Vancouver Kingsway[118] 108,054 27.58% 35.53% 7.29% 19.4% 0.99% 1.73% 2.69% 1.31% 3.46%
Richmond Centre[119] 107,707 17.2% 62.92% 4.91% 7.38% 1.83% 0.77% 1.08% 0.73% 3.17%
Steveston—Richmond East[120] 102,230 20.76% 50.98% 9.95% 10.38% 1.89% 0.71% 0.99% 0.98% 0.71%

Ethnic groups

[edit]

Indigenous peoples

[edit]

As of around 2009, 3% of residents of Vancouver state that they have at least some ancestry from the First Nations, and of that 3%, over half state that they also have non-First Nations ancestry. A person with some First Nations ancestry may not necessarily identify as someone who is First Nations.[121]

There is a small community of aboriginal people in Vancouver as well as in the surrounding metropolitan region, with the result that Vancouver constitutes the largest native community in the province, albeit an unincorporated one (i.e. not as a band government).[citation needed] There is an equally large or larger Métis contingent.

Indigenous peoples, who make up less than two percent of the city's population, are not considered a visible minority group by Statistics Canada.

Indigenous Population in Vancouver[122][123]
Aboriginal group First Nations 7,865 1.3% 7,510 1.3%
Métis 3,595 0.6% 3,235 0.6%
Inuit 70 0% 45 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 305 0.1% 210 0%
Multiple Aboriginal identities 100 0% 140 0%
Total Aboriginal population 11,945 2% 11,145 1.9%
Total population 590,210 100% 571,600 100%

Europeans

[edit]
British Isles
[edit]

Much of the ethnic white population consists of persons whose origins go back to Britain or Ireland and, until recently, British Columbians with British or Irish ancestry most likely came directly from those islands, rather than via Ontario or the Maritime Provinces. Until the 1960s, it was easier to purchase the Times of London and The Guardian in Vancouver than it was to find the Toronto Globe and Mail or Montreal Gazette.

Continental Europeans
[edit]

Other large and historically important European ethnic groups consist of Germans, Dutch, French (of both European and Canadian origin), Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Finns, Italians, Croats, Hungarians, Greeks, and lately numerous Romanians, Russians, Portuguese, Serbs and Poles. Non-visible minorities such as newly arrived Eastern Europeans and the new wave of Latin Americans are also a feature of the city's ethnic landscape. Prior to the Hong Kong influx of the 1980s, the largest non-British Isles ethnic group in the city was German, followed by Ukrainian and the Scandinavian ethnicities. Most of these earlier East European immigrant are fully assimilated or intermarried with other groups, although a new generation of East Europeans form a distinct linguistic and social community.

East Asians

[edit]
Chinese
[edit]

The first Chinese immigrants to British Columbia were men who came to "the British Colonies of Canada," as they called British Columbia, for the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858 and a decade later to work on building the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Koreans
[edit]

As of 2014, there are about 70,000 ethnic Koreans in the Vancouver area.[124]

An H-Mart and several Korean restaurants are located on Robson Street.[125] As of 2008, there are many Korean national students at the university and primary/secondary levels studying English.[126] Other areas with Korean businesses include Kingsway in Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster; other areas in Vancouver; North Road in Burnaby and Coquitlam, and areas of Port Coquitlam.[127] As of 2011, Coquitlam is a popular area of settlement for Koreans.[128]

Rimhak Ree (Yi Yimhak) came to Vancouver to study mathematics at the University of British Columbia in 1953, making him the first known ethnic Korean to live in the city.[129] There were about 50 ethnic Koreans in Vancouver in the mid-1960s. The first Korean United Church congregation in the city opened in 1965. Numbers of Korean immigration to Canada increased due to more permissive immigration laws established in the 1960s as well as the home country's political conflict and poverty. There were 1,670 ethnic Koreans in Vancouver by 1975, making up 16% of all ethnic Koreans in Canada and a 3000% increase from the mid-1960s population.[130] Korean immigration to Canada decreased after a more restrictive immigration law was enacted in 1978.[131]

Christianity is a popular religion among ethnic Koreans. About 200 Korean churches are in the Vancouver area.[124]

In 1986 Greater Vancouver had fewer than 5,000 ethnic Koreans. In 1991 the number had increased to 8,330. The number of ethnic Koreans in the Vancouver area increased by 69% in the period 1996 through 2001.[132] The number of university students from Korea choosing to study in Vancouver had become most of the Korean students studying in Canada by the late 1990s.[126] The first Korean grocery store in the North Road area opened in 2000.[127] In 2001 28,850 ethnic Koreans live in Greater Vancouver, and this increased to 44,825 according to the 2006 census.[132]

Canwest Global does a co-venture with the Canada Express, a Korean publication, to serve ethnic Koreans. It previously published a Korean edition of the Vancouver Sun but later stopped. Daniel Ahadi and Catherine A. Murray, authors of "Urban Mediascapes and Multicultural Flows: Assessing Vancouver's Communication Infrastructure," wrote that the Korean edition of the Vancouver Sun was "error-fraught".[133]

South Asians

[edit]
Punjabis
[edit]

Punjabi immigrants first arrived in Vancouver during the late 19th century.[134] Most ethnic South Asians in the Lower Mainland are Punjabi Sikhs. Surrey has the largest ethnic South Asian population in Metro Vancouver, at 32.4%. The Newton neighbourhood in Surrey contains the highest percentage of ethnic Indians in a neighbourhood in Metro Vancouver.[135]

Other Asians

[edit]

Other significant Asian ethnic groups in Vancouver are Vietnamese, Filipino, Cambodian and Japanese. In Vancouver the term 'Asian' is normally used to refer only to East Asian and Southeast Asian peoples, while South Asians are usually referred to as Indo-Canadian or East Indians. Technically, though, the term 'Asian' may refer to either group, and also to the large Persian and other Middle Eastern populations as well as elements from Central Asia.

Future projections

[edit]
Panethnic origin projections (2041)
2041[136][137][138][139]
Population %
European[h] 1,243,500 30.62%
East Asian[d] 1,054,000 25.95%
South Asian 757,000 18.64%
Southeast Asian[e] 385,000 9.48%
Middle Eastern[f] 202,000 4.97%
Latin American 112,000 2.76%
Indigenous 105,500 2.6%
African 90,000 2.22%
Other/multiracial 112,000 2.76%
Projected Metro Vancouver population 4,061,000 100%

Language

[edit]

Knowledge of languages

[edit]

The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses. The following figures are from the 2021 Canadian census, and lists languages that were selected by at least 1,000 respondents.

Knowledge of Languages in Metro Vancouver
Language 2021[140]
Pop. %
English 2,465,855 94.59%
Mandarin 292,725 11.23%
Punjabi 239,205 9.18%
Cantonese 233,745 8.97%
French 171,640 6.58%
Hindi 110,490 4.24%
Tagalog 109,935 4.22%
Spanish 94,555 3.63%
Korean 61,165 2.35%
Iranian Persian 52,290 2.01%
German 35,110 1.35%
Vietnamese 34,655 1.33%
Japanese 31,765 1.22%
Russian 29,885 1.15%
Arabic 28,450 1.09%
Italian 24,325 0.93%
Portuguese 23,835 0.91%
Min Nan 22,615 0.87%
Urdu 21,970 0.84%
Serbo-Croatian 17,080 0.66%
Polish 13,165 0.5%
Gujarati 12,615 0.48%
Ilocano 9,645 0.37%
Romanian 8,735 0.34%
Tamil 8,440 0.32%
Dutch 8,285 0.32%
Dari 7,840 0.3%
Turkish 7,840 0.3%
Ukrainian 7,515 0.29%
Greek 7,010 0.27%
Indonesian 5,895 0.23%
Hebrew 5,655 0.22%
Bengali 5,330 0.2%
Hungarian 5,250 0.2%
Czech 4,785 0.18%
Afrikaans 4,765 0.18%
Malayalam 4,615 0.18%
Wu Chinese 4,550 0.17%
Cebuano 4,315 0.17%
Telugu 3,940 0.15%
Swahili 3,930 0.15%
Kurdish 3,720 0.14%
Thai 3,500 0.13%
Hakka 3,385 0.13%
Tigrigna 3,095 0.12%
Sinhala 3,045 0.12%
Malay 2,955 0.11%
Marathi 2,935 0.11%
Slovak 2,835 0.11%
Kacchi 2,750 0.11%
Hiligaynon 2,655 0.1%
Amharic 2,590 0.1%
Swedish 2,540 0.1%
Pashto 2,445 0.09%
Danish 2,255 0.09%
Aramaic 2,125 0.08%
Somali 1,970 0.08%
Bulgarian 1,960 0.08%
Finnish 1,695 0.07%
Khmer language 1,690 0.06%
Nepali 1,640 0.06%
Albanian 1,585 0.06%
Burmese 1,560 0.06%
Azerbaijani 1,475 0.06%
Norwegian 1,440 0.06%
Kannada 1,430 0.05%
Armenian 1,385 0.05%
Irish 1,360 0.05%
Pampangan language 1,310 0.05%
Lao 1,175 0.05%
Bisayan languages 1,145 0.04%
Yoruba 1,130 0.04%
Akan language 1,015 0.04%
Total responses 2,607,010 98.64%
Total population 2,642,825 100%

Mother tongue

[edit]

The following figures come from the 2021 census profile for Vancouver, the census metropolitan area.[141]

Population by mother tongue (Vancouver CMA)
Identified languages with 10,000+ speakers Population %
English 1,340,995 51.2
English + non-official language 117,335 4.5
Mandarin 191,475 7.3
Cantonese 182,910 7.0
Panjabi (Punjabi) 180,355 6.9
Tagalog (Filipino) 67,790 2.6
Persian (incl. Dari, Farsi) 54,350 2.0
Korean 52,525 2.0
Spanish 36,625 1.5
Hindi 27,990 1.0
Vietnamese 26,850 1.0
French 24,710 0.9
Russian 20,685 0.8
Portuguese 18,185 0.7
Arabic 18,130 0.7
German 18,090 0.7
Japanese 17,340 0.7
Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin) 13,295 0.5
Italian 13,285 0.5
Minnan Chinese (e.g. Hokkien, Teochew) 11,195 0.4
Polish 10,645 0.4
Urdu 10,495 0.4

Notes:

  • The figures for Cantonese, Mandarin and Minnan do not include 1,125 speakers of "Chinese (not otherwise specified)", some of whom may speak Cantonese, Mandarin or Minnan. The total number of speakers of all varieties of Chinese is 393,030 (15.0% of the population).
  • For the separate figures of Hindi and Urdu, see Hindi–Urdu controversy.
  • The number of native speakers of both English and French only is 8,240, and with a non-official language too, 2,190. This means the self-identified mother-tongue speakers of both official languages amount to 10,430 (0.4% of the population).
  • The 2021 census identified 1,800 individuals who had knowledge of an indigenous language of Canada.

Religion

[edit]

Religion in Metro Vancouver (2021)

  Irreligious (47.1%)
  Christian (33.1%)
  Sikh (8.5%)
  Muslim (4.2%)
  Buddhist (2.7%)
  Hindu (2.6%)
  Jewish (0.8%)
  Other faiths (1.0%)

Vancouver, like the rest of British Columbia, has a low rate of church attendance compared with the rest of the continent and the majority of the population does not practice religion.[142][143] As of the 2021 Canadian census, 33.1 percent of Greater Vancouver is Christian, the largest percentage of any religion. 13.7 percent are Catholic, 8.7 percent are Christians of unspecified denomination, 7.2 percent are Protestant, 1.4 percent are Christian Orthodox, and 2.2 percent are other Christian or Christian-related traditions. Greater Vancouver has a notable Sikh (8.5 percent) and Buddhist (2.7 percent) population, mostly adherents of South Asian and East Asian ancestry.[144] There is also a significant minority of Muslim residents (4.2 percent).

Religious groups in Metro Vancouver (1981−2021)
Religious group 2021[145] 2011[146] 2001[147] 1991[148][149] 1981[150][151]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Irreligion 1,227,760 47.09% 945,405 41.45% 692,765 35.21% 493,220 31.14% 283,965 22.71%
Christianity 863,055 33.11% 950,170 41.66% 992,115 50.43% 949,530 59.94% 899,615 71.93%
Sikhism 222,160 8.52% 155,945 6.84% 99,000 5.03% 49,625 3.13% 22,390 1.79%
Islam 110,645 4.24% 73,215 3.21% 52,590 2.67% 23,335 1.47% 10,885 0.87%
Buddhism 70,670 2.71% 78,465 3.44% 74,550 3.79% 31,645 2% 8,310 0.66%
Hinduism 66,530 2.55% 40,030 1.76% 27,410 1.39% 14,880 0.94% 6,865 0.55%
Judaism 20,125 0.77% 18,730 0.82% 17,270 0.88% 14,360 0.91% 12,865 1.03%
Indigenous spirituality 1,865 0.07% 1,550 0.07%
Other 24,205 0.93% 17,185 0.75% 11,775 0.6% 7,520 0.47% 2,950 0.24%
Total responses 2,607,010 98.64% 2,280,695 98.59% 1,967,480 99.02% 1,584,115 98.85% 1,250,605 98.61%
Total population 2,642,825 100% 2,313,328 100% 1,986,965 100% 1,602,502 100% 1,268,183 100%

Immigration

[edit]

The 2021 census reported that immigrants (individuals born outside Canada) comprise 1,089,185 persons or 41.8 percent of the total population of Metro Vancouver.[152]

Immigrants in Metro Vancouver by country of birth (1911–2021)
Country of birth 2021[153][152] 2016[154][155] 2011[156][157] 2006[158][159] 2001[160][161] 1996[162][161] 1981[163]: 217–218  1941[164]: 348–349  1921[165]: 328–334 [j] 1911[166]: 378–379 [k]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
China 204,825 18.8% 188,970 19.1% 159,200 17.4% 137,245 16.5% 101,770 13.8% 72,915 11.5% 16,820 4.5% 6,065 4.4% 10,060 8% 6,591 6.6%
India 151,405 13.9% 125,640 12.7% 111,265 12.2% 90,090 10.8% 67,825 9.2% 53,470 8.4% 20,440 5.5% 842 0.6% 940 0.7% 1,947 1.9%
Philippines 109,405 10% 96,680 9.8% 87,945 9.6% 62,960 7.6% 46,215 6.3% 34,640 5.5% 10,620 2.9% 5[l] 0%
Hong Kong 76,115 7% 71,720 7.2% 72,230 7.9% 75,775 9.1% 85,985 11.6% 86,210 13.6% 17,975 4.8%
United Kingdom 51,440 4.7% 56,530 5.7% 61,255 6.7% 63,940 7.7% 69,110 9.4% 75,410 11.9% 99,875 26.8% 83,006 60.6% 73,827 58.9% 48,200 48%
Iran 43,245 4% 35,250 3.6% 28,470 3.1% 21,615 2.6% 17,620 2.4% 10,060 1.6% 2,850 0.8%
South Korea 42,090 3.9% 36,860 3.7% 34,365 3.8% 30,990 3.7% 20,730 2.8% 12,695 2% 2,995 0.8%
Taiwan 38,670 3.6% 37,430 3.8% 40,725 4.5% 40,805 4.9% 43,755 5.9% 29,330 4.6% 16,450 4.4%
United States 27,615 2.5% 26,450 2.7% 26,240 2.9% 24,775 3% 23,070 3.1% 22,685 3.6% 24,845 6.7% 13,891 10.1% 15,074 12% 17,671 17.6%
Vietnam 27,170 2.5% 24,025 2.4% 22,930 2.5% 22,950 2.8% 22,140 3% 16,995 2.7% 3,870 1%
Japan 11,565 1.1% 10,675 1.1% 10,295 1.1% 8,855 1.1% 7,610 1% 6,515 1% 4,335 1.2% 3,652 2.7% 6,332 5% 4,541 4.5%
Germany 11,545 1.1% 13,520 1.4% 14,210 1.6% 15,685 1.9% 17,370 2.4% 17,780 2.8% 22,775[m] 6.1% 2,018[m] 1.5% 812[m] 0.6% 2,231[m] 2.2%
Pakistan 11,125 1% 9,220 0.9% 7,765 0.9% 7,460 0.9% 4,890 0.7% 3,045 0.5% 695 0.2%
Mexico 10,060 0.9% 7,850 0.8% 6,540 0.7% 4,650 0.6% 3,785 0.5% 2,015 0.3%
Russia 9,350 0.9% 8,460 0.9% 6,815 0.7% 5,770 0.7% 3,735 0.5% 2,200 0.3% 7,080[n] 1.9% 2,494[n] 1.8% 779 0.6% 892 0.9%
Poland 9,210 0.8% 10,480 1.1% 10,010 1.1% 11,030 1.3% 11,550 1.6% 12,445 2% 7,175 1.9% 1,791 1.3% 345 0.3%
Italy 9,090 0.8% 10,395 1.1% 10,995 1.2% 12,405 1.5% 13,155 1.8% 13,500 2.1% 14,835 4% 1,697 1.2% 1,418 1.1% 2,865 2.9%
South Africa 9,005 0.8% 8,200 0.8% 8,030 0.9% 8,240 1% 7,835 1.1% 5,755 0.9% 3,670 1% 296 0.2% 313 0.2% 202 0.2%
Malaysia 7,975 0.7% 7,515 0.8% 7,455 0.8% 7,565 0.9% 6,975 0.9% 6,575 1%
Romania 7,235 0.7% 7,110 0.7% 6,430 0.7% 5,685 0.7% 4,795 0.6% 3,575 0.6% 1,300 0.3% 353 0.3% 102 0.1% 116[o] 0.1%
Total immigrants 1,089,185 41.8% 989,545 40.8% 913,310 40% 831,265 39.6% 738,550 37.5% 633,740 34.9% 372,010 29.7% 136,921 39% 125,412 49.8% 100,354 55.9%
Total responses 2,607,015 98.6% 2,426,235 98.5% 2,280,695 98.6% 2,097,965 99.1% 1,967,475 99% 1,813,935 99% 1,250,610 98.6% 351,491 100% 251,731 100% 179,581 100%
Total population 2,642,825 100% 2,463,431 100% 2,313,328 100% 2,116,581 100% 1,986,965 100% 1,831,665 100% 1,268,183 100% 351,491 100% 251,731[j] 100% 179,581[k] 100%

Recent immigration

[edit]

The 2021 Canadian census counted a total of 154,820 people who immigrated to Metro Vancouver between 2016 and 2021.[152]

Recent immigrants to Metro Vancouver by country of birth (2016 to 2021)[152]
Country of birth Population % recent immigrants
India 30,545 19.7%
China 28,970 18.7%
Philippines 15,090 9.7%
South Korea 6,125 4%
Iran 5,615 3.6%
United States 5,460 3.5%
Brazil 4,625 3%
United Kingdom 4,555 2.9%
Syria 3,380 2.2%
Mexico 2,460 1.6%
Hong Kong 2,385 1.5%
Vietnam 2,275 1.5%
Ireland 2,105 1.4%
Pakistan 1,850 1.2%
Russia 1,740 1.1%
Taiwan 1,650 1.1%
Japan 1,610 1%
Ukraine 1,585 1%
Iraq 1,435 0.9%
Eritrea 1,415 0.9%
Total 154,820 100%

Homelessness

[edit]

The 2011 Metro Vancouver Homeless Count revealed that there were at least 2,650 people found to be homeless in Metro Vancouver.[167] This particular homeless count is and continues to be conducted once every three years, taking place over a brief 24-hour period. The report published on these results stated, "It is important to note that all Homeless Counts are inherently undercounts and that the 2011 Metro Vancouver Count was no exception."[167] Nonetheless, these counts can be used as indicators to determine homelessness trends within Metro Vancouver. Between 2002 and 2005, "the count revealed that homelessness in the region nearly doubled from 1121 to 2174 persons".[168] From 2005 to 2008, the count revealed a much smaller increase in homelessness, from 2174 to 2660 persons. Thus, the count conducted in 2011 implies that the homeless population has remained relatively stable between 2008 and 2011.

Of the homeless people surveyed in 2011, "71% were sheltered in either an emergency shelter, safe house, transition house or temporary facility such as a hospital, jail or detoxification centre...while 29% slept in outdoor locations or at someone else's place".[167] 74 of the 2,650 homeless persons counted were children – those under the age of 19 – who accompanied a parent who was also homeless. Furthermore, of the homeless youth surveyed, 102 individuals were under the age of 19, 221 between the ages of 19 and 24, and 74 whose ages could not be identified, for a total of 397 homeless. Adults constituted the largest cohort of homeless in Metro Vancouver with 275 individuals between the ages of 25 and 34, 328 between the ages of 35 and 44, and 397 between the ages of 45 and 54, for a total of 1,000 homeless. Lastly, seniors – those above the age of 55 – constituted 268 homeless people. Of the 2,650 people identified in the count, ages for 985 people could not be provided.

Homelessness doesn't occur suddenly, rather it is a progression wherein an individual becomes part of the group of 'at risk' individuals, remains in this group for some time, and then, finally, becomes homeless due to economic hardships and social dislocation.[169] "Contemporary definitions split homelessness into two broad groups: 'absolute' homelessness, which refers to persons or households literally without physical shelter, and 'relative' homelessness, which includes a range of housing situations characterized as being at-risk of homelessness."[168] Indeed, being classified as at-risk of homelessness does not imply that an individual or household will become homeless in the future, only that various pre-conditions exist that may lead to this.[170] These pre-conditions include, but are not restricted to the following: people living in SROs (Single Room Occupancy), people living in rooming houses, and people paying more than 50% of their net income towards housing costs.[169] "Two-thirds of responses from homeless individuals enumerated in a recent homeless count in Greater Vancouver cited economic reasons for their being homeless – with lack of income and cost of housing accounting for 44% and 22% of responses respectively."[170]

Housing affordability has and continues to be the top priority housing issue Vancouverites must resolve. In 1996, a study published by BC Housing revealed that 25% of renter households in Vancouver pay 50% or more of their incomes to rent.[169] The core housing need model, developed by the CMHC, uses a threshold of households spending at least 30% of their income on shelter costs to illuminate households experiencing acute housing affordability needs. "Moving from the 30% shelter cost-to-income ratio (STIR) used in the core housing need model, to a 50% threshold, typically reduces the number of households identified by more than half."[168] In 2001, Statistics Canada published a study using both the 30% and 50% thresholds to identify renters and homeowners facing unaffordable housing costs in Metro Vancouver. This study revealed that 8.1% of homeowners and 27.8% of renters exceeded the 30% threshold, while 4.0% of homeowners and 10.8% of renters exceeded the 50% threshold. More in depth still, this study also found that 18.5% of immigrants living in Vancouver exceeded the 30% threshold and 8.0% exceed the 50% threshold. Only 11.3% and 4.8% of Canadian born households exceeded the 30% and 50% thresholds, respectively.

Heather Smith and David Ley found that in Canada's gateway cities, "the appreciable growth of the low-income population during the 1990s was almost entirely attributable to the growing poverty of recent immigrants".[171] They go on to state, "adult immigrants who had landed in the previous decade endured a poverty rate of...37 percent in Vancouver".[171] Immigrants, recent and old, therefore constitute a large proportion of households in Metro Vancouver considered to be at-risk of homelessness. Analysis conducted by Robert Fiedler revealed that, in 2001, "29.1% of persons in households...in Greater Vancouver are below more than one CMHC housing standard, indicating that...some households not only must spend an unsustainably high proportion of their income on shelter costs, but must also live in overcrowded and/or substandard conditions to access housing".[170] Although many new immigrants to Canada come from educated backgrounds, many having bachelor's degrees, they are paid less on average than Canadian born individuals and "Over the past 25 years, the incomes of recent immigrants to Canada have progressively declined relative to the native-born."[172]

Recently, the City of Vancouver released a new strategy targeting homelessness and affordable housing. The strategy will be enacted in 2012 and will run until 2021, with the goal of ending street homelessness completely by 2015, as well as increasing affordable housing choices for all Vancouverites. The City of Vancouver indicates that from 2002 to 2011, "homelessness has increased nearly three-fold" from approximately 628 homeless in 2002, to 1,605 homeless in 2011.[173] The strategy goes on to report that SRO rooms are increasingly being lost to conversions and rent increases even though SRO hotels constitute a majority of Vancouver's lowest income housing stock. As Robert Fiedler noted in 2006, "renters are disproportionately located in the City of Vancouver, which contains only 27.8% of the area's total population, but 40.2% of all renters".[170] Furthermore, low vacancy rates in Vancouver's market rental stock, a decreasing new supply of apartments in recent decades, and a widening gap of household incomes and housing prices are just a few challenges that must be overcome. By 2021, the City of Vancouver hopes to enable 5,000 additional social housing units, 11,000 new market rental-housing units, and 20,000 market ownership units.[173]

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ Vancouver did not exist as such at the time of the 1871 and 1881 censuses.
  2. ^ 2001–2016: Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  3. ^ 2021: Statistic includes all persons belonging to the non-Indigenous and non-visible minority "White" population group.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  9. ^ Including all subdivisions that comprise contemporary Vancouver; Vancouver City, Vancouver South, Vancouver North, Hastings Townsite, Lot 301, and Point Grey.
  10. ^ a b Combined population of the Burrard, Fraser Valley, New Westminster, Vancouver Centre and Vancouver South census divisions, which is the closest approximation to the geographical extent of the contemporary Metro Vancouver Area, per the 1921 census available data.
  11. ^ a b Combined population of the New Westminster and Vancouver City districts, which is the closest approximation to the geographical extent of the contemporary Metro Vancouver Area, per the 1911 census available data.
  12. ^ All individuals born in the East Indies
  13. ^ a b c d Including Austria
  14. ^ a b All individuals born in the Soviet Union
  15. ^ Including Bukovina and Bulgaria

Citations

[edit]
  1. ^ "Vancouver Public Library" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
  2. ^ Data taken from: "British Columbia Regional District and Municipal Census Populations" (PDF). BC Stats.; "British Columbia Municipal and Regional District 1996 Census Results". BC Stats.[permanent dead link];"British Columbia Municipal and Regional District 2001 Census Results". BC Stats.[permanent dead link];Davis, Chuck (1997). The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopedia. Surrey, BC: Linkman Press. p. 780. ISBN 978-1-896846-00-2.
  3. ^ "Members". Metro Vancouver Regional District. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  4. ^ "Table 98-10-0002-02 Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities)". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Members". Metro Vancouver Regional District. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  6. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Vancouver [Census metropolitan area], British Columbia and British Columbia [Province] Ethnic Origin". Statistics Canada.
  7. ^ Profile of Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census Archived 30 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b c d e f Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (21 September 2022). "Indigenous identity by Registered or Treaty Indian status: Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions and census subdivisions". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  9. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (26 October 2022). "Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (17 June 2019). "Aboriginal Identity (9), Age (20), Registered or Treaty Indian Status (3) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census – 25% Sample Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  11. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 October 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census Vancouver [Census metropolitan area], British Columbia and British Columbia [Province] Visible Minority". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (23 January 2019). "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables Aboriginal Identity (8), Age Groups (20), Registered or Treaty Indian Status (3) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census divisions and Census subdivisions, 2011 National Household Survey". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  13. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 November 2015). "NHS Profile, Vancouver, CMA, British Columbia, 2011 Visible Minority". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  14. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (20 August 2019). "2006 Community Profiles Vancouver British Columbia (Census metropolitan area)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  15. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2 July 2019). "2001 Community Profiles Vancouver British Columbia (Census Metropolitan Area)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  16. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (4 June 2019). "Electronic Area Profiles Profile of Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 1996 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  17. ^ a b c "Proportion of visible minorities, Canada, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981 to 2001". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  18. ^ a b "Visible Minority Neighbourhood Enclaves and Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants - ARCHIVED". www150.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  19. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (21 January 2003). "Canada's Ethnocultural Portrait: The Changing Mosaic, 2001 Census – ARCHIVED". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Proportion of couples in mixed unions, Canada, 1991 to 2011". Statistics Canada. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  21. ^ Residential Segregation of Visible Minorities in Canada's gateway cities Residential Segregation of visible minorities in Canada's Gateway cities P207
  22. ^ 1981 Census of Canada: British Columbia. Ethnic Origin. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  23. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (26 October 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Coquitlam, City (CY) British Columbia [Census subdivision]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  24. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (26 October 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Langley, District municipality British Columbia [Census subdivision]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  25. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". Statistics Canada. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
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References

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Further reading

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