Demographics of Vietnam
|Demographics of Vietnam|
|Population||90,730,000 (2014 est.) (13th)|
|Growth rate||1.08% (2014 est.) (113th)|
|Birth rate||17.2 births/1000 population (2013 est.)|
|Death rate||6.9 deaths/1000 population (July 2013 est.)|
|Life expectancy||73.2 years (2014 est.)|
|• male||70.6 years (2014 est.)|
|• female||76.0 years (2014 est.)|
|Fertility rate||2.09 born/woman (2014 est.)|
|Infant mortality rate||14.9 deaths/1000 live births (2014 est.)|
|0–14 years||24.6% (male 11,931,623/female 10,807,661) (2011 est.)|
|15–64 years||69.8% (male 31,301,879/female 31,419,306) (2011 est.)|
|65 and over||5.5% (male 1,921,652/female 3,092,589) (2011 est.)|
|At birth||1.122 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.1 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||1 male (s)/female|
|65 and over||0.62 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural) adjective: Vietnamese|
|Major ethnic||Kinh (Viet) (85.7%)|
|Minor ethnic||Tay (1.9%), Thai (1.8%), Muong (1.5%), Khmer (1.5%), Mong (1.2%), Nung (1.1%), others (5.3%)|
|Spoken||Vietnamese and many minority and mountain area languages|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Vietnam, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Ethnic Vietnamese, or Viet (known officially as Kinh), live in the lowlands and speak the Vietnamese language. This group dominates much of the cultural and political landscape of Vietnam.
- 1 Population
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Ethnic groups
- 4 Language
- 5 Religions
- 6 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 7 See also
- 8 Sources
- 9 References
|Total population (000's)||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950-1955||1 335 000||722 000||613 000||44.8||24.2||20.6||6.20||157.9|
|1955-1960||1 533 000||764 000||769 000||46.1||23.0||23.1||6.76||143.7|
|1960-1965||1 732 000||790 000||942 000||46.2||21.0||25.2||7.33||130.3|
|1965-1970||1 798 000||790 000||1 009 000||42.4||18.6||23.8||7.38||117.8|
|1970-1975||1 853 000||859 000||994 000||39.1||18.1||21.0||7.15||118.4|
|1975-1980||1 797 000||760 000||1 036 000||34.6||14.6||20.0||5.89||97.6|
|1980-1985||1 952 000||630 000||1 322 000||34.1||11.0||23.1||4.93||70.0|
|1985-1990||2 000 000||574 000||1 425 000||31.4||9.0||22.4||3.96||54.8|
|1990-1995||1 929 000||484 000||1 444 000||27.3||6.9||20.4||3.23||37.9|
|1995-2000||1 448 000||441 000||1 007 000||19.0||5.8||13.2||2.18||29.2|
|2000-2005||1 392 000||425 000||967 000||17.2||5.3||11.9||1.93||23.1|
|2005-2010||1 472 000||448 000||1 024 000||17.2||5.2||12.0||1.89||20.4|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Birth, death and fertility rates
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (children per woman)|
The Vietnamese government recognizes 54 ethnic groups, of which the Viet (Kinh) is the largest; according to official Vietnamese figures (1999 census), ethnic Vietnamese account for 86% of the nation's population. The ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).
The Khmer Krom are found in the delta of the Mekong River, in the south of Vietnam, where they form in many areas the majority of the rural population. They live in an area which was previously part of Cambodia and which Vietnam conquered in the 17th and 18th centuries. Official Vietnamese figures put the Khmer Krom at 1.3 million people. However, estimates vary from 1.1 to 7 million.
Vietnam's approximately 1 million ethnic Chinese, constitute one of Vietnam's largest minority groups. Long important in the Vietnamese economy, Vietnamese of Chinese ancestry have been active in rice trading, milling, real estate, and banking in the south and shopkeeping, stevedoring, and mining in the north. Restrictions on economic activity following reunification in 1975 and the subsequent but unrelated general deterioration in Vietnamese-Chinese relations sent chills through the Chinese-Vietnamese community.
The relation between China and Vietnam also declined in this period, with Vietnam siding with the Soviet Union against China in the Chinese-Soviet split. Tensions peaked when Vietnam invaded Cambodia, an ally of China, to depose Pol Pot, resulting in a Chinese invasion of Vietnam in 1979. In 1978-79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China. In recent years the government has performed an about turn and is encouraging overseas Hoa to return and invest, but the ethnic Chinese population has been in continuous decline since the 1970s due to assimilation and low birth rates.
The central highland peoples commonly termed Degar or Montagnards (mountain people) comprise two main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo-Polynesian and Mon–Khmer. About 30 groups of various cultures and dialects are spread over the highland territory.
|census 1989||census 1999||census 2009||census 2014|
Vietnamese is the official language of the country. It belongs to the Austroasiatic language family, which also includes languages such as Khmer and Mon. Vietnamese was spoken by 65.8 million people in Vietnam at the 1999 census. In the early 21st century, around another three million Vietnamese speakers are found outside of Vietnam. Thus Vietnamese is the most spoken language of the Austroasiatic family, being spoken by three times more people than the second most spoken language of the family, Khmer. Both languages, however, are extremely different: Vietnamese, possibly due to the influence of Chinese, has become a tonal language, while Khmer has remained non-tonal. Vietnamese was heavily influenced by Chinese and a great part of the Vietnamese vocabulary is Chinese, while Khmer was heavily influenced by Sanskrit and Pali and a great part of its vocabulary is now made up of Indian words, so that both languages look very dissimilar on the surface. Since the early 20th century, the Vietnamese have used a Romanized script introduced by the French. (See Vietnamese language and Vietnamese alphabet).
Only a small fraction of the Vietnamese adheres to institutional religions, according to the 2009 official census.
- Non religious, 80.8%
- Buddhism, 9.3%
- Christianity, 7.2%
- Roman Catholic, 6.7%
- Protestant, 0.5%
- Hòa Hảo, 1.5%
- Cao Đài, 1.1%
- Vietnamese folk religions, 45.3%
- Buddhism, 16.4%
- Christianity, 8.2%
- Non religious, 29.6%
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
- at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
- total population: 0.98 male(s)/female
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 71.33 years
- male: 68.52 years
- female: 74.33 years
- definition: age 15 and over can read and write
- total population: 95.6% (2014 consensus)
- male: 96.9%
- female: 91.9% (2012)
- General statistic office-Vietnam, 23 December 2013.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Population and employment
- Socio-economic situation in 2013
- United Nations 1993 Demographic Yearbook
- 1999 Population and Housing Census Vietnam
- 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census
- VN population reaches 90.4 million, with 7.95 million in HCM City
- Vietnam 2009 Census Results
- Pew Research Center: Religious Composition by Country.