Demographics of Zambia

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Demographics of Zambia
Zambia single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Zambia in 2020
Population19,642,123 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.9% (2022 est.)
Birth rate34.86 births/1,000 population
Death rate6.12 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy66.26 years
 • male64.52 years
 • female68.06 years
Fertility rate4.56 children
Infant mortality rate37.11 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio
Total1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityZambian
Zambia's population (1890-2021).

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Zambia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and others aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Zambia is one of the most highly urbanised countries in sub-Saharan Africa with 44% of the population concentrated in a few urban areas along the major transport corridors, while rural areas are sparsely populated. Zambia's population comprises more than 72 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. The majority of Zambians are subsistence farmers, but the country is also fairly urbanised, with 42% of the population being city residents. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity.[1]

Immigrants, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens (about 40,000), live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians or Chinese.[2][citation needed] . Zambia also has a small coloured population of mixed racial heritage, not included officially on the census since independence.

2010 census[edit]

Zambia-Ethnic-Groups.png
Groups Percentage
African 99.2%
Bemba 21%
Tonga 13.6%
Chewa 7.4%
Lozi 5.7%
Nsenga 5.3%
Tumbuka 4.4%
Ngoni 4%
Lala 3.1%
Kaonde 2.9%
Namwanga 2.8%
Lunda (North-western) 2.6%
Mambwe 2.5%
Luvale 2.2%
Lamba 2.1%
Ushi 1.9%
Lenje 1.6%
Bisa 1.6%
Mbunda 1.2%
Other 13.8%
Unspecified 0.4%

Source:[3]

Population[edit]

Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[4][5] the total population of Zambia is 19,473,125 in 2021, compared to only 2,340,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 46.4%, 50.6% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older.[6]

Total population[7] Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 340 000 44.9 52.3 2.7
1955 2 653 000 44.7 52.7 2.6
1960 3 045 000 44.9 52.6 2.5
1965 3 537 000 45.2 52.2 2.6
1970 4 139 000 46.4 50.9 2.7
1975 4 900 000 47.0 50.3 2.7
1980 5 775 000 47.3 49.9 2.8
1985 6 785 000 46.6 50.6 2.8
1990 7 860 000 45.8 51.4 2.8
1995 8 919 000 45.3 51.8 2.9
2000 10 202 000 45.3 51.8 2.9
2005 11 462 000 45.9 51.0 3.0
2010 13 089 000 46.4 50.6 3.1
2018 17,351,708

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2020): [8]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 8 852 174 9 033 248 17 885 422 100
0–4 1 579 231 1 554 009 3 133 240 17.52
5–9 1 357 442 1 343 776 2 701 218 15.10
10–14 1 160 256 1 154 409 2 314 665 12.94
15–19 958 687 954 923 1 913 610 10.70
20–24 833 604 851 421 1 685 025 9.42
25–29 693 050 727 248 1 420 298 7.94
30–34 496 336 579 946 1 076 282 6.02
35–39 433 030 493 825 926 855 5.18
40–44 361 566 362 160 723 726 4.05
45–49 298 359 283 452 581 811 3.25
50–54 205 799 193 301 399 100 2.23
55–59 153 109 160 905 314 014 1.76
60–64 109 330 123 190 232 520 1.30
65-69 72 624 79 062 151 686 0.85
70-74 54 288 68 013 122 301 0.68
75-79 35 056 44 637 79 693 0.45
80+ 50 407 58 971 109 378 0.61
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 4 096 929 4 052 194 8 149 123 45.56
15–64 4 542 870 4 730 371 9 273 241 51.85
65+ 212 375 250 683 463 058 2.59

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Zambia not complete. The website Our World in Data prepared the following estimates based on statistics from the Population Department of the United Nations.[9]

Mid-year population (thousands) Live births (thousands) Deaths (thousands) Natural change (thousands) Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) Life expectancy (in years)
1950 2 318   113   46   67 48.6 19.7 28.8 6.62 135.9 45.12
1951   2 385   116   47   69 48.6 19.7 28.9 6.64 134.9 45.28
1952   2 454   119   48   72 48.7 19.4 29.2 6.68 132.9 45.68
1953   2 525   123   48   75 48.8 19.1 29.7 6.72 130.8 46.14
1954   2 600   127   49   78 48.9 18.9 30.1 6.76 128.9 46.53
1955   2 677   132   50   82 49.1 18.6 30.5 6.82 126.9 46.95
1956   2 758   136   51   85 49.3 18.4 30.9 6.87 124.8 47.37
1957   2 843   141   52   89 49.4 18.1 31.3 6.93 122.8 47.75
1958   2 931   146   52   93 49.6 17.8 31.8 6.99 120.8 48.23
1959   3 023   151   53   98 49.8 17.5 32.3 7.06 118.8 48.65
1960   3 119   156   54   102 49.9 17.3 32.6 7.12 116.9 49.04
1961   3 219   161   55   106 50.0 17.0 33.0 7.17 115.1 49.45
1962   3 323   167   56   111 50.1 16.8 33.3 7.21 113.6 49.79
1963   3 431   172   57   115 50.0 16.6 33.5 7.25 112.1 50.13
1964   3 543   177   59   118 50.0 16.7 33.3 7.27 111.7 49.85
1965   3 658   183   59   123 49.9 16.2 33.6 7.29 110.2 50.56
1966   3 778   188   61   127 49.7 16.1 33.6 7.30 109.7 50.68
1967   3 901   194   63   131 49.7 16.0 33.6 7.32 109.4 50.80
1968   4 029   200   64   136 49.7 16.0 33.7 7.33 108.8 50.86
1969   4 159   207   66   141 49.7 15.8 33.9 7.35 107.7 51.15
1970   4 282   214   67   147 49.8 15.5 34.2 7.37 106.0 51.49
1971   4 400   219   67   152 49.7 15.2 34.5 7.38 103.6 52.02
1972   4 524   225   67   158 49.6 14.8 34.9 7.39 100.8 52.63
1973   4 653   231   67   164 49.5 14.3 35.2 7.39 97.9 53.30
1974   4 789   237   67   170 49.3 13.9 35.3 7.38 95.5 53.87
1975   4 931   244   68   177 49.3 13.7 35.7 7.39 93.7 54.24
1976   5 080   250   69   182 49.1 13.4 35.7 7.37 92.8 54.60
1977   5 233   257   70   187 48.9 13.4 35.5 7.33 92.7 54.71
1978   5 391   263   72   190 48.6 13.4 35.2 7.29 93.0 54.61
1979   5 553   269   75   194 48.2 13.4 34.8 7.23 93.3 54.44
1980   5 720   273   78   196 47.6 13.5 34.1 7.15 93.8 54.14
1981   5 897   282   80   202 47.7 13.5 34.1 7.10 94.1 54.05
1982   6 091   291   83   208 47.8 13.6 34.2 7.06 94.6 53.86
1983   6 291   301   87   214 47.8 13.8 33.9 7.02 95.5 53.39
1984   6 488   310   92   218 47.7 14.2 33.6 6.98 97.0 52.76
1985   6 686   321   98   223 47.8 14.6 33.2 6.92 99.0 51.90
1986   6 891   330   104   226 47.8 15.1 32.8 6.85 101.0 51.06
1987   7 095   338   110   229 47.6 15.4 32.2 6.77 102.9 50.33
1988   7 294   347   116   231 47.4 15.8 31.6 6.68 104.4 49.53
1989   7 491   356   122   234 47.4 16.2 31.2 6.61 105.4 48.70
1990   7 686   363   128   235 47.1 16.6 30.5 6.53 106.1 47.93
1991   7 880   372   134   238 47.1 17.0 30.1 6.45 106.6 47.10
1992   8 074   381   140   241 47.0 17.2 29.8 6.36 106.4 46.51
1993   8 271   391   144   247 47.1 17.3 29.8 6.32 105.5 46.21
1994   8 474   401   148   253 47.1 17.4 29.8 6.27 104.0 45.85
1995   8 684   410   152   258 47.0 17.4 29.6 6.24 102.4 45.55
1996   8 902   418   156   262 46.8 17.5 29.3 6.18 100.9 45.23
1997   9 133   425   160   265 46.5 17.5 29.0 6.12 99.5 44.95
1998   9 372   435   164   271 46.3 17.5 28.8 6.05 98.1 44.70
1999   9 621   445   168   277 46.2 17.4 28.8 5.99 96.4 44.66
2000   9 891   454   167   287 45.9 16.9 29.0 5.93 93.5 45.23
2001   10 192   460   164   296 45.2 16.1 29.1 5.86 89.0 46.02
2002   10 508   470   161   310 44.7 15.3 29.5 5.79 83.5 46.98
2003   10 838   481   155   326 44.4 14.3 30.1 5.73 78.1 48.28
2004   11 188   496   150   346 44.3 13.5 30.9 5.72 72.7 49.49
2005   11 565   511   146   365 44.2 12.7 31.6 5.71 67.8 50.66
2006   11 972   526   143   384 44.0 11.9 32.1 5.69 63.7 51.80
2007   12 402   538   141   398 43.5 11.4 32.1 5.61 60.8 52.74
2008   12 853   552   137   415 43.0 10.7 32.3 5.54 58.3 53.95
2009   13 318   564   132   431 42.4 10.0 32.4 5.45 55.5 55.30
2010   13 792   576   127   449 41.8 9.2 32.6 5.36 52.9 56.80
2011   14 266   587   125   462 41.2 8.8 32.4 5.27 51.6 57.77
2012   14 745   595   122   473 40.4 8.3 32.1 5.15 50.4 58.87
2013   15 235   602   119   483 39.5 7.8 31.7 5.03 48.3 59.88
2014   15 738   607   117   490 38.6 7.4 31.2 4.90 46.7 60.70
2015   16 248   614   117   498 37.8 7.2 30.6 4.79 46.3 61.21
2016   16 768   624   116   508 37.2 6.9 30.3 4.71 44.9 61.79
2017   17 298   633   118   515 36.6 6.8 29.8 4.61 44.5 62.12
2018   17 836   643   120   522 36.0 6.7 29.3 4.54 45.0 62.34
2019   18 380   652   121   531 35.5 6.6 28.9 4.45 44.2 62.79
2020   18 928   662   125   537 35.0 6.6 28.4 4.38 42.6 62.38
2021   19 473   672   136   536 34.5 7.0 27.5 4.31 40.5 61.22

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR) :[10] [11]

Year CBR Total TFR (Wanted TFR) Total CBR Urban TFR (Wanted TFR) Urban CBR Rural TFR (Wanted TFR) Rural
1992 45 6.5 (5.4) 44 5.8 (4.7) 46 7.1 (6.2)
1996 45.2 6.08 (5.2) 43.7 5.08 (4.1) 46.1 6.86 (6.1)
2001-2002 43.3 5.9 (4.9) 36.7 4.3 (3.4) 47.0 6.9 (5.8)
2007 43.6 6.2 (5.2) 36.3 4.3 (3.6) 47.5 7.5 (6.3)
2013-2014 37.2 5.3 (4.5) 32.2 3.7 (3.3) 40.3 6.6 (5.6)
2018 35.3 4.7 (4.0) 30.9 3.4 (2.9) 38.4 5.8 (5.0)

Fertility data as of 2013-2014 (DHS Program):[12]

Province Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Central 5.9 8.1 6.8
Copperbelt 4.0 7.6 5.5
Eastern 5.8 8.7 6.9
Luapula 6.4 11.4 6.6
Lusaka 3.7 7.7 5.1
Muchinga 6.3 10.3 7.2
Northern 6.6 10.4 7.6
North Western 6.2 9.2 6.7
Southern 6.2 9.2 6.9
Western 5.6 8.1 6.0

Fertility rate by religion[edit]

At national level, the TFR was highest among women with no religious affiliation at 6.5. Among the women with religious affiliation Protestants had the highest TFR of 6.0, followed by Muslims with 5.9 and Catholics with 5.7.[13][14][citation needed]

Religious Affiliation [15] Total fertility rate
Protestantism 6.0
Catholicism 5.7
Islam 5.9
Hinduism 2.0
Other religions 5.8
Not religious 6.5
Zambia (total) 5.9

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[16]
1950–1955 42.07
1955–1960 Increase 44.13
1960–1965 Increase 46.08
1965–1970 Increase 47.83
1970–1975 Increase 50.16
1975–1980 Increase 51.47
1980–1985 Decrease 50.31
1985–1990 Decrease 46.74
1990–1995 Decrease 43.79
1995–2000 Decrease 43.53
2000–2005 Increase 46.86
2005–2010 Increase 52.93
2010–2015 Increase 59.73

Other demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics of Zambia in 2022 are from the World Population Review.[17]

  • One birth every 47 seconds
  • One death every 4 minutes
  • One net migrant every 65 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 57 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[18]

Population[edit]

19,642,123 (2022 est.)
16,445,079 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Zambia in 2020
0-14 years: 45.74% (male 4,005,134/female 3,964,969)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 1,744,843/female 1,746,561)
25-54 years: 28.96% (male 2,539,697/female 2,506,724)
55-64 years: 3.01% (male 242,993/female 280,804)
65 years and over: 2.27% (male 173,582/female 221,316) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 45.95% (male 3,796,548 /female 3,759,624)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,643,364 /female 1,645,713)
25-54 years: 28.79% (male 2,384,765 /female 2,349,877)
55-64 years: 2.95% (male 225,586 /female 260,252)
65 years and over: 2.31% (male 166,224 /female 213,126) (2018 est.)

Religions[edit]

Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

34.86 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th
41.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th

Death rate[edit]

6.12 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 152nd
12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.56 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th
5.58 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th

Population growth rate[edit]

2.9% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 12th
2.91% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 10th

Median age[edit]

total: 16.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 220th
male: 16.7 years
female: 17 years (2020 est.)
total: 16.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 222nd
male: 16.7 years
female: 16.9 years (2018 est.)
total: 17.2 years
male: 17.1 years
female: 17.3 years (2010 est.)
total: 16.5 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 16.6 years (2002 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.2 years (2018 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 20-49

Net migration rate[edit]

0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 77th

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

49.6% (2018)
49% (2013/14)

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 91.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)

Population distribution[edit]

one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 45.8% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 43.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 66.26 years. Country comparison to the world: 197th
male: 64.52 years
female: 68.06 years (2022 est.)
total population: 53 years
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.7 years (2018 est.)
total population: 52.7 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 54.4 years (2017 est.)
total population:37.24 years
male:37.08 years
female:37.41 years (2000 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

4.5% of GDP (2019) Country comparison to the world: 85th

Nationality[edit]

noun:Zambian(s)
adjective:Zambian

Demographic profile[edit]

Zambia's youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia's high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country's total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world's highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country's lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood.[18]

Languages[edit]

Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family[19]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.7%
male: 90.6%
female: 83.1% (2018)
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 30.1%
male: 32.1%
female: 27.6% (2019 est.)
total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inc, IBP (2016-04-18). Zambia Investment and Business Guide Volume 2 Business, Investment Opportunities and Incentives. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-57751-907-2. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  2. ^ Larmer, Miles (2016-07-07). "At the Crossroads". Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935369.013.20. ISBN 978-0-19-993536-9. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  3. ^ "Field Listing :: Ethnic groups". CIA. Archived from the original on 2019-01-09.
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  6. ^ "2015 Revision of World Population Prospects". Esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  7. ^ De Wulf, Martin. "Zambia 2015". Population Pyramids of the World from 1950 to 2100.
  8. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  9. ^ "Population & Demography Data Explorer". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  10. ^ "Cambodia - Demographic and Health Survey 2010". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  11. ^ "National Health Survey 1998" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  12. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  13. ^ "Demographics of Zambia - demographics of zambia What i". ww.en.freejournal.info. Archived from the original on 2021-05-20. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  14. ^ Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E. (2014). "Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria". Population Review. 53 (2): 23–46. doi:10.1353/prv.2014.0006 (inactive 31 December 2022). ISSN 0032-471X. PMC 4326038. PMID 25684828.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2022 (link)
  15. ^ https://www.zamstats.gov.zm/phocadownload/2010_Census/2010%20Census%20of%20Population%20National%20Analytical%20Report.pdf Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  16. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  17. ^ "Zambia Population 2022", World Population Review, 2022
  18. ^ a b Zambia: People, CIA World Factbook, 2022 Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ "Africa :: ZAMBIA". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.