Demographics of the Gambia

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Demographics of The Gambia
Population of the gambia.png
Scatter plot of the population of The Gambia (in thousands) from 1963–2013
Population2,157,846 (2018)
Density176.1/sq km (2013)
Growth rate38.3%
Birth rate29.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Life expectancy65.1 (2017 est.)
 • male62.8 (2017 est.)
 • female67.5 (2017 est.)
Fertility rate3.52 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Infant mortality rate60.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years37.44% (2017 est.)
65 and over3.48% (2017 est.)
Sex ratio
Total0.98 (2013)
At birth1.03 (2013 est.)
Under 151.01 (2013 est.)
15–64 years0.96 (2013 est.)
65 and over0.90 (2013 est.)
Nationality
NationalityNoun: Gambian
Major ethnicAfrican (99%) (2003)
Minor ethnicNon-African (1%) (2003)
Language
OfficialEnglish
SpokenMandinka, Wolof, Fula

The demographic characteristics of the population of The Gambia are known through national censuses, conducted in ten-year intervals and analyzed by The Gambian Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) since 1963. The latest census was conducted in 2013. The population of The Gambia at the 2013 census was 1.8 million. The population density is 176.1 per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years. Since the first census of 1963, the population of The Gambia has increased every ten years by an average of 43.2 percent. Since 1950s, the birth rate has constantly exceeded the death rate; the natural growth rate is positive. The Gambia is in the second stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, The Gambia is dominated by 15- to 64-year-old segment (57.6%). The median age of the population is 19.9 years, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.98 males per female.

Population[edit]

Historical population of The Gambia
YearPop.±%
1963 315,486—    
1973 493,499+56.4%
1983 687,817+39.4%
1993 1,038,145+50.9%
2003 1,360,681+31.1%
2013 1,882,450+38.3%
Source: The Gambia Bureau of Statistics[1]

With a population of 1.88 million in 2013, The Gambia ranks 149th in the world by population.[1] Its population density is 176.1 inhabitants per square kilometer (456.1 inhabitants per square mile).[2] The overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years.[3] The total fertility rate of 3.98 is one of the highest in the world.[4] Since 1950, the United Nations (UN) estimated the birth rate exceeds the death rate.[5] The Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) estimates the population of The Gambia is expected to reach 3.6 million in 20 years.[1] The population of The Gambia has increased each census, starting with 315 thousand in 1963 to 1.8 million in 2013.[1] The GBOS predicted the reason for the increase from 2003 to 2013 was more coverage in the latter census compared to the former's.[6]

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in the Gambia not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[7]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 13,000 9,000 4,000 43.7 31.3 12.4 5.29 221
1955-1960 16,000 10,000 6,000 48.3 30.6 17.8 5.46 210
1960-1965 20,000 12,000 8,000 50.2 29.7 20.5 5.70 199
1965-1970 22,000 12,000 10,000 50.8 28.2 22.6 5.96 185
1970-1975 26,000 12,000 14,000 52.0 23.9 28.1 6.20 164
1975-1980 31,000 12,000 19,000 52.6 20.1 32.6 6.34 140
1980-1985 35,000 11,000 24,000 50.5 16.4 34.1 6.29 117
1985-1990 42,000 12,000 30,000 48.1 13.7 34.4 6.14 101
1990-1995 49,000 14,000 35,000 46.5 13.1 33.4 6.03 93
1995-2000 54,000 15,000 39,000 44.7 12.2 32.6 5.80 86
2000-2005 59,000 15,000 44,000 42.4 10.9 31.5 5.46 80
2005-2010 64,000 16,000 48,000 39.3 9.8 29.5 5.10 74
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [8][edit]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2013 40.5 5.6 (4.7) 37.7 4.7 (4.1) 43.4 6.8 (5.6)

Structure of the population (DHS 2013) (males 23,904, females 25,649, total 49,553) :

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–4 18.5 16.4 17.4
5–9 16.6 15.3 15.9
10–14 12.8 12.5 12.6
15–19 10.3 10.4 10.3
20–24 8.5 9.1 8.8
25–29 6.8 8.0 7.4
30–34 5.5 6.5 6.0
35–39 4.5 4.7 4.6
40–44 3.8 3.3 3.5
45–49 2.9 2.4 2.6
50–54 2.1 4.1 3.1
55–59 1.5 1.9 1.7
60–64 2.3 1.9 2.1
65–69 1.5 1.2 1.3
70–74 1.0 0.9 1.0
75–79 0.7 0.5 0.6
80+ 0.8 1.0 0.9
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0–14 47.9 44.2 45.9
15–64 48.1 52.2 50.3
65+ 4.0 3.6 3.8

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[9]

Local Government Area Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Banjul 3.9 5.8 4.3
Kanifing 4.0 5.9 5.1
Brikama 5.6 7.7 5.9
Mansakonko 6.0 9.1 7.0
Kerewan 6.3 8.8 6.9
Kuntaur 7.2 11.5 6.6
Janjanbureh 6.8 9.2 6.5
Basse 7.0 10.9 6.2

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[10]
1950–1955 30.24
1955–1960 Increase 31.52
1960–1965 Increase 32.79
1965–1970 Increase 35.78
1970–1975 Increase 40.04
1975–1980 Increase 44.21
1980–1985 Increase 48.20
1985–1990 Increase 51.33
1990–1995 Increase 52.85
1995–2000 Increase 54.91
2000–2005 Increase 56.92
2005–2010 Increase 58.83
2010–2015 Increase 60.31

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The Gambia Bureau of Statistics 2013, p. 6
  2. ^ The Gambia Bureau of Statistics 2013, p. 10
  3. ^ "Africa :: Gambia, The". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  4. ^ "Country Comparison :: Total Fertility Rate". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". United Nations. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
  6. ^ The Gambia Bureau of Statistics 2013, pp. 6–7
  7. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "The DHS Program - Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". www.dhsprogram.com.
  9. ^ "The Gambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). The Gambia Demographic and Health Survey. 2013.
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.

References[edit]