Demographics of the Marshall Islands
The topic of this article is the demographics of the Marshall Islands, including population density, ethnicity, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Historical population figures for the Marshall Islands are unknown. In 1862, the population of the Islands was estimated at 10,000. In 1960, the population of the Islands was approximately 15,000. The 2011 Census counted 53,158 island residents. Over two-thirds of the residents of the Marshall Islands live in the capital city, Majuro, and the secondary urban center, Ebeye (located in Kwajalein Atoll). This figures excludes Marshall Islands natives who have relocated elsewhere; the Compact of Free Association allows them to freely relocate to the United States and obtain work there. Approximately 4,300 Marshall Islands natives relocated to Springdale, Arkansas in the United States; this figure represents the largest population concentration of Marshall Islands natives outside their island home.
Most residents of the Marshall Islands are Marshallese. Marshallese people are of Micronesian origin and are believed to have migrated from Asia to the Marshall Islands several thousand years ago. A minority of Marshallese have some recent Asian ancestry (mainly Japanese). About one-half of the nation's population lives in Majuro and Ebeye.
Major religious groups in the Republic of the Marshall Islands include the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands, with 51.5% of the population; the Assemblies of God, 24.2%; the Roman Catholic Church, 8.4%; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), 8.3%. Also represented are Bukot Nan Jesus (also known as Assembly of God Part Two), 2.2%; Baptist, 1.0%; Seventh-day Adventists, 0.9%; Full Gospel, 0.7%; and the Baháʼí Faith, 0.6%. Persons without any religious affiliation account for a very small percentage of the population. Islam is also present through Ahmadiyya Muslim Community which is based in Majuro, with the first mosque opening in the capital in September 2012.
During the Castle Bravo test of the first deployable thermonuclear bomb, a miscalculation resulted in the explosion being over twice as large as predicted. The nuclear fallout spread eastward onto the inhabited Rongelap and Rongerik Atolls. These islands were not evacuated before the explosion. Many of the Marshall Islands natives have since suffered from radiation burns and radioactive dusting, suffering the similar fates as the Japanese fishermen aboard the Daigo Fukuryū Maru, but have received little, if any, compensation from the federal government.
Births and deaths
|Year||Population||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase||TFR|
- 77,917 (July 2020 est.)
- 0–14 years: 32.94% (male 13,090/female 12,575)
- 15–24 years: 19.09% (male 7,568/female 7,308)
- 25–54 years: 37.35% (male 14,834/female 14,270)
- 55–64 years: 5.92% (male 2,269/female 2,341)
- 65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,805/female 1,857) (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
- 1.43% (2020 est.)
- 22.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
- 4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
- -4.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
- at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 0–14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 25–54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 55–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
- Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
- Total: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births
- Male: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births
- Female: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- Total population: 74.1 years
- Male: 71.8 years
- Female: 76.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
- 2.86 children born/woman (2020 est.)
- Marshallese (singular and plural)
- Marshallese (adjective)
- Marshallese: 92.1%
- Mixed Marshallese: 5.9%
- Other: 2% (2006)
- Protestant: 80.5%
- United Church: 47%
- Assembly of God: 16.2%
- Roman Catholic: 8.5%
- Bukot nan Jesus: 5.4%
- Mormon: 1.4%
- Other Christian: 10.5%
- Other: 1.2%
- None: 1.1%
- Marshallese (official): 98.2%
- other languages 1.8%
- Beardslee, L. A. (1870). Marshall Group. North Pacific Islands. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 33. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Gwynne, S.C. (5 October 2012). "Paradise With an Asterisk". Outside Magazine. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Schulte, Bret (July 4, 2012). "For Pacific Islanders, Hopes and Troubles in Arkansas". The New York Times.
- David Vine (2006). "The Impoverishment of Displacement: Models for Documenting Human Rights Abuses and the People of Diego Garcia" (PDF). Human Rights Brief. 13 (2): 21–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 8, 2013.
- David Vine (January 7, 2004) Exile in the Indian Ocean: Documenting the Injuries of Involuntary Displacement. Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies. Web.gc.cuny.edu. Retrieved on September 11, 2013.
- David Vine (2006). Empire's Footprint: Expulsion and the United States Military Base on Diego Garcia. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-542-85100-1.
- David Vine (2011). Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (New in Paper). Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-691-14983-7.
- "The World Factbook: Marshall Islands". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. June 28, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017. Look under tab for "People and Society".
- International Religious Freedom Report 2009: Marshall Islands . United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- First Mosque opens up in Marshall Islands Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine by Radio New Zealand International, September 21, 2012
- Renee Lewis (28 July 2015). "Bikinians evacuated 'for good of mankind' endure lengthy nuclear fallout".
- "Republic of the Marshall Islands 2011 Census Report" (PDF).
- "Australia-Oceania :: MARSHALL ISLANDS". CIA The World Factbook.