Demographics of the Republic of Ireland

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Demographics of Ireland
Population pyramid of Ireland in 2022
Population5,281,600 (2023)
Density73 per km2
Growth rate8.1%
Birth rate10.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)
Death rate6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)
Life expectancy80.19 years
 • male78 years
 • female82.6 years
Fertility rate1.70 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate3.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Age structure
0–14 years19.98%
15–64 years65.26%
65 and over14.76%
Sex ratio
Total0.99 male/female
At birth1.057 male/female
Under 151.07 male/female
15–64 years1.00 male/female
65 and over0.81 male/female
Nationality
NationalityIrish
Major ethnicIrish 76.5%
Minor ethnicOther White 10.3%, Asian: 3.7%, Black: 1.5%, Irish Travellers 0.7%, Other 1.3%, Not stated 6.7% (2022)
Language
OfficialIrish, English
SpokenIrish sign language, Shelta, Ulster Scots

Ireland had an estimated population of 5,281,600 as of 1 April 2023.[1]

Demographic history[edit]

The island of Ireland's population has fluctuated over history. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Ireland experienced a major population boom as a result of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. In the 50-year period 1790–1840, the population of the island doubled from 4 million to 8 million. At its peak, Ireland's population density was similar to that of England and continental Europe.

This changed dramatically with the Great Famine of the mid-19th century, which led to mass starvation and consequent mass emigration. In the area covering the present day Republic of Ireland, the population reached about 6.5 million in the mid-1840s. Ten years later it was down to 5 million. The population continued a slow decline well into the 20th century, with the Republic recording a low of 2.8 million in the 1961 census.[2]

During the 1960s, the population started to grow once more, although slowly as emigration was still common. In the 1990s the country entered a period of rapid economic growth as a result of the Celtic Tiger Irish economic boom, and the Republic started to receive immigration. Many former Irish emigrants returned home, and Ireland became an attractive destination for immigrants, from other member states EU such as Central Europe, but also from outside the EU such as Africa, Asia and elsewhere. With the 2008 onset of the Irish economic and banking crisis, the state's economy suffered, and Ireland has once again been experiencing net emigration of its citizens, but immigration remains high.

In November 2013, Eurostat reported that the Republic had the largest net emigration rate of any member state, at 7.6 emigrants per 1,000 population. However, it has the youngest population of any European Union member state[3] and its population size is predicted to grow for many decades, in contrast with the declining population predicted for most European countries. A report published in 2008 predicted that the population would reach 6.7 million by 2060.[4] The Republic has also been experiencing a baby boom, with increasing birth rates and overall fertility rates.[5] Despite this, the total fertility rate is still below replacement depending on when the measurement is taken. The Irish fertility rate is still the highest of any European country.[6] This increase is significantly fuelled by non-Irish immigration – in 2009, one-quarter of all babies born in Ireland were born to foreign-born mothers.[7]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1841 6,528,799—    
1851 5,111,557−2.42%
1861 4,402,111−1.48%
1871 4,053,187−0.82%
1881 3,870,020−0.46%
1891 3,468,694−1.09%
1901 3,221,823−0.74%
1911 3,139,688−0.26%
1926 2,971,992−0.37%
1936 2,968,420−0.01%
1946 2,955,107−0.04%
1951 2,960,593+0.04%
1961 2,818,341−0.49%
1971 2,978,248+0.55%
1981 3,443,405+1.46%
1991 3,525,719+0.24%
2002 3,917,203+0.96%
2011 4,588,252+1.77%
2022 5,149,139+1.05%
Source: CSO[8] 2019[9]

Population[edit]

The population of Ireland was 5,123,536 people in 2022. Demographic statistics as of 2019.[10]

  • One birth every 8 minutes
  • One death every 16 minutes
  • One net migrant every 90 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 14 minutes
Geographic Population Distribution

Urban population (areas with >1,500 people): 62.0% (2011)

Rural population: 38.0% (2011)

A graph of the populations of the island of Ireland and Europe[clarification needed] from 1750 to the present[citation needed] showing Ireland's "massive" population spike in the early 19th century and subsequent collapse due to the 1845–49 famine and subsequent emigration.

Fertility[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman.[11]

Year 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 4.20 4.13 4.06 3.99 3.93 3.86 3.79 3.72 3.65 3.58 3.51
Year 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.45 3.38 3.31 3.24 3.47 3.54 3.53 3.58 3.58 3.71
Year 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.67 3.72 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.57 3.54 3.40 3.44 3.31
Year 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.33 3.22 3.15 3.20 3.15 3.11 3.10 3.06 3.04 2.99
Year 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.05 3.01 3.09 3.08 3.12 3.17 3.16 3.13 3.09

Birth rate; 13.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 137th

Total fertility rate; 1.96 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 125th

Mother's mean age at first birth; 30.7 years (2015 est.)

Life expectancy[edit]

Life expectancy in Ireland since 1901
Life expectancy in Ireland since 1960 by gender

Death rate; 6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 140th

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 66.9 1985–1990 74.2
1955–1960 69.2 1990–1995 75.3
1960–1965 70.1 1995–2000 76.0
1965–1970 70.8 2000–2005 77.8
1970–1975 71.2 2005–2010 79.7
1975–1980 72.0 2010–2015 80.9
1980–1985 73.2

Source: UN World Population Prospects

Age structure[edit]

Age structure[12]

0–14 years: 21.37% (male 554,110 /female 529,067)
15–24 years: 11.92% (male 306,052 /female 297,890)
25–54 years: 42.86% (male 1,091,495 /female 1,080,594)
55–64 years: 10.53% (male 267,255 /female 266,438)
65 years and over: 13.32% (male 312,694 /female 362,455) (2018 est.)

Median age; total: 37.1 years

male: 36.8 years
female: 37.5 years (2018 est.)

Vital statistics[edit]

Vital statistics for Ireland since 1900[13]
Population on 1 April Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Crude migration (per 1000) Total fertility rate[fn 1][11]
1900 3,231,000 70,435 21.8 3.04
1901 3,234,000 70,194 21.7 2.92
1902 3,205,000 71,156 22.2 3.08
1903 3,191,000 70,541 22.1 3.09
1904 3,169,000 72,261 22.8 3.16
1905 3,160,000 71,427 22.6 3.13
1906 3,164,000 72,147 22.8 3.15
1907 3,145,000 70,773 22.5 3.11
1908 3,147,000 71,439 22.7 3.12
1909 3,135,000 72,119 23.0 3.14
1910 3,132,000 71,744 22.9 3.12
1911 3,129,000 71,351 22.8 3.07
1912 3,116,000 70,734 50,489 20,245 22.7 16.2 6.5 -9.7 3.10
1913 3,106,000 70,214 52,184 18,030 22.6 16.8 5.8 -8.4 3.09
1914 3,098,000 69,102 49,674 19,428 22.3 16.0 6.3 -16.0 3.05
1915 3,068,000 67,501 53,713 13,788 22.0 17.5 4.5 -3.5 2.99
1916 3,071,000 64,814 50,627 14,187 21.1 16.5 4.6 -4.6 2.87
1917 3,071,000 61,429 51,713 9,716 20.0 16.8 3.2 -3.9 2.71
1918 3,069,000 61,092 53,682 7,410 19.9 17.5 2.4 -5.3 2.73
1919 3,060,000 61,829 55,776 6,044 19.9 18.2 1.7 12.0 2.75
1920 3,102,000 67,015 45,521 21,494 21.6 14.7 6.9 -8.8 3.20
1921 3,096,000 61,010 44,537 16,473 19.7 14.4 5.3 -13.7 2.79
1922 3,070,000 58,849 44,547 14,302 18.5 14.5 4.0 -22.2 2.61
1923 3,014,000 62,417 42,217 19,473 20.5 14.0 6.5 -9.5 2.74
1924 3,005,000 63,402 45,180 18,222 21.1 15.0 6.1 -12.8 2.83
1925 2,985,000 62,069 43,650 18,419 20.8 14.6 6.2 -10.9 2.79
1926 2,971,000 61,176 41,740 19,436 20.6 14.0 6.5 -11.2 2.76
1927 2,957,000 60,054 43,677 16,377 20.3 14.8 5.5 -9.9 2.72
1928 2,944,000 59,176 41,792 17,384 20.1 14.2 5.9 -8.3 2.69
1929 2,937,000 58,280 42,991 15,289 19.8 14.6 5.2 -8.6 2.66
1930 2,927,000 58,353 41,702 16,651 19.9 14.2 5.7 -3.7 2.54
1931 2,933,000 57,086 42,947 14,139 19.5 14.6 4.8 0.7 2.49
1932 2,949,000 56,240 42,984 13,256 19.1 14.6 4.5 -0.1 2.43
1933 2,962,000 57,364 40,539 16,825 19.4 13.7 5.7 -2.7 2.47
1934 2,971,000 57,897 39,083 18,814 19.5 13.2 6.3 -6.3 2.49
1935 2,971,000 58,266 41,543 16,723 19.6 14.0 5.6 -6.9 2.50
1936 2,967,000 58,115 42,586 15,529 19.6 14.4 5.2 -11.6 2.50
1937 2,948,000 56,488 45,086 11,402 19.2 15.3 3.9 -7.6 2.45
1938 2,937,000 56,925 40,041 16,884 19.4 13.6 5.7 -6.7 2.47
1939 2,934,000 56,070 41,717 14,353 19.1 14.2 4.9 3.3 2.43
1940 2,958,000 56,594 41,885 14,709 19.1 14.2 5.0 6.8 2.43
1941 2,993,000 56,780 43,797 12,983 19.0 14.6 4.3 -14.3 2.42
1942 2,963,000 66,117 41,640 24,477 22.3 14.1 8.3 -14.0 2.85
1943 2,946,000 64,375 43,494 20,881 21.9 14.8 7.1 -7.8 2.80
1944 2,944,000 65,425 45,128 20,297 22.2 15.3 6.9 -4.2 2.84
1945 2,952,000 66,861 42,762 24,099 22.6 14.5 8.2 -6.5 2.90
1946 2,957,000 67,922 41,457 26,465 23.0 14.0 8.9 -3.2 2.94
1947 2,974,000 68,978 44,061 24,917 23.2 14.8 8.4 -4.7 2.98
1948 2,985,000 65,930 36,357 29,573 22.1 12.2 9.9 -11.2 2.80
1949 2,981,000 64,153 38,062 26,091 21.5 12.8 8.8 -12.8 2.75
1950 2,969,000 63,565 37,741 25,824 21.4 12.7 8.7 -11.2 2.74
1951 2,961,000 62,878 42,382 20,496 21.2 14.3 6.9 -9.6 2.69
1952 2,953,000 64,631 35,105 29,526 21.9 11.9 10.0 -11.4 2.97
1953 2,949,000 62,558 34,591 27,967 21.2 11.7 9.5 -12.2 2.95
1954 2,941,000 62,534 35,535 26,999 21.3 12.1 9.2 -16.0 3.18
1955 2,921,000 61,622 36,761 24,861 21.1 12.6 8.5 -16.4 3.28
1956 2,898,000 60,740 33,910 26,830 21.0 11.7 9.3 -13.8 3.41
1957 2,885,000 61,242 34,311 26,931 21.2 11.9 9.3 -20.4 3.52
1958 2,853,000 59,510 34,248 25,262 20.9 12.0 8.9 -11.4 3.43
1959 2,846,000 60,188 34,243 25,945 21.1 12.0 9.1 -14.0 3.63
1960 2,832,000 60,735 32,660 28,075 21.4 11.5 9.9 -14.8 3.78
1961 2,818,000 59,825 34,763 25,062 21.2 12.3 8.9 -4.6 3.78
1962 2,830,000 61,782 33,838 27,944 21.8 12.0 9.9 -2.8 3.92
1963 2,850,000 63,246 33,795 29,451 22.2 11.9 10.3 -5.4 4.01
1964 2,864,000 64,072 32,630 31,442 22.4 11.4 11.0 -6.8 4.07
1965 2,876,000 63,525 33,022 30,503 22.1 11.5 10.6 -7.8 4.04
1966 2,884,000 62,215 35,113 27,102 21.6 12.2 9.4 -3.9 3.95
1967 2,900,000 61,307 31,400 29,907 21.1 10.8 10.3 -5.8 3.84
1968 2,913,000 61,004 33,157 27,847 20.9 11.4 9.6 -5.1 3.77
1969 2,926,000 62,912 33,734 29,178 21.5 11.5 10.0 -1.8 3.83
1970 2,950,000 64,382 33,686 30,696 21.8 11.4 10.4 -0,9 3.85
1971 2,978,000 67,551 31,890 35,661 22.7 10.7 3.4 12.0 3.97
1972 3,024,000 68,527 34,381 34,146 22.7 11.4 11.3 4.9 3.93
1973 3,073,000 68,713 34,192 34,521 22.4 11.1 11.2 5.4 3.78
1974 3,124,000 68,907 34,921 33,986 22.1 11.2 10.9 6.1 3.64
1975 3,177,000 67,178 33,173 34,005 21.1 10.4 10.7 5.4 3.43
1976 3,228,000 67,718 34,043 33,675 21.0 10.5 10.4 3.2 3.35
1977 3,272,000 68,892 33,632 35,260 21.1 10.3 10.8 2.0 3.31
1978 3,314,000 70,299 33,794 36,505 21.2 10.2 11.0 5.3 3.27
1979 3,368,000 72,539 33,771 38,768 21.5 10.0 11.5 -1.7 3.26
1980 3,401,000 74,064 33,472 40,592 21.8 9.8 11.9 0.4 3.25
1981 3,443,000 72,158 32,929 39,229 21.0 9.6 11.4 -0.7 3.10
1982 3,480,000 70,843 32,457 38,386 20.4 9.3 11.0 -4.1 2.98
1983 3,504,000 67,117 32,076 35,041 19.2 9.2 10.0 -2.9 2.76
1984 3,529,000 64,062 32,154 31,908 18.2 9.1 9.0 -5.9 2.57
1985 3,540,000 62,388 33,213 29,175 17.6 9.4 8.2 -7.9 2.48
1986 3,541,000 61,620 33,630 27,990 17.4 9.5 7.9 -6.2 2.44
1987 3,547,000 58,433 31,413 27,020 16.5 8.9 7.6 -12.1 2.31
1988 3,531,000 54,600 31,580 23,020 15.5 8.9 6.5 -12.4 2.17
1989 3,510,000 52,018 32,111 19,907 14.8 9.1 5.7 -6.8 2.08
1990 3,506,000 52,954 31,370 21,584 15.1 8.9 6.2 -0.5 2.12
1991 3,526,000 52,718 31,305 21,413 15.0 8.9 6.1 2.1 2.09
1992 3,555,000 51,089 30,931 20,158 14.4 8.7 5.7 -0.4 1.99
1993 3,574,000 49,304 32,148 17,156 13.8 9.0 4.8 -1.4 1.91
1994 3,586,000 48,255 30,948 17,307 13.5 8.6 4.8 -0.6 1.85
1995 3,601,000 48,530 31,494 17,036 13.5 8.7 4.7 2.2 1.86
1996 3,626,000 50,390 31,514 18,876 13.9 8.7 5.2 5.3 1.89
1997 3,664,000 52,311 31,605 20,706 14.3 8.6 5.7 4.9 1.93
1998 3,703,000 53,551 31,352 22,199 14.5 8.5 6.0 4.5 1.95
1999 3,742,000 53,354 31,683 21,671 14.3 8.5 5.8 7.0 1.90
2000 3,790,000 54,789 31,391 23,398 14.5 8.3 6.2 8.8 1.89
2001 3,847,000 57,854 30,212 27,642 15.0 7.9 7.2 11.0 1.96
2002 3,917,000 60,503 29,683 30,820 15.4 7.6 7.8 8.3 1.97
2003 3,980,000 61,529 29,074 32,455 15.5 7.3 8.2 8.1 1.99
2004 4,045,000 61,972 28,665 33,307 15.3 7.1 8.2 13.8 1.96
2005 4,134,000 61,372 28,260 33,112 14.8 6.8 8.0 15.9 1.88
2006 4,233,000 65,425 28,488 36,937 15.4 6.7 8.7 16.3 1.93
2007 4,339,000 71,389 28,117 43,272 16.3 6.4 9.9 9.2 2.04
2008 4,422,000 75,173 28,274 46,899 16.8 6.3 10.5 -2.1 2.09
2009 4,459,000 75,554 28,380 47,174 16.7 6.3 10.4 -7.9 2.10
2010 4,470,000 75,174 27,961 47,213 16.5 6.1 10.4 13.1 2.07
2011 4,575,000 74,033 28,456 45,577 16.2 6.2 10.0 -5.8 2.03
2012 4,594,000 71,674 29,186 42,488 15.6 6.4 9.2 -4.6 1.98
2013 4,615,000 68,954 29,504 39,450 15.0 6.4 8.6 -2.1 1.93
2014 4,645,000 67,295 29,252 38,043 14.6 6.4 8.2 1.1 1.89
2015 4,688,000 65,536 30,127 35,409 14.0 6.4 7.6 3.5 1.86
2016 4,740,000 63,841 30,390 33,451 13.5 6.5 7.2 3.8 1.82
2017 4,792,000 61,824 30,418 31,406 12.9 6.3 6.6 7.0 1.77
2018 4,857,000 61,016 31,116 29,900 12.6 6.4 6.2 7.1 1.75
2019 4,921,500 59,294 31,184 28,110 12.0 6.3 5.7 5.7 1.72
2020 4,977,400 55,959 31,765 24,194 11.2 6.4 4.8 2.1 1.63
2021 5,011,500 58,443 33,055 25,388 11.7 6.6 5.1 12.6 1.71
2022c 5,149,139 57,540 35,477 22,063 11.3 7.0 4.3 10.0 1.70
2023 5,281,600 55,500 35,500 20,000 10.5 6.7 3.8 14.7

c = Census results.

Current vital statistics[edit]

[14]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January – September 2022 44,671 27,328 +17,343
January – September 2023 41,263 27,273 +13,990
Difference Decrease -3,408 (-7.63%) Steady -55 (-0.20%) Decrease -3,353

Structure of the population[edit]

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 10.IV.2011): [15]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 272 699 2 315 553 4 588 252 100
0–4 182 076 174 253 356 329 7.77
5–9 164 037 156 733 320 770 6.99
10–14 155 076 147 415 302 491 6.59
15–19 144 262 138 757 283 019 6.17
20–24 146 636 150 595 297 231 6.48
25–29 173 714 187 408 361 122 7.87
30–34 194 774 199 171 393 945 8.59
35–39 182 237 182 024 364 261 7.94
40–44 166 330 164 482 330 812 7.21
45–49 151 516 153 669 305 185 6.65
50–54 136 737 137 649 274 386 5.98
55–59 122 121 122 401 244 522 5.33
60–64 109 869 108 917 218 786 4.77
65-69 86 298 87 340 173 638 3.78
70-74 63 476 67 714 131 190 2.86
75-79 46 631 55 405 102 036 2.22
80-84 28 423 41 690 70 113 1.53
85-89 13 591 26 296 39 887 0.87
90-94 4 155 10 722 14 877 0.32
95-99 682 2 581 3 263 0.07
100+ 58 331 389 0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 501 189 478 401 979 590 21.35
15–64 1 528 196 1 545 073 3 073 269 66.98
65+ 243 314 292 079 535 393 11.67
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.I.2021) (Data refer to usual resident population.): [15]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 477 803 2 528 521 5 006 324 100
0–4 155 762 149 311 305 073 6.09
5–9 173 176 164 974 338 150 6.75
10–14 182 865 174 327 357 192 7.13
15–19 164 643 158 528 323 171 6.46
20–24 156 739 151 495 308 234 6.16
25–29 146 911 145 135 292 046 5.83
30–34 155 831 163 136 318 967 6.37
35–39 181 494 197 232 378 726 7.56
40–44 195 943 204 498 400 441 8.00
45–49 179 647 183 297 362 944 7.25
50–54 160 508 161 545 322 053 6.43
55–59 145 919 150 061 295 980 5.91
60–64 130 499 133 847 264 346 5.28
65-69 112 741 115 631 228 372 4.56
70-74 94 777 98 767 193 544 3.87
75-79 67 518 73 623 141 141 2.82
80-84 40 946 50 350 91 296 1.82
85-89 20 870 29 977 50 847 1.02
90-94 8 151 15 395 23 546 0.47
95-99 2 280 5 796 8 076 0.16
100+ 583 1 596 2 179 0.04
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 511 803 488 612 1 000 415 19.98
15–64 1 618 134 1 648 774 3 266 908 65.26
65+ 347 866 391 135 739 001 14.76

Ethnic groups[edit]

Percentage of White Irish nationally and proportionally by county in Ireland in 2016
Ethnic Group Year
2006[16] 2011[17] 2016[17][18] 2022[19]
Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 3,956,609 94.84% 4,264,465 94.24% 4,331,940 92.37% 4,444,145 87.4%
White Irish 3,645,199 87.37% 3,821,995 84.46% 3,854,226 82.2% 3,893,056 76.5%
Irish Traveller 22,369 0.54% 29,495 0.65% 30,987 0.7% 32,949 0.65%
White Roma - - - - - - 16,059 0.31%
Other White 289,041 6.93% 412,975 9.13% 446,727 9.5% 502,081 9.87%
Asian: Total 52,345 1.25% 84,690 1.87% 98,720 2.10% 186,321 3.7%
Chinese 16,533 0.40% 17,832 0.39% 19,447 0.4% 26,828 0.5%
Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi - - - - - - 94,434 1.86%
Arab - - - - - - 20,115 0.4%
Other Asian 35,812 0.86% 66,858 1.48% 79,273 1.7% 44,944 0.88%
Black: Total 44,318 1.06% 65,078 1.44% 64,639 1.38% 76,245 1.5%
Black Irish and Black African 40,525 0.97% 58,697 1.30% 57,850 1.24% 67,547 1.32%
Other Black 3,793 0.09% 6,381 0.14% 6,789 0.14% 8,699 0.17%
Other including Mixed - - - - - - 64,992 1.28%
Not Stated 118,741 2.85% 111,048 2.45% 194,622 3.98% 313,176 6.16%
Total: 4,172,013 100% 4,525,281 100% 4,689,921 100% 5,084,879 100%

Immigration[edit]

Ireland's immigration history (and of one of a multi-ethnic society) is most of that of a country of emigration, remaining exclusively homogeneous for the vast majority of 20th century history, rather than one of net migration and increased ethnic and racial diversity.

However, from the 1990s, with the rise of the 'Celtic Tiger', the nation shifted to one of a net receiver of immigration at a rapid pace,[20][21] changing from one of the most 'homogeneous countries in the EU, to a country with a rate of change almost unparalleled in speed and scale'.[2] The Celtic Tiger economic boom saw a large expansion of the labour market, which contributed to the large increase of immigration towards the country, with the additional enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and the further 2007 enlargement contributing to increased levels of immigration.

Additionally, asylum seekers rose dramatically as well: from 364 in 1994 to 11,634 in 2002, before falling off towards the end of the decade.[20] The Irish Government amended legislation in 2023 with the intention of streamlining the naturalisation process.[22][23]

  • Net migration rate: 6.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)[24]
  • Country comparison to the world: 13th

Nationalities[edit]

Ireland contains several immigrant communities, especially in Dublin and other cities across the country. The largest immigrant groups, with over 10,000 people, being Poles, British, Indians, Romanians, Lithuanians, Brazilians, Italians, Latvians, Spaniards, French, Croats, Americans, Chinese, Germans and Ukrainians.

Citizenship[fn 2] 2016[19] 2022[19]
Number % Number %
Total Irish 4,082,513 87% 4,283,490 84%
Irish 3,977,729 85% 4,112,893 81%
Dual Irish 104,784 2% 170,597 3%
None/Other 607,408 13% 801,389 15%
Non-Irish 535,475 11% 631,785 12%
No nationality 71,933 2% 169,604 3%
Total 4,689,921 100% 5,084,879 100%
Persons usually resident, by nationality[fn 3]
Nationality Population (2022)[25]
European Union Poland 93,680
 United Kingdom 83,347
 India 45,449
European Union Romania 43,323
European Union Lithuania 31,177
 Brazil 27,338
European Union Italy 18,319
European Union Latvia 18,300
European Union Spain 17,953
European Union France 13,893
European Union Croatia 13,649
 United States 13,412
 China 13,050
European Union Germany 12,390
 Ukraine 11,791
 Pakistan 9,309
European Union Slovakia 8,600
European Union Hungary 8,503
 Nigeria 8,368
European Union Hungary 9,336
European Union Portugal 8,310
 South Africa 8,250
 Philippines 7,736
European Union Netherlands 4,670
European Union Czech Republic 4,530
European Union Bulgaria 3,994
 Canada 3,528
 Australia 3,481
 Malaysia 3,407
 Syria 3,267
 Moldova 3,119

Nationality of mothers[edit]

Of the 57,540 births in 2022, there were 43,651 babies (76%) born to mothers of Irish nationality compared to 45,381 (78%) in 2021. There were 8.3% of births to mothers of EU15 to EU27 nationality, 1.9% of mothers were of UK nationality, and 2.3% were of EU14 nationality (excluding Ireland). Mothers of nationalities other than Ireland, UK and the EU accounted for 12% of total births registered. There were 0.01% of mothers where the nationality was not stated.[26]

Country of birth[edit]

In 2022, 20% of the usually resident population in Ireland were born elsewhere, an increase of 3% since 2016. This represented 1,017,437 people, an increase of 207,031 from six years previously.

Persons usually resident, by country of birth[27]
Country 1986 1991 1996 2002 2006 2011 2016 2022
EnglandWales England and Wales 128,668 126,487 139,330 182,624 200,488 212,296 203,188 210,434
PolandEuropean Union Poland 2,167 62,495 115,193 115,161 106,142
Northern Ireland 36,538 35,986 39,567 49,928 49,171 58,470 57,389 61,750
India India 3,402 9,192 17,856 20,969 56,624
RomaniaEuropean Union Romania 5,838 8,492 17,995 28,702 42,460
Brazil Brazil 1,232 4,666 9,298 15,796 39,556
LithuaniaEuropean Union Lithuania 2,120 24,611 34,847 33,344 34,242
United States United States 15,350 14,533 15,619 21,541 24,643 27,762 28,650 34,236
Nigeria Nigeria 9,225 16,327 19,780 16,569 20,559
LatviaEuropean Union Latvia 2,281 13,854 19,989 18,991 20,330
Philippines Philippines 4,086 9,427 13,833 14,725 19,846
SpainEuropean Union Spain 1,113 1,801 2,104 4,632 6,122 7,003 11,809 18,356
Scotland Scotland 12,586 11,378 11,751 15,963 16,488 17,871 16,644 16,869
Moldova Moldova 1,032 2,233 3,421 6,472 16,155
China China 5,669 11,022 11,458 11,262 16,425
South Africa South Africa 6,260 7,576 8,116 8,085 15,886
ItalyEuropean Union Italy 1,314 1,507 1,844 3,705 5,705 7,146 10,913 15,689
Ukraine Ukraine 1,485 3,367 4,123 4,624 15,678
Pakistan Pakistan 3,391 5,757 8,329 12,891 15,185
FranceEuropean Union France 2,460 4,512 3,593 6,794 9,145 10,081 11,924 14,821
GermanyEuropean Union Germany 3,853 5,792 6,343 8,770 11,544 12,980 12,964 14,789
CroatiaEuropean Union Croatia 980 5,202 12,743
SlovakiaEuropean Union Slovakia 8,129 9,537 9,443 10,695
Australia Australia 6,107 6,478 5,964 6,748 9,947
HungaryEuropean Union Hungary 3,285 8,129 7,413 8,648 8,634
Russia Russia 2,556 4,511 5,936 6,414 7,900
Canada Canada 4,081 4,492 4,809 5,314 7,122
PortugalEuropean Union Portugal 124 147 192 590 1,496 2,246 3,866 5,987
NetherlandsEuropean Union Netherlands 1,888 1,985 2,490 3,512 4,211 4,499 4,729 5,376
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 1,462 2,230 2,790 2,811 5,246
Czech RepublicEuropean Union Czech Republic 5,230 5,494 4,936 5,092
Malaysia Malaysia 2,195 3,340 3,782 4,016 4,864
BulgariaEuropean Union Bulgaria 1,783 2,911 4,585
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,924 2,920 3,410 4,388
Turkey Turkey 1,301 1,607 4,086
Syria Syria 308 920 3,922
Egypt Egypt 1,437 1,866 3,452
Mexico Mexico 889 1,476 3,364

Support and accommodation[edit]

Migrants are supported/represented by the Immigrant Council of Ireland, Irish Refugee Council, Movement of Asylum Seekers in Ireland, Nasc and the state's Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.[28][29][30] They are managed by the International Protection Accommodation Service under the Department of Children, Equality, Disability, Integration and Youth (DCEDIY) as well being policed by the Garda National Immigration Bureau.[31] Some minor parties have voiced opposition to immigration in the country and its capability to continue to let refugees in; that "Ireland is full". They include the National Party and the Irish Freedom Party.[32][33] The DCEDIY projected a shortfall of 15,000 beds for refugees in December 2022 and admitted that there was mounting pressure to house 65,000 people.[34][35]

Approximately 7,400 refugee adults and children[36] were projected to be living in 38 "direct provision" centres across 17 counties in Ireland by the end of April 2020.[37] The government of Ireland have said that they project to end direct provision by 2024[38] and are looking towards alternative forms of accommodation.

Religion[edit]

Religions in Ireland (2022)[39]

  Catholicism (69.1%)
  Protestantantism (4.6%)
  Hinduism (0.6%)
  Islam (1.6%)
  No Religion or atheist (14.5%)
  Not stated (6.7%)

Ireland is a predominantly Christian country. The majority are Catholic; however, the number of people who declare themselves Catholic has been declining in recent years. Irreligion has increased since 2016 with 14% declaring 'No Religion' in 2022, meaning this is the second largest religious affiliation in Ireland. Immigration has also brought other faiths, with Islam at 1.7%, or over 83,000 people. As well as Hinduism, with 33,043 Hindus in the state, an increase of over 250% from 2016.

Languages[edit]

English is the most commonly used language, with 84%[40] of the population calling it their mother tongue. Irish is the first official language of the state, with 11%[40] calling it their mother tongue. Irish is the main language of the Gaeltacht regions, where 102,973 people lived as of 2022. The main sign language used is Irish Sign Language.

Languages in Ireland
Language Percent
English
84%
Irish
11%
Irish and English (bilingual)
1%
others
3%

Education[edit]

Literacy rate; definition: age 15 and over who can read and write

total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education); total: 19 years

male: 19 years
female: 19 years (2016)

Employment and income[edit]

For November 2022 the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was:

Unchanged at 4.3% for males from October 2022, and down from 5.3% in November 2021.

Unchanged at 4.6% for females from October 2022, and down from 5.2% in November 2021.

Unchanged at 12.1% for persons aged 15–24 years (youth unemployment rate) from a revised rate of 12.1% in October 2022.

Down to 3.3% for persons aged 25–74 years from 3.4% in October 2022.[41]

The median household disposable income in 2020 was €46,471, an increase of €2,556 (+5.8%) from the previous year. Disposable household income is gross household income less total tax, social insurance contributions, pension contributions and inter-household transfers paid.[42]

See also[edit]

Groups:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and a reducing population.
  2. ^ The 2022 Irish Census has swapped out the question regarding nationality with one regarding citizenship. Therefore the table states citizienship, as that is the data that the 2022 census has in comparison to the 2016 data.
  3. ^ These statistics only show non-Irish citizens of the below countries that do not also have Irish citizenship. Individuals which have acquired Irish nationality are not counted under their nation's figures.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "What is behind the sharp rise in Ireland's population to almost 5.3m?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  2. ^ a b Census.ie – Population of Ireland 1841 – 2006 Archived 27 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Kiss, Monkia (March 2020). Demographic outlook for the European Union 2020 (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service (Report).
  4. ^ "Irish population to hit 6.7m by 2060". RTÉ News. 26 August 2008 – via www.rte.ie.
  5. ^ Irish Examiner – Baby boom as Irish births reach highest level since 1982 Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Barry, Aoife (28 June 2011). "Ireland has highest birth rate in the EU".
  8. ^ "Population and migration estimates april 2017".
  9. ^ "Populationand migration estimates April 2019". 27 August 2019.
  10. ^ "Ireland Population 2019", World Population Review
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation
  12. ^ "E3001: Enumerated Population 1926 to 2016 by Age Group, Sex and Census Year". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Number of Births, Deaths and Marriages". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Births, Deaths and Marriages". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  15. ^ a b "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 10 May 2023.
  16. ^ "Volume 05 - Ethnic or Cultural Background" (PDF).
  17. ^ a b "Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2017.
  18. ^ "Ethnicity – CSO – Central Statistics Office". CSO. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  19. ^ a b c "Migration and Diversity - CSO - Central Statistics Office". CSO. 30 May 2023. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  20. ^ a b Quinn, Martin Ruhs, Emma (1 September 2009). "Ireland: From Rapid Immigration to Recession". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 26 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ "Census of Population 2022 – Results". CSO. 30 May 2023.
  22. ^ "Immigration Action Plan 2023". mhc.ie. Mason Hayes & Curran. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  23. ^ "Immigration, Citizenship and Naturalisation Law Updates". mhc.ie. Mason Hayes & Curran. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  24. ^ "Net migration rate". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  25. ^ https://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/ep/p-cpsr/censusofpopulation2022-summaryresults/migrationanddiversity/ [archive]
  26. ^ "Vital Statistics Yearly Summary". 26 May 2023.
  27. ^ "Census 1986 Volume 8 - Persons, males and females in each province, classified by country of birth (PDF 61KB)" (PDF)."Census 1991 Volume 8 - Persons, males and females in each Province classified by country of birth (PDF 27KB)" (PDF)."Census 1996 VADR21 - Population Usually Resident"."Census 2002 - BDR21 - 2002 Population Usually Resident and Present in the State"."Census 2006 - C0429 - Population Usually Resident and Present in their Usual Residence on Census Night"."Census 2022 - FY016 - Population Usually Resident and Present in the State". Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Vision & Mission". Immigrant Council of Ireland. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Irish Refugee Council". activelink. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  30. ^ "Movement of Asylum Seekers in Ireland (MASI)". Irish Refugee Council. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  31. ^ "International Protection Accommodation Services (IPAS)". gov.ie. 10 August 2021.
  32. ^ McEnroe, Juno (18 November 2016). "National Party president wants immigrants to leave". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  33. ^ Gallagher, Conor; Lally, Conor (24 February 2021). "Refugee tribunal member sues for defamation". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  34. ^ "Protest held over housing of asylum seekers in Dublin". RTÉ.ie. 19 November 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  35. ^ Malekmian, Shamim (30 November 2022). "How the Government Created an Opening for Anti-Immigration Activists to Exploit in East Wall". Dublin Inquirer. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  36. ^ Mfaco, Bulelani (12 December 2020). "I live in direct provision. It's a devastating system – and it has thrown away millions". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  37. ^ Bulelani Mfaco (12 December 2020), "I live in direct provision. It's a devastating system – and it has thrown away millions", The Irish Times, retrieved 12 December 2020
  38. ^ Thomas, Cónal (26 February 2021). "State plans to end Direct Provision by 2024 and replace system with not-for-profit accommodation". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  39. ^ "Census 2022 Profile 5 - Diversity, Migration, Ethnicity, Irish Travellers & Religion". Central Statistics Office. 26 October 2023. Retrieved 21 November 2023.
  40. ^ a b Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages
  41. ^ "Monthly Unemployment November 2022 - CSO - Central Statistics Office". 30 November 2022.
  42. ^ "Income - CSO - Central Statistics Office". 6 May 2022.

External links[edit]