Demographics of the Republic of Ireland

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Demographics of Ireland
Ireland 2022 Population Pyramid.svg
Population pyramid of Ireland in 2022
Population5,123,536 (2022 census)
Density73 per km2
Growth rate1.77%
Birth rate13.7 births/1,000 population
Death rate6.5 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy80.19 years
 • male78 years
 • female82.6 years
Fertility rate1.91 children born/woman
Infant mortality rate3.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Age structure
0–14 years21.3%
15–64 years67.0%
65 and over11.7%
Sex ratio
Total0.99 male/female
At birth1.057 male/female
Under 151.07 male/female
15–64 years1.00 male/female
65 and over0.81 male/female
Nationality
NationalityIrish
Major ethnicIrish 84.5%
Minor ethnicOther White: 9.1% (total white: 94.3%), Asian: 1.9%, black: 1.4%, other: 0.9%, Irish travellers 0.7%, not stated: 1.6% (2011)
Language
OfficialIrish, English
SpokenIrish sign language, Shelta, Ulster Scots

Ireland had a population of 5,123,536 at the 2022 census.[1]

Demographic history[edit]

The island of Ireland, throughout most of its history, had a small population, comparable to that of other regions of similar areas in Europe. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Ireland experienced a major population boom as a result of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. In the 50-year period 1790–1840, the population of the island doubled from 4 million to 8 million. At its peak, Ireland's population density was similar to that of England and continental Europe.

This changed dramatically with the Great Famine of the mid-19th century, which led to mass starvation and consequent mass emigration. In the area covering the present day Republic of Ireland, the population reached about 6.5 million in the mid-1840s. Ten years later it was down to 5 million. The population continued a slow decline well into the 20th century, with the Republic recording a low of 2.8 million in the 1961 census.[2]

During the 1960s, the population started to grow once more, although slowly as emigration was still common. In the 1990s the country entered a period of rapid economic growth as a result of the Celtic Tiger Irish economic boom, and the Republic started to receive immigration. Many former Irish emigrants returned home, and Ireland became an attractive destination for immigrants, from other member states EU such as Central Europe, but also from outside the EU such as Africa, Asia and elsewhere. With the 2008 onset of the Irish economic and banking crisis, the state's economy suffered, and Ireland has once again been experiencing net emigration of its citizens, but immigration remains high.

In November 2013, Eurostat reported that the Republic had the largest net emigration rate of any member state, at 7.6 emigrants per 1,000 population. However, it has the youngest population of any European Union member state[3] and its population size is predicted to grow for many decades, in contrast with the declining population predicted for most European countries. A report published in 2008 predicted that the population would reach 6.7 million by 2060.[4] The Republic has also been experiencing a baby boom, with increasing birth rates and overall fertility rates.[5] Despite this, the total fertility rate is still below replacement depending on when the measurement is taken. The Irish fertility rate is still the highest of any European country.[6] This increase is significantly fuelled by non-Irish immigration – in 2009, a quarter of all children born in the Republic were born to mothers who had immigrated from other countries.[7]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1841 6,528,799—    
1851 5,111,557−21.7%
1861 4,402,111−13.9%
1871 4,053,187−7.9%
1881 3,870,020−4.5%
1891 3,468,694−10.4%
1901 3,221,823−7.1%
1911 3,139,688−2.5%
1926 2,971,992−5.3%
1936 2,968,420−0.1%
1946 2,955,107−0.4%
1951 2,960,593+0.2%
1961 2,818,341−4.8%
1971 2,978,248+5.7%
1981 3,443,405+15.6%
1991 3,525,719+2.4%
2002 3,917,203+11.1%
2011 4,588,252+17.1%
2022 5,123,536+11.7%
Source: CSO[8] 2019[9]

Population[edit]

The population of the Republic of Ireland was 5,123,536 people in 2022. Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[10]

  • One birth every 8 minutes
  • One death every 16 minutes
  • One net migrant every 90 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 14 minutes
Geographic Population Distribution

Urban population (areas with >1,500 people): 62.0% (2011)

Rural population: 38.0% (2011)

A graph of the populations of the island of Ireland and Europe[clarification needed] from 1750 to the present[citation needed] showing Ireland's "massive" population spike in the early 19th century and subsequent collapse due to the 1845–49 famine and subsequent emigration.

Fertility[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[11]

Year 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 4.20 4.13 4.06 3.99 3.93 3.86 3.79 3.72 3.65 3.58 3.51
Year 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.45 3.38 3.31 3.24 3.47 3.54 3.53 3.58 3.58 3.71
Year 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.67 3.72 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.57 3.54 3.40 3.44 3.31
Year 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.33 3.22 3.15 3.20 3.15 3.11 3.10 3.06 3.04 2.99
Year 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[11]
Total fertility rate of Ireland 3.05 3.01 3.09 3.08 3.12 3.17 3.16 3.13 3.09

Birth rate; 13.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 137th

Total fertility rate; 1.96 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 125th

Mother's mean age at first birth; 30.7 years (2015 est.)

Life expectancy[edit]

Historical development of life expectancy in Ireland

Death rate; 6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 140th

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 66.9 1985–1990 74.2
1955–1960 69.2 1990–1995 75.3
1960–1965 70.1 1995–2000 76.0
1965–1970 70.8 2000–2005 77.8
1970–1975 71.2 2005–2010 79.7
1975–1980 72.0 2010–2015 80.9
1980–1985 73.2

Source: UN World Population Prospects

Age structure[edit]

Age structure[12]

0–14 years: 21.37% (male 554,110 /female 529,067)
15–24 years: 11.92% (male 306,052 /female 297,890)
25–54 years: 42.86% (male 1,091,495 /female 1,080,594)
55–64 years: 10.53% (male 267,255 /female 266,438)
65 years and over: 13.32% (male 312,694 /female 362,455) (2018 est.)

Median age; total: 37.1 years

male: 36.8 years
female: 37.5 years (2018 est.)

Vital statistics[edit]

Vital statistics for Ireland since 1900[13]
Population on 1 April Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate[fn 1][11]
1900 3,231,000 70,435 21.8 3.04
1901 3,234,000 70,194 21.7 2.92
1902 3,205,000 71,156 22.2 3.08
1903 3,191,000 70,541 22.1 3.09
1904 3,169,000 72,261 22.8 3.16
1905 3,160,000 71,427 22.6 3.13
1906 3,164,000 72,147 22.8 3.15
1907 3,145,000 70,773 22.5 3.11
1908 3,147,000 71,439 22.7 3.12
1909 3,135,000 72,119 23.0 3.14
1910 3,132,000 71,744 22.9 3.12
1911 3,129,000 71,351 22.8 3.07
1912 3,116,000 70,734 50,489 20,245 22.7 16.2 6.5 3.10
1913 3,106,000 70,214 52,184 18,030 22.6 16.8 5.8 3.09
1914 3,098,000 69,102 49,674 19,428 22.3 16.0 6.3 3.05
1915 3,068,000 67,501 53,713 13,788 22.0 17.5 4.5 2.99
1916 3,071,000 64,814 50,627 14,187 21.1 16.5 4.6 2.87
1917 3,071,000 61,429 51,713 9,716 20.0 16.8 3.2 2.71
1918 3,069,000 61,092 53,682 7,410 19.9 17.5 2.4 2.73
1919 3,060,000 61,829 55,776 6,044 19.9 18.2 1.7 2.75
1920 3,102,000 67,015 45,521 21,494 21.6 14.7 6.9 3.20
1921 3,096,000 61,010 44,537 16,473 19.7 14.4 5.3 2.79
1922 3,070,000 58,849 44,547 14,302 18.5 14.5 4.0 2.61
1923 3,014,000 62,417 42,217 19,473 20.5 14.0 6.5 2.74
1924 3,005,000 63,402 45,180 18,222 21.1 15.0 6.1 2.83
1925 2,985,000 62,069 43,650 18,419 20.8 14.6 6.2 2.79
1926 2,971,000 61,176 41,740 19,436 20.6 14.0 6.5 2.76
1927 2,957,000 60,054 43,677 16,377 20.3 14.8 5.5 2.72
1928 2,944,000 59,176 41,792 17,384 20.1 14.2 5.9 2.69
1929 2,937,000 58,280 42,991 15,289 19.8 14.6 5.2 2.66
1930 2,927,000 58,353 41,702 16,651 19.9 14.2 5.7 2.54
1931 2,933,000 57,086 42,947 14,139 19.5 14.6 4.8 2.49
1932 2,949,000 56,240 42,984 13,256 19.1 14.6 4.5 2.43
1933 2,962,000 57,364 40,539 16,825 19.4 13.7 5.7 2.47
1934 2,971,000 57,897 39,083 18,814 19.5 13.2 6.3 2.49
1935 2,971,000 58,266 41,543 16,723 19.6 14.0 5.6 2.50
1936 2,967,000 58,115 42,586 15,529 19.6 14.4 5.2 2.50
1937 2,948,000 56,488 45,086 11,402 19.2 15.3 3.9 2.45
1938 2,937,000 56,925 40,041 16,884 19.4 13.6 5.7 2.47
1939 2,934,000 56,070 41,717 14,353 19.1 14.2 4.9 2.43
1940 2,958,000 56,594 41,885 14,709 19.1 14.2 5.0 2.43
1941 2,993,000 56,780 43,797 12,983 19.0 14.6 4.3 2.42
1942 2,963,000 66,117 41,640 24,477 22.3 14.1 8.3 2.85
1943 2,946,000 64,375 43,494 20,881 21.9 14.8 7.1 2.80
1944 2,944,000 65,425 45,128 20,297 22.2 15.3 6.9 2.84
1945 2,952,000 66,861 42,762 24,099 22.6 14.5 8.2 2.90
1946 2,957,000 67,922 41,457 26,465 23.0 14.0 8.9 2.94
1947 2,974,000 68,978 44,061 24,917 23.2 14.8 8.4 2.98
1948 2,985,000 65,930 36,357 29,573 22.1 12.2 9.9 2.80
1949 2,981,000 64,153 38,062 26,091 21.5 12.8 8.8 2.75
1950 2,969,000 63,565 37,741 25,824 21.4 12.7 8.7 2.74
1951 2,961,000 62,878 42,382 20,496 21.2 14.3 6.9 2.69
1952 2,953,000 64,631 35,105 29,526 21.9 11.9 10.0 2.97
1953 2,949,000 62,558 34,591 27,967 21.2 11.7 9.5 2.95
1954 2,941,000 62,534 35,535 26,999 21.3 12.1 9.2 3.18
1955 2,921,000 61,622 36,761 24,861 21.1 12.6 8.5 3.28
1956 2,898,000 60,740 33,910 26,830 21.0 11.7 9.3 3.41
1957 2,885,000 61,242 34,311 26,931 21.2 11.9 9.3 3.52
1958 2,853,000 59,510 34,248 25,262 20.9 12.0 8.9 3.43
1959 2,846,000 60,188 34,243 25,945 21.1 12.0 9.1 3.63
1960 2,832,000 60,735 32,660 28,075 21.4 11.5 9.9 3.78
1961 2,818,000 59,825 34,763 25,062 21.2 12.3 8.9 3.78
1962 2,830,000 61,782 33,838 27,944 21.8 12.0 9.9 3.92
1963 2,850,000 63,246 33,795 29,451 22.2 11.9 10.3 4.01
1964 2,864,000 64,072 32,630 31,442 22.4 11.4 11.0 4.07
1965 2,876,000 63,525 33,022 30,503 22.1 11.5 10.6 4.04
1966 2,884,000 62,215 35,113 27,102 21.6 12.2 9.4 3.95
1967 2,900,000 61,307 31,400 29,907 21.1 10.8 10.3 3.84
1968 2,913,000 61,004 33,157 27,847 20.9 11.4 9.6 3.77
1969 2,926,000 62,912 33,734 29,178 21.5 11.5 10.0 3.83
1970 2,950,000 64,382 33,686 30,696 21.8 11.4 10.4 3.85
1971 2,978,000 67,551 31,890 35,661 22.7 10.7 12.0 3.97
1972 3,024,000 68,527 34,381 34,146 22.7 11.4 11.3 3.93
1973 3,073,000 68,713 34,192 34,521 22.4 11.1 11.2 3.78
1974 3,124,000 68,907 34,921 33,986 22.1 11.2 10.9 3.64
1975 3,177,000 67,178 33,173 34,005 21.1 10.4 10.7 3.43
1976 3,228,000 67,718 34,043 33,675 21.0 10.5 10.4 3.35
1977 3,272,000 68,892 33,632 35,260 21.1 10.3 10.8 3.31
1978 3,314,000 70,299 33,794 36,505 21.2 10.2 11.0 3.27
1979 3,368,000 72,539 33,771 38,768 21.5 10.0 11.5 3.26
1980 3,401,000 74,064 33,472 40,592 21.8 9.8 11.9 3.25
1981 3,443,000 72,158 32,929 39,229 21.0 9.6 11.4 3.10
1982 3,480,000 70,843 32,457 38,386 20.4 9.3 11.0 2.98
1983 3,504,000 67,117 32,076 35,041 19.2 9.2 10.0 2.76
1984 3,529,000 64,062 32,154 31,908 18.2 9.1 9.0 2.57
1985 3,540,000 62,388 33,213 29,175 17.6 9.4 8.2 2.48
1986 3,541,000 61,620 33,630 27,990 17.4 9.5 7.9 2.44
1987 3,547,000 58,433 31,413 27,020 16.5 8.9 7.6 2.31
1988 3,531,000 54,600 31,580 23,020 15.5 8.9 6.5 2.17
1989 3,510,000 52,018 32,111 19,907 14.8 9.1 5.7 2.08
1990 3,506,000 52,954 31,370 21,584 15.1 8.9 6.2 2.12
1991 3,526,000 52,718 31,305 21,413 15.0 8.9 6.1 2.09
1992 3,555,000 51,089 30,931 20,158 14.4 8.7 5.7 1.99
1993 3,574,000 49,304 32,148 17,156 13.8 9.0 4.8 1.91
1994 3,586,000 48,255 30,948 17,307 13.5 8.6 4.8 1.85
1995 3,601,000 48,530 31,494 17,036 13.5 8.7 4.7 1.86
1996 3,626,000 50,390 31,514 18,876 13.9 8.7 5.2 1.89
1997 3,664,000 52,311 31,605 20,706 14.3 8.6 5.7 1.93
1998 3,703,000 53,551 31,352 22,199 14.5 8.5 6.0 1.95
1999 3,742,000 53,354 31,683 21,671 14.3 8.5 5.8 1.90
2000 3,790,000 54,789 31,391 23,398 14.5 8.3 6.2 1.89
2001 3,847,000 57,854 30,212 27,642 15.0 7.9 7.2 1.96
2002 3,917,000 60,503 29,683 30,820 15.4 7.6 7.8 1.97
2003 3,980,000 61,529 29,074 32,455 15.5 7.3 8.2 1.99
2004 4,045,000 61,972 28,665 33,307 15.3 7.1 8.2 1.96
2005 4,134,000 61,372 28,260 33,112 14.8 6.8 8.0 1.88
2006 4,233,000 65,425 28,488 36,937 15.4 6.7 8.7 1.93
2007 4,339,000 71,389 28,117 43,272 16.3 6.4 9.9 2.04
2008 4,422,000 75,173 28,274 46,899 16.8 6.3 10.5 2.09
2009 4,459,000 75,554 28,380 47,174 16.7 6.3 10.4 2.10
2010 4,470,000 75,174 27,961 47,213 16.5 6.1 10.4 2.07
2011 4,575,000 74,033 28,456 45,577 16.2 6.2 10.0 2.03
2012 4,594,000 71,674 29,186 42,488 15.6 6.4 9.2 1.98
2013 4,615,000 68,954 29,504 39,450 15.0 6.4 8.6 1.93
2014 4,645,000 67,295 29,252 38,043 14.6 6.4 8.2 1.89
2015 4,688,000 65,536 30,127 35,409 14.0 6.4 7.6 1.86
2016 4,740,000 63,841 30,390 33,451 13.5 6.5 7.2 1.82
2017 4,792,000 61,824 30,418 31,406 12.9 6.3 6.6 1.77
2018 4,857,000 61,016 31,116 29,900 12.6 6.4 6.2 1.75
2019 4,921,500 59,294 31,184 28,110 12.0 6.3 5.7 1.72
2020 4,977,400 55,959 31,765 24,194 11.2 6.4 4.8 1.63
2021 5,011,500 58,443 33,055 25,388 11.7 6.6 5.1 1.71
2022c 5,123,536

c = Census results.

Current vital statistics[edit]

[14]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January – March 2021 13,895 9,564 +4,331
January – March 2022 16,131 9,535 +6,596
Difference Increase +2,236 (+16.09%) Steady -29 (−0.30%) Increase +2,265
  • Deaths from January–July 2021 = Negative increase 19,948
  • Deaths from January–July 2022 = Negative increase 20,123

Ethnic groups[edit]

Percentage of White Irish nationally and proportionally by county in Ireland in 2016
Ethnic Group Year
2011[15] 2016[15][16]
Number % Number %
White: Total 4,264,465 94.24% 4,331,940 92.37%
Flag of Ireland.svg White Irish 3,821,995 84.46% 3,854,226 82.2%
Other White 412,975 9.13% 446,727 9.5%
Irish Traveller 29,495 0.65% 30,987 0.7%
Asian: Total 84,690 1.87% 98,720 2.10%
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Chinese 17,832 0.39% 19,447 0.4%
Other Asian 66,858 1.48% 79,273 1.7%
Black: Total 65,078 1.44% 64,639 1.38%
Black Irish and Black African 58,697 1.30% 57,850 1.24%
Other Black 6,381 0.14% 6,789 0.14%
Other and Not Stated 111,048 2.45% 194,622 3.98%
Total: 4,525,281 100% 4,689,921 100%

Immigration[edit]

Ireland's immigration history (and of one of a multi-ethnic society) is most of that of a country of emigration, remaining exclusively mono-ethnic for the vast majority of its 20th century history rather than one of net migration and increased ethnic and racial diversity. However starting from the mid-1990s with the rise of the 'Celtic Tiger' the nation shifted from one of a net receiver of immigration at a rapid pace,[17][1] changing from one of 'homogeneous countries in the EU, to a country with a rate of change almost unparalleled in speed and scale'.[2] The Celtic Tiger economic boom saw a large expansion of the labour market which contributed to the large increase of immigration towards the country, with the additional enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and later 2007 contributing to this immigration wave massively. Additionally, Asylum seekers rose dramatically as well from 364 in 1994 to 11,634 in 2002 before falling off towards the end of the decade.[17]

Net migration rate; 4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 28th

Nationalities[edit]

Ireland contains several immigrant communities, especially in Dublin and other cities across the country. The largest immigrant groups, with over 10,000 people, being Poles, Lithuanians, Romanians, Latvians, Indians, Americans, Brazilians, Spanish, Italians, French, Germans and the British.

Nationality Group 2002[18] 2006[18]
Number % Number %
Europe 3,714,516 97% 4,006,883 96%
Ireland 3,584,975 92.9% 3,706,683 88.8%
United Kingdom 103,476 2.7% 112,548 2.7%
Other EU-15 29,960 0.8% 42,693 1%
New EU-10 120,534 2.9%
Other European 23,105 0.6% 24,425 0.6%
United States 11,384 0.3% 12,475 0.3%
Africa 20,981 0.5% 35,326 0.8%
Asia 21,779 0.6% 46,952 1.1%
Other nationalities 11,236 0.3% 22,422 0.5%
Multi-no nationaity 3,187 0.1% 3,676 0.1%
Not stated 48,412 1.3% 44,279 1.1%
Total 3,858,495 100% 4,172,013 100%
Non-national groups with populations in Ireland of 10,000 or more in 2006. Non-European Union nationals are shown exploded.
Persons usually resident, by nationality[fn 2]
Nationality Population (2016)[19]
European Union Ireland 4,082,513
European Union Poland 122,515
 United Kingdom 103,113
European Union Lithuania 36,552
European Union Romania 29,186
European Union Latvia 19,933
 Brazil 13,640
European Union Spain 12,112
European Union Italy 11,732
European Union France 11,661
European Union Germany 11,531
 India 11,465
 United States 10,519
European Union Slovakia 9,717
 China 9,575
European Union Hungary 9,286
 Pakistan 7,351
 Nigeria 6,084
European Union Croatia 5,285
European Union Czech Republic 4,928
European Union Netherlands 4,313
 Ukraine 3,343
European Union Sweden 1,800
  Switzerland 1,449
European Union Austria 720

Nationality of mothers[edit]

Of the 58,443 births in 2021, there were 45,381 babies (77.7%) born to mothers of Irish nationality compared to 43,019 (76.9%) in 2020. There were 8.4% of births to mothers of EU15 to EU27 nationality, 2.0% of mothers were of UK nationality, and 2.1% were of EU14 nationality (excluding Ireland). Mothers of nationalities other than Ireland, UK and the EU accounted for 9.8% of total births registered. There were 0.04% of mothers where the nationality was not stated.[20]

Religion[edit]

Religions in Ireland (2016)[21]

  Catholicism (78.3%)
  Protestantism (4.2%)
  Other Christians and other religions (4.8%)
  Islam (1.3%)
  Irreligious (10.1%)

Ireland is a predominantly Christian country. The majority are Catholic, however, the number of people who declare themselves Catholic has been declining in recent years. Irreligion has almost doubled since 2011 with 9.8% declaring 'No Religion' in 2016, overtaking Protestantism as the second largest group in the state. The various Protestant and other Christian faiths represent 5.6. Immigration has brought other faiths, with Islam at 1.3%, other religions 2.4% and 2.6% gave no answer.

Languages[edit]

English is the most commonly used language, with 84%[22] of the population calling it their mother tongue. Irish is the first official language of the state, with 11%[22] calling it their mother tongue. Irish is the main language of the Gaeltacht regions, where 96,628 people live. The main sign language used is Irish Sign Language.

Languages in Ireland
Language Percent
English
84%
Irish
11%
Irish and English (bilingual)
1%
others
3%

Education[edit]

Literacy rate; definition: age 15 and over who can read and write

total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education); total: 19 years

male: 19 years
female: 19 years (2016)

Employment and income[edit]

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24; total: 17.2%.

male: 19.5%
female: 14.6% (2016 est.)

See also[edit]

Groups:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and a reducing population.
  2. ^ These statistics only show non-Irish citizens of the below countries that do not also have Irish citizenship. Individuals which have acquired Irish nationality are not counted under their nation's figures.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Census of Population 2022 – Preliminary Results". www.cso.ie.
  2. ^ a b Census.ie – Population of Ireland 1841 – 2006 Archived 27 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Kiss, Monkia (March 2020). Demographic outlook for the European Union 2020 (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service (Report).
  4. ^ "Irish population to hit 6.7m by 2060". RTÉ News. 26 August 2008 – via www.rte.ie.
  5. ^ Irish Examiner – Baby boom as Irish births reach highest level since 1982 Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Barry, Aoife. "Ireland has highest birth rate in the EU".
  8. ^ "Population and migration estimates april 2017".
  9. ^ "Populationand migration estimates April 2019". 27 August 2019.
  10. ^ "Ireland Population 2019", World Population Review
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation
  12. ^ "E3001: Enumerated Population 1926 to 2016 by Age Group, Sex and Census Year". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Number of Births, Deaths and Marriages". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Births, Deaths and Marriages". Central Statistics Office. Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2017.
  16. ^ "Ethnicity – CSO – Central Statistics Office". www.cso.ie. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  17. ^ a b Quinn, Martin Ruhs, Emma (1 September 2009). "Ireland: From Rapid Immigration to Recession". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  18. ^ a b Quinn, Martin Ruhs, Emma (1 September 2009). "Ireland: From Rapid Immigration to Recession". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  19. ^ "Population Usually Resident and Present in the State and Actual and Percentage Change 2011 to 2016 by Sex, Nationality, Age Group, CensusYear and Statistic – StatBank – data and statistics". Archived from the original on 20 October 2019.
  20. ^ "Vital Statistics Yearly Summary".
  21. ^ Smyth, Declan (12 October 2017). "Profile 8 – Irish Travellers Ethnicity and Religion" (Press release). CSO.ie. Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  22. ^ a b Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages

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