Demographics of Afghanistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Demography of Afghanistan)
Jump to: navigation, search
Demographics of Afghanistan
Afghans at Ghazi Stadium in 2011.jpg
Sport fans inside the Ghazi Stadium in the capital of Kabul, which is multi-ethnic.
Population 33,332,025 (2016)[1]
Growth rate 2.34% (2016)
Birth rate 38.3 births/1,000 population (2016)
Death rate 13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016)
Life expectancy 60.5 years (2015)[2]
 • male 59.3 years
 • female 61.9 years
Fertility rate 5.33 children born/woman (2015)
Infant mortality rate 66.3 deaths/1,000 live births[3]
Age structure
0–14 years 42.3% (male 6,464,070/female 6,149,468)
15–64 years 55.3% (male 8,460,486/female 8,031,968)
65 and over 2.4% (male 349,349/female 380,051)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male/female
Under 15 1.03 male/female
15–64 years 1.04 male/female
65 and over 0.87 male/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Afghan(s)
Major ethnic Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, and others
Language
Official Pashto and Dari [4]
Spoken Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmeni, and other

The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016,[1] which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.[5] The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, and Western Asia. Its largest ethnic group is the Pashtun, followed by Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkmen, Baloch and a few others.[1][6]

Approximately 46% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 74% of all Afghans live in rural areas.[3] The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life and 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy.[3] Life expectancy was reported in 2015 at 60.5 years[2] and only 0.04% of the population has HIV.[1]

Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country.[4] Dari, which is known as the Afghan Persian, functions as the lingua franca. Pashto is widely used in the region south of the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan. Uzbek and Turkmen are smaller languages spoken in parts of the north.[1] Multilingualism is common throughout the country, especially in the major cities.

Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan's citizens. Roughly 90% of the population practice Sunni Islam and belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school, while 7–15% are followers of Shia Islam;[1][7] the majority of whom belong to the Twelver branch, with smaller numbers of Ismailis. The remaining 1% or less practice other religions such as Sikhism and Hinduism. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most People are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs, for instance Pashtuns Pashtunwali. The majority of the country's population lives in rural areas and is involved in agricultural activities.

Population statistics[edit]

As of 2016, the total population of Afghanistan is around 33,332,025,[1] which includes the 3 million Afghan nationals living in both Pakistan and Iran.[5] Afghanistan's Central Statistics Organization (CSO) stated in 2011 that the total number of Afghans living inside Afghanistan was about 26 million and by 2017 it reached 29.2 million. Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million are females.[8] About 22% of the population is urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas.[5]

The population was reported in 1979 at about 15.5 million.[9][10] From 1979 until the end of 1983, some 5 million people left the country to take shelter in neighboring northwestern Pakistan and eastern Iran. This exodus was largely unchecked by any government. The Afghan government in 1983 reported a population of 15.96 million, which presumably included the exodus.[11]

It is assumed that roughly 600,000 to as high as 2 million Afghans may have been killed during the various 1979–2001 wars.[12] These figures are highly questionable and no attempt has ever been made to verify them.[11] The country's population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050.[13]

Urban areas have experienced rapid population growth in the last decade, which is due to the return of over 5 million expats. The only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is its capital, Kabul. The other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below.

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 42.3% (male 6,464,070/female 6,149,468)
15–64 years: 55.3% (male 8,460,486/female 8,031,968)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 349,349/female 380,051) (2011 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million.[9] 2.32% (2015)[1]
country comparison to the world: 39

Urbanization[edit]

Young Afghans at a music festival inside the Gardens of Babur in Kabul.

urbanization population: 24% of the total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 5.4% annual rate of change (2005–10)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2009)

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[15][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 450 000 313 000 136 000 52.9 36.9 16.0 7.70 275.0
1955–1960 489 000 322 000 168 000 52.9 34.8 18.1 7.70 260.6
1960–1965 538 000 333 000 205 000 52.8 32.7 20.2 7.70 245.4
1965–1970 596 000 343 000 253 000 52.6 30.3 22.4 7.70 228.1
1970–1975 664 000 356 000 308 000 52.1 27.9 24.2 7.70 211.4
1975–1980 713 000 354 000 360 000 51.5 25.6 26.0 7.70 194.5
1980–1985 694 000 323 000 372 000 51.8 24.1 27.7 7.80 182.8
1985–1990 669 000 291 000 378 000 52.2 22.7 29.5 7.90 171.9
1990–1995 863 000 352 000 512 000 52.6 21.4 31.2 8.00 161.8
1995–2000 1 118 000 429 000 688 000 52.4 20.1 32.3 8.00 152.3
2000–2005 1 221 000 463 000 759 000 48.4 18.3 30.1 7.35 143.7
2005–2010 1 332 000 496 000 836 000 45.1 16.8 28.3 6.62 136.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[16]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2010 35.6 5.1 34.7 4.5 35.9 5.2
2015 36.8 5.3 (4.4) 35.8 4.8 (3.7) 37.1 5.4 (4.6)

Structure of the population[17][edit]

Structure of the population (2012.01.07) (Data refer to the settled population based on the 1979 Population Census and the latest household prelisting. The refugees of Afghanistan in Iran, Pakistan, and an estimated 1.5 million nomads, are not included):

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 60.5 years (2015)[2][18]
country comparison to the world: 214
male: 59.3 years (2013)[2]
female: 61.9 years (2013)[2]

Development and health indicators[edit]

Gathering of students in 2006 at a school in Nangarhar Province.

Literacy[edit]

Definition: People over the age of 15 that can read and write
Total population: 38.2% (2015)[1]
Male: 52%
Female: 24.2%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 11 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2014)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate[edit]

0.04% (2015)[1]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS[edit]

Up to 6,900 (2015 estimate)[1][19]

In 2008, health officials in Afghanistan reported 504[20] cases of people living with HIV but by the end of 2012 the numbers reached 1,327. The nation's healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, and the remaining 5% children. They belonged to Kabul, Kandahar and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and foreign countries.[21] Regarding Kandahar, 22 cases were reported in 2012. "AIDS Prevention department head Dr Hamayoun Rehman said 1,320 blood samples were examined and 21 were positive. Among the 21 patients, 18 were males and three were females who contracted the deadly virus from their husbands. He said four people had reached a critical stage while three had died. The main source of the disease was the use of syringes used by drug addicts."[22] There are approximately 23,000 addicts in the country who inject drugs into their bodies using syringes
country comparison to the world: 168

HIV/AIDS – deaths[edit]

Up to 300 (2015 estimate)[1]

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: high

  • Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  • Vector-borne diseases: malaria
  • Animal contact diseases: rabies

Note: WH5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk as of 2009.[citation needed]

Ethnic groups[edit]

In August 2017, a nationwide distribution of e-ID cards (e-Tazkiras) is scheduled to begin. The ethnicity of each citizen is to be provided in the application. This process is expected to reveal the exact figures about the size and composition of the country's ethnic groups.[23]

Article Four of the Afghan Constitution mentions a total of 14 ethnic groups. An approximate distribution of the ethnolinguistic groups is shown in the map to the right and listed in the chart below:

Ethnic groups in Afghanistan
Ethnic group Image Recent estimate[1] Pre-2004 estimates[24][25][26]
Pashtun Pashtun children in Khost 42% 38–50 percent
Tajik Tajik children in Khowahan district of Badakhshan 27% 25–26.3% (of this 1% are Qizilbash)
Hazara Hazaras in Daykundi Province 9% 6–13 percent
Uzbek Uzbek looking boy in northern Afghanistan 9% 6–8% percent
Aimak 4% 500,000 to 800,000
Turkmen 3% 2.5 percent
Baloch Camera focusing on Baloch 2% 100,000
Others (Pashai, Nuristani, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Gujjar, etc.) Young Pashai man 4% 6.9 percent

The recent estimate in the above chart is some what supported by the below national opinion polls, which were aimed at knowing how a group of about 804 to 8,706 local residents in Afghanistan felt about the current war, political situation, as well as the economic and social issues affecting their daily lives. Ten surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2015 by the Asia Foundation (a sample is shown in the table below; the survey in 2015 did not contain information on the ethnicity of the participants) and one between 2004 and 2009 by a combined effort of the broadcasting companies NBC News, BBC, and ARD.[27][28]

Answers regarding ethnicity provided by 804 to 7,760 Afghans in national opinion polls
Ethnic group "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (2004–2009)[28] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2006)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2007)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2011)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2012)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2014)[27]
Pashtun 38-46% 40.9% 40% 41% 40% 40%
Tajik 37-39% 37.1% 35% 31% 33% 36%
Hazara 6-13% 9.2% 10% 11% 11% 10%
Uzbek 5-7% 9.2% 8% 9% 9% 8%
Aimak 0-0% 0.1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Turkmen 1-2% 1.7% 3% 2% 2% 2%
Baloch 1-3% 0.5% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Others (Pashayi, Nuristani, Arab, etc.) 0-4% 1.4% 2% 3% 5% 5%
No opinion 0-2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Languages[edit]

Languages of Afghanistan[1]
Dari (Afghan Persian)
  
50%
Pashto
  
35%
Uzbek and Turkmen
  
11%
30 others including Balochi and Pashai
  
4%

Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of Afghanistan.[4] Dari, which is recognized as the Afghan Persian, serves as the lingua franca in Kabul, Herat, Balkh, Badakhshan and other provinces in northern and north-western Afghanistan. It is the language resorted to when people of different ethnic groups need to conduct business or otherwise communicate. Pashto is widely used in southern and eastern areas of the country where ethnic Pashtuns are the majority, including by majority of the Afghans in Pakistan. The Afghan National Anthem is recited in Pashto.

Uzbeki and Turkmeni are spoken in certain parts of the northern provinces, mainly among the Uzbek and Turkmen tribes. Smaller number of Afghans are also fluent in Urdu, Balochi, Arabic and other languages. English is taught in schools and is gradually becoming popular among the younger generation.

An approximate distribution of languages spoken in the country is shown in the line chart below:

Languages of Afghanistan
Language (Recent estimate)[1] (Pre-1992 estimates)[24][29][30]
Dari (Afghan Persian) 50% 25-50%
Pashto 35% 50-55%
Uzbek 8.5% 9%
Turkmen 2.5% 500,000 speakers
30 others (Balochi, Nuristani, Pashayi, Brahui, Hindko, Pamiri, Kyrgyz, Gujari, etc.) 4% 4%

Based on information from the latest national opinion polls, up to 51% stated that they can speak or understand Pashto and up to 79% stated that they can speak or understand Dari. Uzbeki was spoken or understood by up to 11% and Turkmen by up to 7%. Other languages that can be spoken are Arabic (4%) and Balochi (2%).[27][28]

Religions[edit]

Religion in Afghanistan (2009)[1]
Religion Percent
Islam
  
99.7%
Others
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Afghan politicians and foreign diplomats praying at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul.

Almost the entire Afghan population is Muslim, with less than 1% being non-Muslim. Despite attempts to secularize Afghan society, Islamic practices pervade all aspects of life. Likewise, Islamic religious tradition and codes, together with traditional practices, provide the principal means of controlling personal conduct and settling legal disputes. Islam was used as the main basis for expressing opposition to the modernization of Afghanistan by King Amanullah in the 1920s. It was also used by the mujahideen during the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan and by the Taliban today.

National opinion polls (religion)
Religion "A survey of the Afghan people" (2004)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2006)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2007)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2008)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2009)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2010)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2011)[27] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2012)[27]
Sunni Islam 92% 87.9% 87% " " " " "
Shia Islam 7% 10.4% 12% " " " " "
Ismailism 1% 1.2% 0% " " " " "
Hinduism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "
Buddhism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "
Sikhism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-17. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Afghanistan" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 2017-05-17. 
  3. ^ a b c UNESCO Country Profile
  4. ^ a b c "Article Sixteen of the Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved July 25, 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state. 
  5. ^ a b c Mohammad Jawad Sharifzada, ed. (November 20, 2011). "Afghanistan's population reaches 26m". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2016/04/21/what-chance-for-afghanistan/
  7. ^ a b c "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  8. ^ http://www.pajhwok.com/en/node/483787
  9. ^ a b "United Nations and Afghanistan". UN News Centre. Retrieved 29 December 2013. Archived October 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment" (PDF). Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. pp. 105–06. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 12 October 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "Population". U.S. Library of Congress. 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  12. ^ "Afghanistan (1979–2001)". Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  13. ^ "Afghanistan – Population Reference Bureau". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
  14. ^ "Estimated population of Afghanistan 2012-13". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  15. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  16. ^ http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR248/FR248.pdf
  17. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2013.htm
  18. ^ "Life expectancy in Afghanistan rises past 60 years". Pajhwok Afghan News. November 30, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  19. ^ "50pc surge in HIV cases, says Dalil". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 3, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  20. ^ Children at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan. December 1, 2008.
  21. ^ "Over 1,300 HIV cases registered in Afghanistan". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 1, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-02. 
  22. ^ "AIDS patients have doubled in Kandahar: Official". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  23. ^ Abasin Zaheer, ed. (May 26, 2013). "Senators stress caution in ID cards issuance". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
  24. ^ a b "The World Factbok – Afghanistan". The World Factbook/Central Intelligence Agency. University of Missouri. October 15, 1991. Retrieved 2011-03-20. _#_Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 50%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 12-15%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and other 
  25. ^ "Ethnic Groups". Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  26. ^ "PEOPLE – Ethnic divisions:". The World Factbook/Central Intelligence Agency. University of Missouri. January 22, 1993. Retrieved 2011-03-20. Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o See:
    • "Afghanistan in 2012 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. pp. 181–182. Retrieved 2012-11-28. Appendix 1: Target Demographics 181... Pashtun 40%, Tajik 33%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 11%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 2%, Pashaye 1%, Sadat 1% 
    • "Afghanistan in 2011 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. p. 251. Retrieved 2012-11-13. 15. Appendix 3: Interview Questionnaire... D-10. Which ethnic group do you belong to? SINGLE RESPONSE ONLY Pashtun 41%, Tajik 32%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 11%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 1%, Sadat 1% 
    • "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2010. pp. 225–226. Retrieved 2011-03-20. D-9. Which ethnic group do you belong to? SINGLE RESPONSE ONLY Pashtun 42%, Tajik 31%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 10%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 2%, Arab 2% 
    • "Afghanistan in 2009: A Survey of the Afghan People" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2009 survey interviewed 6,406 Afghans (53% men and 47% women) 
    • "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2008 survey interviewed 6,593 Afghans... 
    • "Afghanistan in 2007 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2010. pp. 225–226. Retrieved 2011-03-20. The 2007 survey interviewed 6,406 Afghans, Which ethnic group do you belong to? SINGLE RESPONSE ONLY Pashtun 40%, Tajik 35%, Uzbek 8%, Hazara 10%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 1% 
    • "Afghanistan in 2006 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. pp. 83–88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-11-28. A total of 6,226 respondents were surveyed in the study, out of which 4888 (78.5%) were from the rural areas and 1338 (22%) were from the urban areas. Ethnicity: Pashtun 40.9, Tajik 37.1, Uzbek 9.2, Hazara 9.2, Turkmen 1.7, Baloch 0.5, Nuristani 0.4, Aimak 0.1, Arab 0.7, Pashayi 0.3 
    • "Afghanistan in 2004 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2004. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2004 survey interviewed 804 Afghans, Which ethnic group do you belong to? Pashtun 46%, Tajik 39%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 6%, Turkmen 1%, Baloch 0%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 0%, Arab 1%, Pashaye 0%, Other 1%. 
  28. ^ a b c "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll - Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: ABC News. pp. 38–40. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  29. ^ "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10. A. Official languages. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans... Persian (2) is the language most spoken in Afghanistan. The native tongue of twenty five percent of the population, it is split into numerous dialects. 
  30. ^ "Languages of Afghanistan". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]