Demography of England

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Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. (Due to the small size of the City of London density is displayed as part of the overall Greater London area)

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources, estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably.

Population[edit]

The population at the time of the 2011 census was 53,012,456

  • Male: 26,069,148
  • Female: 26,943,308
  • Total: 53,012,456[1]
  • Total Fertility Rate: 1.97[2] (higher than Germany – 1.42 & Italy – 1.40, lower than France – 2.02)

Historical population[edit]

Population 5000–100BC
Year Pop. ±%
50000BC below 6000 —    
30000BC 100,000 —    
18000BC 300,000 +200.0%
01000BC 1,500,000 +400.0%
Source: [3]
Population 1100–1700
Year Pop. ±%
1086 1,710,000 —    
1190 3,100,000 +81.3%
1220 3,970,000 +28.1%
1250 4,230,000 +6.5%
1279 4,430,000 +4.7%
1290 4,750,000 +7.2%
1315 4,690,000 −1.3%
1325 4,120,000 −12.2%
1348 4,810,000 +16.7%
1351 2,600,000 −45.9%
1377 2,500,000 −3.8%
1400 2,080,000 −16.8%
1430 2,020,000 −2.9%
1450 1,900,000 −5.9%
1490 2,140,000 +12.6%
1522 2,350,000 +9.8%
1541 2,830,000 +20.4%
1560 3,200,000 +13.1%
1600 4,110,000 +28.4%
1650 5,310,000 +29.2%
1700 5,200,000 −2.1%
Source: [4] [5]
Population 1801–2011
Year Pop. ±%
1801 7,754,875 —    
1811 8,762,178 +13.0%
1821 10,402,143 +18.7%
1831 12,011,830 +15.5%
1841 13,654,914 +13.7%
1851 15,288,885 +12.0%
1861 18,325,052 +19.9%
1871 21,361,235 +16.6%
1881 24,397,385 +14.2%
1891 27,231,229 +11.6%
1901 30,072,180 +10.4%
1911 33,561,235 +11.6%
1921 35,230,225 +5.0%
1931 37,359,045 +6.0%
1941 38,084,321 +1.9%
1951 38,668,830 +1.5%
1961 41,159,213 +6.4%
1971 43,460,525 +5.6%
1981 45,978,080 +5.8%
1991 48,197,672 +4.8%
2001 49,138,831 +2.0%
2011 53,012,456 +7.9%
Source: Year(s) 1801–2011[5][6][7][8]

Place of birth[edit]

Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows:

Map showing the percentage of the population born outside England according to the 2011 census.
Country of birth 2001[9] 2011[10]
Number % Number %
 England 42,968,596 87.44% 44,246,592 83.46%
 Scotland 794,577 1.62% 708,872 1.34%
 Wales 609,711 1.24% 506,619 0.96%
 Northern Ireland 215,124 0.44% 206,735 0.39%
 United Kingdom UK not otherwise specified 6,499 0.01%
 Ireland 459,662 0.94% 395,182 0.75%
 EU EU Member Countries 695,045 1.41% 1,980,259 3.73%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined pre 2001) 894,908 1.69%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined post 2001) 1,085,351 2.04%
 UN Other Countries 3,396,116 6.91% 4,961,698 9.36%
Total 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

Below are the 5 largest foreign-born groups in England according to 2014 ONS estimates.[11]

Country of birth Estimated population, 2013 Estimated population, 2014 Estimated population, 2015
 India 698,000 748,000 751,000
 Poland 561,000 677,000 713,000
 Pakistan 479,000 499,000 478,000
 Republic of Ireland 315,000 317,000 318,000
 Germany 263,000 267,000 253,000

Age[edit]

The data below is based on the 2011 census.[12] In 2001, the mean age of England's population was 38.60, and the median age was 37.00.

Population pyramid for England as at the 2011 census.
Ages attained
(years)
Population  % of total
population
 % per year
of age band
0–4 3,318,449 6.26 1.25
5–9 2,972,632 5.61 1.12
10–14 3,080,929 5.81 1.16
15–19 3,340,265 6.30 1.26
20–24 3,595,321 6.78 1.36
25–29 3,650,881 6.89 1.38
30–34 3,509,221 6.62 1.32
35–39 3,549,116 6.69 1.34
40–44 3,885,934 7.33 1.47
45–49 3,879,815 7.32 1.46
50–54 3,400,095 6.41 1.28
55–59 2,996,992 5.65 1.13
60–64 3,172,277 5.98 1.20
65–69 2,508,154 4.73 0.95
70–74 2,044,129 3.86 0.77
75–79 1,669,345 3.15 0.63
80–84 1,258,773 2.37 0.47
85–89 776,311 1.46 0.29
90+ 403,817 0.76

Life expectancy at birth[13]

  • January 2001 – December 2003
    • Males: 76.24 years
    • Females: 80.72 years
  • January 2002 – December 2004
    • Males: 76.55 years
    • Females: 80.91 years
  • January 2003 – December 2005
    • Males: 76.92 years
    • Females: 81.14 years

Ethnicity[edit]

The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups:

Ethnic group 2001
population
2001
%
2011
population
2011
%
White: British 42,747,136 87.0 42,279,236 79.8
White: Irish 624,115 1.3 517,001 1.0
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy[note 1] 54,895 0.1
White: Other 1,308,110 2.7 2,430,010 4.6
White: Total 44,679,361 91.0 45,281,142

85.4

Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,028,546 2.1 1,395,702 2.6
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 706,539 1.4 1,112,282 2.1
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 275,394 0.6 436,514 0.8
Asian or Asian British: Chinese[note 2] 220,681 0.5 379,502 0.7
Asian or Asian British: Asian Other 237,810 0.5 819,403 1.6
Asian or Asian British: Total 2,468,970 5.1 4,143,403

7.8

Black or Black British: Caribbean 561,246 1.1 591,016 1.1
Black or Black British: African 475,938 1.0 977,741 1.8
Black or Black British: Other 95,324 0.2 277,857 0.5
Black or Black British: Total 1,132,508 2.3 1,846,614

3.5

Mixed: White and Caribbean 231,424 0.5 415,616 0.8
Mixed: White and African 76,498 0.2 161,550 0.3
Mixed: White and Asian Other 184,014 0.4 332,708 0.6
Mixed: Other Mixed 151,437 0.3 283,005 0.3
British Mixed: Total 643,373 1.4 1,192,879

2.3

Other: Arab[note 3] 220,985 0.4
Other: Any other ethnic group 214,619 0.4 327,433 0.6
Other: Total 214,619 0.4 548,418

1.0

Total 49,138,831 100 53,012,456

100

Notes for table above

  1. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
  2. ^ In 2001, listed under the 'Chinese or other ethnic group' heading.
  3. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
Source: 2001 Census KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for local Authorities and 2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales.

Languages[edit]

The most common main languages spoken in England according to the 2011 census are shown below.[14]

Rank Language Usual residents aged 3+ Proportion
1 English 46,936,780 92.02%
2 Polish 529,173 1.04%
3 Punjabi 271,580 0.53%
4 Urdu 266,330 0.52%
5 Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya) 216,196 0.42%
6 Gujarati 212,217 0.42%
7 Arabic 152,490 0.30%
8 French 145,026 0.28%
9 Portuguese 131,002 0.26%
10 Spanish 118,554 0.23%
11 Tamil 99,773 0.20%
12 Turkish 98,083 0.19%
13 Italian 90,547 0.18%
14 Somali 84,387 0.17%
15 Lithuanian 84,327 0.17%
16 German 75,190 0.15%
17 Persian/Farsi 75,179 0.15%
18 Tagalog/Filipino 67,593 0.13%
19 Romanian 66,496 0.13%
20 Russian 66,271 0.13%
Welsh 8,248 0.02%
Cornish 554 0.00%
Other 1,209,614 2.37%
Population 51,005,610 100.00%

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in England




Circle frame.svg

Religious structure, according to the 2011 census

  Christianity (59.39%)
  Islam (5.02%)
  Hinduism (1.52%)
  Sikhism (0.79%)
  Judaism (0.49%)
  Buddhism (0.45%)
  Other religion (0.43%)
  No religion (24.74%)
  Not declared (7.17%)

Respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses gave their religions as follows:

Religion 2001[15] 2011[16]
Number % Number %
Christian 35,251,244 71.74% 31,479,876 59.38%
Muslim 1,524,887 3.10% 2,660,116 5.02%
Hindu 546,982 1.11% 806,199 1.52%
Sikh 327,343 0.67% 420,196 0.79%
Jewish 257,671 0.52% 261,282 0.49%
Buddhist 139,046 0.28% 238,626 0.45%
Other religion 143,811 0.29% 227,825 0.43%
No religion 7,171,332 14.59% 13,114,232 24.74%
Religion not stated 3,776,515 7.69% 3,804,104 7.18%
Total population 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "National Statistics Online – Live births". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Prior, Francis (2004). BC Life in Britain and Ireland Before the Romans. London: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0007126934. 
  4. ^ S. Broadberry et al (2010), "English Medieval Population: Reconciling Time Series and Cross Sectional Evidence", Table 7 (Preprint, p.22); S. Broadberry et al (2010), "British Economic Growth 1270–1870", Table 18 (Preprint, p. 54); see also S. Broadberry et al (2015), British Economic Growth 1270–1870, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1107070783, Chapter 1, and Table 5.06, pg 205
    See also B. Campbell (1990), "People and Land in the Middle Ages, 1066–1500", in Robert A. Dodgshon and Robin A. Butlin (eds), Historical Geography of England and Wales, 2nd edition. Elsevier. ISBN 1483288412, pp. 69–122 for discussion of drivers and trends underlying the numbers.
  5. ^ a b Wrigley and Schofield, "The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A reconstruction.", Harvard University Press, 1981, Table 7.8, pgs. 208-9, [1]
  6. ^ At the time of the first census. Census officials estimated that there had been an increase of 77% in the preceding 100 years. In each county women were in the majority. Notes for 1801 taken from Kent 1800–1899 – A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century Bob Ogley (Froglets Publications 2003) ISBN 1-872337-51-1. Wrigley and Schofield estimate 8,664,000 based on birth and death records.]
  7. ^ Vision of Britain a population through time England, Retrieved 9 August 2013
  8. ^ 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011 (PDF), ONS, 12 December 2011, retrieved 9 August 2013 
  9. ^ Census 2001 Key Statistics – Local Authorities KS05 Country of birth, Accessed 6 September 2014
  10. ^ 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012
  11. ^ "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth, January 2014 to December 2014". Office for National Statistics. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  Figures given are the central estimates. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  12. ^ UK Statistics (27 March 2011). "2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries". UK Statistics. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  13. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Life Expectancy at Birth for City of London, London, England". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "View:England". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  16. ^ "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

External links[edit]