Demography of the Netherlands

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Demographics of the Netherlands
Population of the Netherlands 1900-2000.png
Population of Netherlands (1900-2000) in millions.
Population17,283,008 (2018) (64th)
Density415 per km2 (31st)
Growth rate0.39% (189th)
Birth rate10.3 births/1,000 (161st)
Death rate8.78 deaths/1,000 (77th)
Life expectancy79.55 years (34th)
 • male76.94 years
 • female82.30 years
Fertility rate1.653 children/woman (2015)
Age structure
0–14 years17.4%
15–64 years67.7%
65 and over14.9%
Sex ratio
Total0.98 male/female
At birth1.05 male/female
Under 151.05 male/female
15–64 years1.02 male/female
65 and over0.75 male/female
Nationality
NationalityDutch
Major ethnicDutch 79.3%
Minor ethnicOther European 6.3%
Indo 4.9%
Turks 2.4%
Moroccans 2.2%
Surinamese 2.1%
Caribbeans 0.9%
Chinese 0.3%
Iraqis 0.3%
Other 3.9%
Language
OfficialDutch, Frisian

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Netherlands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the population, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population size[edit]

The Netherlands is the 66th most populated country in the world, and as of March 21, 2016, it has a population of 17,000,000.

Between 1900 and 1950 the population doubled from 5.1 to 10.0 million people. From 1951 to 2000 the population increased from 10.0 to 15.9 million people, increasing by a smaller proportion.[1]

Dutch provinces as European countries by population

The Netherlands is the thirty-first most densely populated country in the world. The 17,000,000[2] Dutch men, women and children are concentrated on an area of 41,526 km2;[3] this means that the country has a population density of 409 per km2 (August 2018:415 per km2), or over 502 per km2 if only the land area, 33,883 km2,[3] is counted. If only the land area of the provinces, 33,718 km2, is counted, 500 inhabitants/km2 were reached in the first half of 2014 or possibly in the last few days of 2013. 511 inhabitants per square kilometer were reached in August 2018.

Bangladesh and South Korea are larger and more densely populated (hence have a larger population). There are twenty-one more countries (twelve independent ones and nine dependent territories) with a larger population density, but they all have a smaller population (hence a smaller area). If the water area is not counted then Taiwan is larger, and there are sixteen more countries (nine independent ones and seven dependent territories) with a larger population density.

As a result of these demographic characteristics the Netherlands has had to plan its land use strictly. Since 1946 the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment has been occupied with the national coordination of land use. Because of its high population density the Netherlands has also reclaimed land from the sea by poldering. Between 1927 and 1968 an entire province, Flevoland was created. It currently (2015) houses more than 400,000 people. Because of these policies, the Dutch have been able to combine high levels of population density with extremely high levels of agricultural production.

Even though the Netherlands is so densely populated, it has no municipalities with a population over one million, although the two largest municipalities of the country do score well over a million if the complete city region is counted, including the neighbouring satellite towns that often are physically connected to the main municipality. Moreover, the "four big cities" (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) can in many ways be regarded as a single metropolitan area, the Randstad ("rim city" or "edge city") with about 7 million inhabitants around an agricultural "green heart" (het Groene Hart).


Births and deaths[edit]

Dutch population pyramid
(in % of total population)
% Male Age Female %
0.36
 
85+
 
1.05
0.60
 
80-84
 
1.18
1.14
 
75-79
 
1.74
1.55
 
70-74
 
1.95
1.93
 
65-69
 
2.13
2.30
 
60-64
 
2.33
2.77
 
55-59
 
2.69
3.73
 
50-54
 
3.60
3.65
 
45-49
 
3.54
3.93
 
40-44
 
3.81
4.27
 
35-39
 
4.08
4.25
 
30-34
 
4.05
3.63
 
25-29
 
3.54
3.04
 
20-24
 
2.93
2.96
 
15-19
 
2.83
3.11
 
10-14
 
2.97
3.20
 
05-09
 
3.06
3.11
 
00-04
 
2.98
Data: International Data Base (2000)
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900 5,104,000—    
1910 5,858,000+14.8%
1920 6,754,000+15.3%
1930 7,825,000+15.9%
1940 8,834,000+12.9%
1950 10,026,773+13.5%
1960 11,417,254+13.9%
1970 12,957,621+13.5%
1980 14,091,014+8.7%
1990 14,892,574+5.7%
2000 15,863,950+6.5%
2010 16,574,989+4.5%
2019 17,291,000+4.3%
Source: Statistics Netherlands[5]

The Dutch population is ageing. Furthermore, life expectancy has increased because of developments in medicine, and in addition to this, the Netherlands has seen increasing immigration. Despite these developments combined with the population boom after the Second World War, the low birth rate has caused extremely low population growth: 2005 saw the lowest absolute population growth since 1900.

This demographic development has consequences for health care and social security policy. As the Dutch population ages, the proportion of people of working age, as a percentage of the entire population, decreases. Important policy advisors like the CBS (Statistical Office) and the CPB (Planning Office) have pointed out that this will cause problems with the current system of old age pensions: fewer people will work to pay for old age pensions, while there will be more people receiving those pensions. Furthermore, the costs of health care are also projected to increase. These developments have caused several cabinets, most notably the recent second Balkenende cabinet to reform the system of health care and social security to increase participation in the labour market and make people more conscious of the money they spend on health care.

In 2003, the annual birth rate per thousand was highest in the province of Flevoland (15.9). The overall lifelong Total fertility rate (TFR), was highest in the province of Flevoland (2.0) and lowest in the province of Limburg (1.6). The municipality with the highest TFR was Urk (3.23) followed by Valkenburg (2.83), Graafstroom (2.79) and Staphorst (2.76). The lowest TFRs were recorded in Vaals (1.11) and Thorn (1.21).[6]

The total population at December 31, 2006 was 16,356,914. The population loss due to net emigration was 35,502 (an estimated 40-50% of emigrants were ethnic non-Dutch).

In 2007, there were 117,000 immigrants (including 7000 Germans, 6000 Poles, 5000 Bulgarians, 3000 Turks and 2000 Moroccans) and 123,000 emigrants. Nearly half the emigrants were native Dutch, followed at a distance by nearly 5000 Poles and more than 3000 Germans. There was an observable increase in net immigration from the former USSR, Bulgaria and Romania.[7]

The annual death rate was lowest in the municipalities of Valkenburg (2.9 per 1000), Zeewolde (3.2), Renswoude (3.4), Westervoort and Zeevang (both 3.9). The highest annual death rates were recorded in Warmond (22.3 per 1000), Laren (19.9) and Doorn (18.8).[8]

16.4% of the total births in 2003 were to parents of non-European origin, although they account for only 12.4% of the population in the 25-34 age group. For example, 3.8% of the births were ethnic Moroccan, although they were only 2.26% of the 25-34 age group. Respective figures were 3.27% and 3.0% for Turks. The TFR for Moroccans in 2003 was 3.3 while the general TFR was 1.73. TFR was 2.3 for Turks, 1.7 for Surinamese, 1.8 for Arubans, 3.0 for Africans and 1.8 for Americans.[9] (These figures compare with a figure of around 2.1 required to maintain a stable overall population figure.)

According to Statistics Netherlands, for the year 2007, the TFR for those born in Netherlands was 1.72[10] (1.65 in 2000). TFR of Moroccan immigrants was 2.87 (3.22 in 2000) and that of Turkish immigrants was 1.88 (2.18 in 2000).[11]

Total Fertility Rate from 1840 to 1899[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[12]

Years 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.11 5.09 5.06 5.04 5.02 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.99 4.89
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.68 4.75
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 4.83 4.9 4.98 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.04 5.05 5.09 5.12
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.16 5.19 5.23 5.27 5.31 5.34 5.38 5.42 5.39 5.35
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.32 5.28 5.25 5.23 5.21 5.18 5.16 5.14 5.11 5.07
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[12]
Total Fertility Rate in the Netherlands 5.04 5 4.97 4.93 4.88 4.84 4.79 4.75 4.6

Vital statistics[edit]

The following table presents the evolution since 1900; click on "show" to display the table:[13]

Population Live births (total) Deaths (total) Natural change (total) Birth rate
(per mille)
Mortality rate
(per mille)
Natural change
(per mille)
TFR
IMR
(per mille)
Life expectancy males Life expectancy females
1900 5 142 162 611 92 043 70 568 31.6 17.9 13.7 4.45 155.2
1901 5 221 168 380 89 967 78 413 32.3 17.2 15.0 4.53 149.3
1902 5 305 168 728 86 248 82 480 31.8 16.3 15.5 4.46 129.9
1903 5 389 170 108 83 933 86 175 31.6 15.6 16.0 4.42 135.1
1904 5 470 171 495 87 091 84 404 31.4 15.9 15.4 4.38 136.9
1905 5 551 170 767 85 016 85 751 30.8 15.3 15.4 4.29 130.9
1906 5 632 170 952 83 259 87 693 30.4 14.8 15.6 4.23 127.1
1907 5 710 171 506 82 250 89 256 30.0 14.4 15.6 4.18 111.9
1908 5 786 171 861 86 936 84 925 29.7 15.0 14.7 4.13 124.8
1909 5 862 170 766 80 283 90 483 29.1 13.7 15.4 4.04 99.1
1910 5 899 168 894 79 984 88 910 28.6 13.6 15.1 3.94 107.9
1911 5 976 166 527 86 786 79 741 27.9 14.5 13.3 3.81 137.2
1912 6 054 170 269 74 647 95 622 28.1 12.3 15.8 3.84 87.0
1913 6 145 173 541 75 867 97 674 28.2 12.3 15.9 3.85 91.4
1914 6 251 176 831 77 739 99 092 28.3 12.4 15.9 3.86 94.8
1915 6 364 167 426 79 613 87 813 26.3 12.5 13.8 3.59 86.8
1916 6 480 172 572 84 024 88 548 26.6 13.0 13.7 3.64 84.5
1917 6 612 173 112 87 273 85 839 26.2 13.2 13.0 3.59 86.8
1918 6 705 167 636 115 440 52 196 25.0 17.2 7.8 3.47 103.9
1919 6 752 164 447 89 646 74 801 24.4 13.3 11.1 3.36 94.0
1920 6 820 192 987 81 525 111 462 28.3 12.0 16.3 3.89 83.3
1921 6 921 189 546 77 002 112 544 27.4 11.1 16.3 3.75 86.1
1922 7 032 181 886 80 381 101 505 25.9 11.4 14.4 3.54 77.6
1923 7 150 187 512 72 809 114 703 26.2 10.2 16.0 3.55 66.8
1924 7 264 182 430 71 167 111 263 25.1 9.8 15.3 3.39 60.6
1925 7 366 178 545 72 121 106 424 24.2 9.8 14.4 3.26 58.4
1926 7 472 177 498 73 357 104 141 23.8 9.8 13.9 3.18 61.1
1927 7 576 175 098 77 614 97 484 23.1 10.2 12.9 3.08 58.7
1928 7 678 179 028 73 816 105 212 23.3 9.6 13.7 3.09 52.3
1929 7 781 177 216 83 224 93 992 22.8 10.7 12.1 3.00 59.0
1930 7 884 182 310 71 682 110 628 23.1 9.1 14.0 3.03 50.9
1931 7 999 177 387 77 048 100 339 22.2 9.6 12.5 2.88 49.6
1932 8 122 178 525 73 059 105 466 22.0 9.0 13.0 2.83 46.3
1933 8 237 171 289 72 096 99 193 20.8 8.8 12.0 2.66 43.9
1934 8 341 172 214 70 164 102 050 20.6 8.4 12.2 2.63 42.6
1935 8 433 170 425 73 660 96 765 20.2 8.7 11.5 2.57 40.0
1936 8 516 171 675 73 923 97 752 20.2 8.7 11.5 2.51 38.9
1937 8 598 170 220 75 516 94 704 19.8 8.8 11.0 2.53 38.1
1938 8 684 178 422 77 043 101 379 20.5 8.9 11.7 2.63 36.5
1939 8 781 180 917 75 841 105 076 20.6 8.6 12.0 2.64 33.7
1940 8 879 184 846 87 722 97 124 20.8 9.9 10.9 2.67 39.1
1941 8 965 181 959 89 716 92 243 20.3 10.0 10.3 2.61 43.6
1942 9 042 189 975 76 040 113 935 21.0 8.4 12.6 2.71 39.5
1943 9 102 209 379 91 438 117 941 23.0 10.0 13.0 2.98 40.1
1944 9 174 219 946 108 087 111 859 24.0 11.8 12.2 3.13 46.3
1945 9 262 209 607 141 398 68 209 22.6 15.3 7.4 2.96 79.7
1946 9 423 284 456 80 151 204 305 30.2 8.5 21.7 3.97 38.7
1947 9 629 267 348 77 646 189 702 27.8 8.1 19.7 3.70 33.5
1948 9 800 247 923 72 459 175 464 25.3 7.4 17.9 3.41 29.3
1949 9 956 236 177 81 077 155 100 23.7 8.1 15.6 3.22 26.8
1950 10 114 229 718 75 929 153 789 22.7 7.5 15.2 3.10 26.7 70.3 72.6
1951 10 264 228 405 77 560 150 845 22.3 7.6 14.7 3.05 26.7 70.2 72.8
1952 10 382 231 888 76 346 155 542 22.3 7.4 15.0 3.09 24.1 71.0 73.3
1953 10 493 227 964 80 901 147 063 21.7 7.7 14.0 3.03 23.7 70.4 73.0
1954 10 615 228 173 79 623 148 550 21.5 7.5 14.0 3.03 22.6 71.0 73.8
1955 10 751 229 222 81 708 147 514 21.3 7.6 13.7 3.03 21.6 70.9 71.4
1956 10 889 231 492 84 809 146 683 21.3 7.8 13.5 3.05 20.2 71.0 74.1
1957 11 021 233 892 82 961 150 931 21.2 7.5 13.7 3.08 18.4 71.4 74.6
1958 11 186 236 859 84 491 152 368 21.2 7.6 13.6 3.11 18.5 71.5 74.8
1959 11 346 242 518 86 072 156 446 21.4 7.6 13.8 3.17 18.1 71.2 75.2
1960 11 480 239 128 87 825 151 303 20.8 7.7 13.2 3.12 17.9 71.4 75.3
1961 11 637 247 407 88 321 159 086 21.3 7.6 13.7 3.22 17.0 71.5 75.7
1962 11 890 246 150 93 969 152 181 20.7 7.9 12.8 3.18 17.0 71.0 75.6
1963 12 042 249 879 95 734 154 145 20.8 8.0 12.8 3.19 15.8 71.0 75.8
1964 12 212 250 914 93 437 157 477 20.5 7.7 12.9 3.17 14.8 71.3 76.3
1965 12 377 245 216 98 026 147 190 19.8 7.9 11.9 3.04 14.4 71.1 76.1
1966 12 535 239 611 100 516 139 095 19.1 8.0 11.1 2.90 14.7 71.0 76.1
1967 12 597 238 678 99 792 138 886 18.9 7.9 11.0 2.81 13.4 71.2 76.6
1968 12 725 237 112 104 989 132 123 18.6 8.3 10.4 2.72 13.6 70.9 76.4
1969 12 958 247 588 107 615 139 973 19.1 8.3 10.8 2.75 13.2 70.9 76.3
1970 13 032 238 912 109 619 129 293 18.3 8.4 9.9 2.57 12.7 70.8 76.5
1971 13 266 227 180 110 243 116 937 17.1 8.3 8.8 2.36 12.1 71.0 76.8
1972 13 330 214 133 113 576 100 557 16.1 8.5 7.5 2.15 11.7 70.8 76.5
1973 13 438 194 993 110 682 84 311 14.5 8.2 6.3 1.90 11.5 71.3 77.1
1974 13 541 185 982 109 250 76 732 13.7 8.1 5.7 1.77 11.3 71.6 77.6
1975 13 653 177 876 113 737 64 139 13.0 8.3 4.7 1.66 10.6 71.5 77.7
1976 13 770 177 090 114 454 62 636 12.9 8.3 4.5 1.63 10.7 71.5 77.9
1977 13 853 173 296 110 093 63 203 12.5 7.9 4.6 1.58 9.5 72.1 78.5
1978 13 937 175 550 114 415 61 135 12.6 8.2 4.4 1.58 9.6 72.0 78.5
1979 14 030 174 979 112 565 62 414 12.5 8.0 4.4 1.56 8.7 72.5 78.9
1980 14 144 181 294 114 279 67 015 12.8 8.1 4.7 1.60 8.6 72.5 79.2
1981 14 246 178 569 115 515 63 054 12.5 8.1 4.4 1.56 8.3 72.7 79.3
1982 14 310 172 071 117 264 54 807 12.0 8.2 3.8 1.50 8.3 72.8 79.4
1983 14 362 170 246 117 761 52 485 11.9 8.2 3.7 1.47 8.4 72.9 79.6
1984 14 420 174 436 119 812 54 624 12.1 8.3 3.8 1.49 8.3 73.0 79.7
1985 14 484 178 136 122 704 55 432 12.3 8.5 3.8 1.51 8.0 73.1 79.7
1986 14 564 184 513 125 307 59 206 12.7 8.6 4.1 1.55 7.7 73.1 79.6
1987 14 665 186 667 122 199 64 468 12.7 8.3 4.4 1.56 7.6 73.5 80.1
1988 14 758 186 647 124 163 62 484 12.6 8.4 4.2 1.55 6.8 73.7 80.2
1989 14 849 188 979 128 905 60 086 12.7 8.7 4.0 1.55 6.8 73.7 79.9
1990 14 951 197 965 128 824 69 115 13.2 8.6 4.6 1.62 7.1 73.8 80.1
1991 15 070 198 665 129 958 68 707 13.2 8.6 4.6 1.61 6.5 74.1 80.2
1992 15 184 196 734 129 887 66 847 13.0 8.6 4.4 1.59 6.3 74.3 80.3
1993 15 290 195 748 137 795 57 953 12.8 9.0 3.8 1.57 6.3 74.0 80.0
1994 15 383 195 611 133 471 62 140 12.7 8.7 4.0 1.57 5.6 74.6 80.3
1995 15 459 190 513 135 675 54 838 12.3 8.8 3.5 1.531 5.5 74.6 80.4
1996 15 528 189 521 137 561 51 960 12.2 8.9 3.3 1.529 5.7 74.7 80.4
1997 15 611 192 443 135 783 56 660 12.3 8.7 3.6 1.562 5.0 75.2 80.6
1998 15 706 199 412 137 968 61 444 12.7 8.8 3.9 1.628 5.2 75.2 80.7
1999 15 812 200 445 140 487 59 958 12.7 8.9 3.8 1.652 5.2 75.3 80.5
2000 15 924 206 619 140 527 66 092 13.0 8.8 4.2 1.723 5.1 75.5 80.6
2001 16 044 202 603 140 377 62 226 12.6 8.7 3.9 1.710 5.4 75.8 80.7
2002 16 149 202 083 142 355 59 728 12.5 8.8 3.7 1.731 5.0 76.0 80.7
2003 16 225 200 297 141 936 58 361 12.3 8.7 3.6 1.747 4.8 76.2 80.9
2004 16 282 194 007 136 553 57 454 11.9 8.4 3.5 1.726 4.4 76.9 81.4
2005 16 320 187 910 136 402 51 508 11.5 8.4 3.2 1.708 4.9 77.2 81.6
2006 16 346 185 057 135 372 49 685 11.3 8.3 3.0 1.720 4.4 77.6 81.9
2007 16 382 181 336 133 022 48 314 11.1 8.1 2.9 1.718 4.1 78.0 82.3
2008 16 446 184 634 135 136 49 498 11.2 8.2 3.0 1.773 3.8 78.3 82.3
2009 16 530 184 915 134 235 50 680 11.2 8.1 3.1 1.790 3.8 78.5 82.7
2010 16 615 184 397 136 058 48 339 11.1 8.2 2.9 1.796 3.8 78.8 82.7
2011 16 693 180 060 135 741 44 319 10.8 8.1 2.7 1.759 3.6 79.2 82.8
2012 16 754 175 959 140 813 35 146 10.5 8.4 2.1 1.723 3.7 79.1 82.8
2013 16 803 171 341 141 245 30 096 10.2 8.4 1.8 1.679 3.8 79.4 83.0
2014 16 865 175 181 139 073 35 434 10.3 8.2 2.1 1.713 79.9 83.3
2015 16 900 170 510 147 134 23 376 10.0 8.7 1.3 1.658 79.7 83.1
2016 16 979 172 520 148 997 23 523 10.2 8.8 1.3 1.654 79.9 83.2
2017 17 082 169 200 150 027 19 173 9.9 8.8 1.1 1.607 80.1 83.4
2018(p) 17 181 167 925 153 249 14 676 9.7 8.9 0.8 1.58

(p) = preliminary results

Current natural increase[edit]

[14]

  • Number of births for January–March 2018 = Decrease 39,658
  • Number of births for January–March 2019 = Increase 39,743
  • Number of deaths for January–March 2018 = Negative increase 45,627
  • Number of deaths for January–March 2019 = Positive decrease 40,516
  • Natural growth for January–March 2018 = Decrease -5,969
  • Natural growth for January–March 2019 = Increase -773

Life expectancy from 1850 to 1950[edit]

Sources: Our World In Data

1850-1950

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 39.8 40.0 38.6 38.6 38.6 34.5 38.8 35.5 34.7 30.9 36.9
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 36.4 38.3 38.3 37.5 36.4 33.6 39.2 37.7 40.4 37.3
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 32.9 36.5 39.2 41.3 38.2 40.4 42.0 41.1 41.9 40.3
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 42.8 43.7 42.3 41.3 43.2 41.9 44.9 44.2 44.3 44.4
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 44.2 43.9 45.8 46.9 46.6 48.6 49.4 49.1 49.3 48.4
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 48.7 50.6 51.5 50.9 52.1 52.7 53.5 52.7 54.9 55.1
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 53.1 57.2 57.3 57.2 57.2 56.2 55.6 47.6 55.0 57.8
Years 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 59.7 59.8 62.0 62.9 63.1 63.0 62.6 63.7 62.2 64.7
Years 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 64.3 65.4 66.0 66.6 66.5 66.7 67.0 67.4 67.7 65.4
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950[15]
Life expectancy in the Netherlands 65.3 65.8 64.4 61.3 55.4 67.6 69.5 71.1 70.3 71.4

Migration and ethnicity[edit]

Between 1590 and 1800 the estimated share of foreign-born population was consistently above 5%.[16]

According to Eurostat, in 2010 there were 1,800,000 foreign-born residents in the Netherlands, corresponding to 11.1% of the total population. Of these, 1,400,000 (8.5%) were born outside the EU (including those from Dutch colonies) and 428,000 (2.6%) were born in another EU member state. The most common countries of birth being: Belgium, Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom.[17]

As the result of immigration from overseas, the Netherlands have a sizeable minority of non-indigenous peoples. There is also a considerable level of emigration, in majority consisting of former immigrants. In 2005, some 121,000 people left the country, while 94,000 entered it. Out of a total of 101,150 people immigrating into the Netherlands in 2006, 66,658 were from Europe, Oceania, the Americas or Japan, and 34,492 were from other (mostly developing) countries. Out of a total of 132,470 emigrants, 94,834 were going to Europe, Oceania, the Americas or Japan and 37,636 to other countries.[18]

A large number[16] of immigrants come from countries in Western Europe, mostly from the neighbouring countries of Germany and Belgium. There were five subsequent waves of immigration to the Netherlands in recent history.

  1. In the late-1940s and into the 1950s, following the end of the Second World War, people from the newly independent Republic of Indonesia repatriated or emigrated to the Netherlands - mainly Indo-European (people of mixed European and Indonesian ancestry of Dutch nationality) and supporters of the Republic of South Maluku.
  2. Between 1960 and 1974, migrants from Southern Europe (i.e. Italy, Portugal, Spain), Turkey and Morocco came to work in the Netherlands as guest workers. They were expected to return to their own country and many did, but others remained and in the 1970s and 1980s were joined by their families. Until 2004, when marriage immigration was restricted, their children usually married others from their home country.[citation needed]
  3. After 1974, people emigrated from the newly independent Suriname and from the Netherlands Antilles, which remained part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In 1974, about forty thousand Surinamese migrated while still retaining Dutch citizenship; between 1975 and 1980 there was a transitional arrangement allowing migration. Antilleans have the Dutch nationality and behave like typical labour migrants, travelling to and from the country in response to the employment available.
  4. During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of asylum seekers was low, consisting e.g. of Chileans fleeing from political oppression and/or persecution. In the 1990s, asylum migration sharply increased,[19] largely consisting of Yugoslavs, Somalis, Iraqis and Iranians fleeing war or famine. Between 2000 and 2014 asylum migration strongly decreased due to the strict "Cohen Law". However, the Syrian Civil War of 2011 resulted in a large influx of Syrian asylum seekers in 2015 and 2016; about ninety thousand Syrians had been granted asylum by 2018.
  5. In the 2000s, migrant workers from the newly-joined EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, including: Poland, Romania and Bulgaria, and non-EU states Moldova, Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia.[citation needed] In 2005, non-Western ethnic population comprised 1.7 million individuals, about 10% of the population in the country.[20]

Illegal immigration to the Netherlands results in automatic deportation[21] but this is often not enforced for various reasons such as unknown country of origin, etc. Many Dutch provinces in 2012 had quotas for deporting illegal immigrants.[22][23][24][25]

By 2017, persons with an immigration background, both western and non-western, formed a majority in Amsterdam (2011), Rotterdam (2013) and The Hague, the three largest cities of the Netherlands.[26]

In 2005, the governmental Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau in its annual report, noted recurring integration problems for ethnic minorities. While during the economic boom of the 1990s their unemployment and dependence on welfare had strongly decreased, the economic downturn between 2001 and 2004 disproportionally affected immigrant groups. This would be explained by their functioning as a labour reserve, by their lower educational levels and by lower language skills. The report also noted that per capita social interactions between native Dutch and immigrant populations tended to decline over time, partly explainable by the size growth of immigrant groups. Integration levels strongly varied between groups. Surinamese and Antilleans were well economically integrated, but the latter less so culturally. Cultural integration was limited for Turks, but better for Moroccans. Of the asylum seekers, Somalis were among the least integrated into Dutch society, while Iranians were the best integrated with the highest education levels and modern lifestyles. Though the educational levels of the second generation were a significant improvement over those of the first generation, they still lagged behind the native Dutch who themselves on average had been attending ever higher school types. While half of all native Dutch pupils in 2005 proceeded to higher secondary education (HAVO and VWO), for Turks and Moroccans the share was a fifth and for Somali pupils even lower.[20]

In 2007, non-Western groups were generally socio-economically disadvantaged and of the four largest non-Western groups, Turks and Moroccans were the most disadvantaged. In 2006 38.7% of Moroccans and 43.9% of Turks aged 15–64 were in employment, their unemployment rate was about four times the level of the native Dutch (17.2% for Moroccans and 15.1% for Turks), and 30% received some type of social welfare.[16]

After 2008, the financial crisis and the eurocrisis again hit immigrant groups particularly hard. In 2012, at 12% non-Western migrants were six times more likely than native Dutch to receive social welfare benefits, with 2% for the Dutch.[27]

Western and non-Western fraction of low-income households and source of income. Data sourced from Statistics Netherlands.[28]

According to a 2010 Statisics Netherlands report, the third generation of non-Western immigrants was predominantly young with 80% being younger than 15, while growing with 10% evey year. The third generation have a similar employment rate as the native Dutch and receive a similar amount of social benefits. The third non-Western generation follow adult education more frequently than both the native Dutch and non-Western immigrants. The non-Western immigrant population as a whole has 1.5 to 2 times the benefit dependence compared to the natives. The non-Western third generation had a rate slightly higher than the native Dutch as crime suspects, but lower than for non-Western immigrants as a whole.[29][30]

According to Statistics Netherlands, nearly 53% of refugee households have a low income, six times the Netherlands average (8.2%).[28] For Syrian and Eritrean househoulds the share is about 80%. At 33% the poverty risk is lowest among Iranian refugee households. The group of Syrian households at risk of poverty grew from ten thousand (76% of all Syrian households in 2016) to eighteen thousand (79% of all Syrian households) in 2018. Households of Polish, Romanian or Bulgarian origin have a greater than average risk of poverty even though households from these Eastern European countries generally depend on work for their income. Migrant workers from Eastern Europe generally perform low-skilled work while migrants fro Western Europe are often highly educated.[28]

Immigrants from foreign countries are divided into several ethnic groups. For example, there are both Russians and Chechenians from Russia, Turks and Kurds from Turkey, Serbs and Albanians from Serbia and immigrants from Iran are divided into Persians, Azeris and Kurds.[31]

Ethnic groups[edit]

With the huge expansion of the European Union during the 2000s, the Netherlands has seen a rise in the number of immigrants coming from new member states. Migrant workers from these countries are estimated to be about 100,000 as of 2007.[32] Legal migrants from new EU-member states doubled between 2007-11 to 200,000,[33] with estimates totaling up to 300,000. Of the Poles who initially moved to the Netherlands in 2004, about a quarter had returned to Poland by 2006.[34]

Population of the Netherlands by country of birth

As of 1 January 2018:[35]

National origins or ethnic group 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2010 2009
Dutch (& Frisians) 13 209 225 (76.88%) 13 218 754 (77.39%) 13 226 829 (77.90%) 13 235 405 (78.31%) 13 234 545 (78.64%) 13 236 494 (78.89%) 13 236 618 (79.12%) 13 215 458 (79.72%) 13 196 916 (80.05%)
Turkish (& Kurdish) 404 459 (2.35%) 400 367 (2.34%) 397 471 (2.34%) 396 555 (2.35%) 396 414 (2.36%) 392 923 (2.34%) 392 923 (2.35%) 384 164 (2.32%) 378 400 (2.30%)
Moroccan (& Berber) 396 539 (2.31%) 391 088 (2.29%) 385 761 (2.27%) 380 755 (2.25%) 374 996 (2.23%) 368 838 (2.20%) 362 954 (2.17%) 349 270 (2.11%) 341 640 (2.07%)
Indo (& Moluccans) 361 594 (2.10%) 364 328 (2.13%) 366 849 (2.16%) 369 661 (2.19%) 372 233 (2.21%) 374 847 (2.23%) 377 618 (2.26%) 382 319 (2.31%) 384 553 (2.33%)
Germans 354 136 (2.06%) 356 875 (2.09%) 360 116 (2.12%) 364 125 (2.15%) 368 512 (2.19%) ? ? 379 017 (2.29%) 379 518 (2.30%)
Surinamese 351 681 (2.05%) 349 978 (2.05%) 349 022 (2.06%) 348 662 (2.06%) 348 291 (2.07%) 344 734 (2.05%) 344 734 (2.06%) 342 016 (2.06%) 338 519 (2.05%)
Poles 173 050 (1.01%) 161 158 (0.94%) 149 831 (0.88%) 137 794 (0.82%) 123 003 (0.73%) 111 121 (0.66%) 100 775 (0.60%) 77 178 (0.47%) 68 844 (0.42%)
Dutch Caribbean people 153 469 (0.90%) 150 981 (0.89%) 148 926 (0.88%) 146 855 (0.87%) 145 499 (0.87%) 143 992 (0.86%) 138 113 (0.83%) 134 486 (0.82%)
Belgians 118 725 (0.69%) 117 495 (0.69%) 116 389 (0.69%) 115 687 (0.68%) ? ? ? ? 112 529 (0.68%)
British 88 390 (0.51%) 86 293 (0.51%) 84 466 (0.50%) 82 879 (0.49%) ? ? ? ? 77 733 (0.47%)
Former Yugoslavs 85 504 (0.50%) 84 243 (0.50%) 83 261 (0.49%) ? ? ? ? 77 995 (0.47%)
Former Soviet Union 84 498 (0.49%) 80 013 (0.47%) 76 102 (0.45%) ? ? ? ? 52 563 (0.32%)
Syrians 90 771 (0.53%) 72 903 (0.43%) 43 838 (0.26%) 22 568 (0.13%) 13 744 (0.08%) 11 665 (0.07%) 11 025 (0.07%) 10 263 (0.06%) 9 976 (0.06%)
Chinese 74 234 (0.43%) 71 229 (0.42%) 68 697 (0.40%) 66 088 (0.39%) ? ? ? ? 50 681 (0.31%)
Iraqis 61 255 (0.36%) 59 497 (0.35%) 56 269 (0.33%) ? ? ? ? ? 49 234 (0.30%)
Italians 53 703 (0.31%) 50 925 (0.30%) 48 366 (0.28%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Afghans 47 776 (0.28%) 46 701 (0.27%) 44 339 (0.26%) ? ? ? ? ? 37 739 (0.23%)
French 45 558 (0.27%) 43 836 (0.26%) 42 070 (0.25%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Spaniards 42 926 (0.25%) 41 572 (0.24%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Somalis 39 737 (0.23%) 39 457 (0.23%) 39 465 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ? 21 753 (0.13%)
Americans 40 022 (0.23%) 38 494 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Iranians (Persians, Azeris and Kurds) 42 464 (0.25%) 40 893 (0.24%) 38 458 (0.23%) ? ? ? ? ? 30 617 (0.19%)
Indians 36 818 (0.22%) 32 682 (0.19%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Bulgarians 27 729 (0.16%) 25 520 (0.15%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Portuguese 25 637 (0.15%) 24 930 (0.15%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Romanians 25 551 (0.15%) 23 020 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Brazilians 24 725 (0.14%) 23 675 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Egyptians 23 956 (0.14%) 23 198 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Ghanaians 23 430 (0.14%) 23 168 (0.14%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hungarians 22 870 (0.13%) 22 080 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Cape Verdeans 22 285 (0.13%) 22 157 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Greeks 22 141 (0.13%) 20 769 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Pakistanis 22 897 (0.13%) 22 137 (0.13%) 21 447 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ? 18 636 (0.11%)
Vietnamese (Kinh) 22 023 (0.13%) 21 435 (0.13%) ? ? ? ? ? 18 913 (0.11%)
Filipinos 22 000 (0.13%) 20 937 (0.12%) 20 073 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
South Africans (Afrikaners) 20 859 (0.12%) 19 877 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Thai 20 106 (0.12%) 19 513 (0.11%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Ethiopians 19 528 (0.11%) 16 347 (0.10%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hong Kongers 18 357 (0.11%) 18 300 (0.11%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Colombians 16 607 (0.10%) 15 892 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Australians 16 597 (0.10%) 16 127 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Canadians 16 240 (0.09%) 15 944 (0.09%) 15 625 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Austrians 15 777 (0.09%) 15 674 (0.09%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa 97 026 (0.57%) 91 797 (0.54%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Europe 68 592 (0.40%) 65 849 (0.39%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Americas (except Caribbean) 47 048 (0.28%) 45 256 (0.27%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of North Africa and Middle East 46 231 (0.27%) 44 059 (0.26%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of East and Southeast Asia 34 562 (0.20%) 33 473 (0.20%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Caribbean 21 514 (0.13%) 20 956 (0.12%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of South Asia 17 448 (0.10%) 16 762 (0.10%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rest of Oceania 6 062 (0.04%) 5 916 (0.03%) ? ? ? ? ? ?
Others 1 094 826 (6,48%) 1 587 433 (9,43%) 1 437 462 (8,57%) 1 437 462 (8,59%) 1 387 255 (8,37%) 715 055 (4,34%)
Total 17 181 084 17 081 507 16 979 120 16 900 726 16 829 289 16 779 575 16 730 348 16 577 612 16 486 587
Region of the World 2018 2017 2016
Netherlands 13 209 225 (76.88%) 13 218 754 (77.39%) 13 226 829 (77.90%)
Europe (Except Netherlands) 1 237 807 (7.25%) 1 204 908 (7.10%)
North Africa and Middle East 1 081 636 (6.33%) 1 033 393 (6.09%)
East and South East Asia 551 542 (3.23%) 548 340 (3.23%)
Caribbean and Suriname 524 961 (3.07%) 520 959 (3.07%)
Sub-Saharan Africa 222 585 (1.30%) 212 811 (1.25%)
Americas (Except Caribbean and Suriname) 144 346 (0.85%) 138 942 (0.82%)
South Asia 76 403 (0.45%) 70 891 (0.42%)
Oceania 22 659 (0.13%) 22 043 (0.13%)

Emigration[edit]

The Netherlands has seen considerable emigration. In the 1950s 560,000[citation needed] people migrated to the United States, South Africa, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, leaving their war-torn and overpopulated home country behind. At least 60,000 of these migrants were Indo-European (mixed Dutch-Indonesian) repatriants that moved on, mostly to the United States, after being repatriated to the Netherlands from the former Dutch East Indies during and after the Indonesian revolution.

In 2005 some 121,000 people migrated from the Netherlands. There is considerable migration towards neighbouring states, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom and to the Netherlands Antilles. Furthermore, almost half of the current emigration consists of people returning to their country of birth, including rejected asylum seekers, after the more stringent migration laws were implemented.

Demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[36]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 4 minutes
  • One net migrant every 31 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 11 minutes
Animated population pyramid of the Netherlands: 1950-2010

The following demographic statistics are from Cia World Factbook.[37]

Population
17,151,228 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
Population pyramid of Netherlands in 2017
0-14 years: 16.28% (male 1,428,837 /female 1,362,686)
15-24 years: 12.03% (male 1,052,357 /female 1,011,710)
25-54 years: 39.18% (male 3,371,698 /female 3,348,595)
55-64 years: 13.41% (male 1,143,824 /female 1,155,751)
65 years and over: 19.1% (male 1,487,278 /female 1,788,492) (2018 est.)
Birth rate
10.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 181st
Death rate
9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 62nd
Total fertility rate
1.78 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 153th
Net migration rate
1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 49th
Median age
total: 42.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 26th
male: 41.6 years
female: 43.8 years (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
29.6 years (2015 est.)
Ethnic groups
Dutch 76.9%, EU 6.4%, Turkish 2.4%, Moroccan 2.3%, Indonesian 2.1%, German 2.1%, Surinamese 2%, Polish 1%, other 4.8% (2018 est.)
Population growth rate
0.38% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 164th
Languages
Dutch (official)
note: Frisian is an official language in Fryslan province; Frisian, Low Saxon, Limburgish, Romani, and Yiddish have protected status under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Dutch is the official language of the three special municipalities of the Caribbean Netherlands; English is a recognized regional language on Sint Eustatius and Saba; Papiamento is a recognized regional language on Bonaire
Religions
Roman Catholic 23.6%, Protestant 14.9% (includes Dutch Reformed 6.4%, Protestant Church of The Netherlands 5.6%, Calvinist 2.9%), Islam 5.1%, other 5.6% (includes Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish), none 50.7% (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 81.5 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 27th
male: 79.3 years (2018 est.)
female: 83.8 years (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 53.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 25.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 10.8%. Country comparison to the world: 117th
male: 11.4%
female: 10.3% (2016 est.)

Religion[edit]

In 2013, Statistics Netherlands found that 26% of the population identified as Roman Catholic, 16% as Protestant, 5% as Muslim, and 6% as "other" (the last includes other Christian denominations, Hindus 0.6%, Jews 0.1%, and Buddhists 0.4%). The agency interviewed 355,237 people in the period 2010-2013. [38] In 2019 the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that for the first time non-religious people were in the majority in The Netherlands. Only 49% of people older than 15 years reported to be religious; in 2012 that was still 54%. The largest religion was still catholicism (24%), while 5% identified with Islam. [39]

Religious identification of the adult population in the Netherlands (2015)[40]

  Irreligious (50.1%)
  Roman Catholic (23.7%)
  Muslim (4.9%)
  Other religions (5.7%)

Language[edit]

The main language is Dutch, while Frisian (known as West Frisian outside of the Netherlands) is also a recognized language in the province of Fryslân and is used by the government and schools there. Several dialects of Low Saxon (Nedersaksisch in Dutch) are spoken in much of the north and east and are recognized by the Netherlands as regional languages according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. This includes the Tweants dialect. Another Dutch dialect granted the status of regional language is Limburgish, which is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg. Major immigrant languages are Indonesian, Turkish, Arabic, Berber, Papiamento, German and Polish.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c In 2004, the Dutch Reformed Church (NHK) and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (GKN) merged to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN) and officially no longer exist. However, many people still tend to give their older affiliation even after the merger. People who declared themselves simply as belonging to the Protestant Church in the Netherlands did not give an information about belonging to an older affiliation.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CBS Statline - Population; history. Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved on 2009-03-08.
  2. ^ Netherlands, Statistics. "Population counter". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
  4. ^ https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/37230ned/table?ts=1545312307138
  5. ^ Population counter of the Netherlands
  6. ^ Netherlands, Statistics. "Largest families in Urk". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  7. ^ Netherlands, Statistics. "Population growth 46 thousand in 2007". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  8. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-06-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Bevolkingsprognose 2007–2014: tijdelijk hogere groei" (PDF). Cbs.nl. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  11. ^ Charles F. Westoff; Tomas Frejka. "Fertility and Religiousness Among European Muslims". Paa2007.princeton.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-06-28. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  13. ^ CBS Statistics Netherlands Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Population". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Life expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  16. ^ a b c "Focus migration - country profile - Netherlands". focus-migration.hwwi.de. Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsinstitut (HWWI). November 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  17. ^ VASILEVA, Katya. "6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad (34/2011)" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-28.
  18. ^ "CBS StatLine - External migration; sex, age (31 dec), marital status and country of birth". cbs.nl.
  19. ^ "Substantial increase asylum seekers". cbs.nl. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Jaarrapport Integratie 2005 - SCP Summary". www.scp.nl (in Dutch). pp. 1–3. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  21. ^ "Dutch float 'migrant prison' scheme". BBC. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  22. ^ "Anti-immigrant website fans flames in the Netherlands". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  23. ^ "Dutch Police to Scan Fingerprints in Checks for Illegal Immigrants". Voice of America. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  24. ^ "Government gets tougher with illegal immigrants". Radio Netherlands. Archived from the original on 2012-04-28. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  25. ^ "Clash over illegal alien arrest quota". Radio Netherlands. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  26. ^ Statistiek, Centraal Bureau voor de. "CBS". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (in Dutch). Retrieved 2018-09-17.
  27. ^ "Annual Integration Report 2013 Summary". www.scp.nl. SCP. p. 191. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  28. ^ a b c Netherlands, Statistics. "Half of refugee households at risk of poverty". Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  29. ^ Steven de Jong, "PVV-plan is prachtig. Derde generatie kan imago ‘allochtoon’ opkrikken", NRC Handelsblad, 29 June 2011
  30. ^ Verkenning niet-westerse derde generatie (PDF). Den Haag: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 2010. pp. 5 / Samenvattning. ISSN 1877-3028. Archived from the original on 16 November 2010.
  31. ^ https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb
  32. ^ "Donner: 100.000 Oost-Europeanen werken in Nederland". Volkskrant.nl. 2007-11-25. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  33. ^ "Aantal Midden- en Oost-Europeanen in vijf jaar tijd verdubbeld". CBS. 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  34. ^ "Immigratie Oost-Europeanen blijft hoog". CBS. 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
  35. ^ "CBS StatLine - Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  36. ^ "Netherlands Population 2019", World Population Review
  37. ^ "The World FactBook - Netherlands", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018
  38. ^ Schmeets, Hans (2014). De religieuze kaart van Nederland, 2010-2013 (PDF). Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. p. 4. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  39. ^ https://www.scientias.nl/niet-religieuze-nederlander-is-nu-officieel-in-de-meerderheid/
  40. ^ CBS religion Table 3.1.1
  41. ^ Schmeets, Hans; Mensvoort, Carly van (2011). Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, 2010–2014 (PDF). Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek. Retrieved 21 February 2018.

External links[edit]