Dendroctonus frontalis

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Dendroctonus frontalis
Southern Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis).jpg
Scientific classification
D. frontalis
Binomial name
Dendroctonus frontalis
Zimmermann, 1868

Dendroctonus arizonicus

Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle,[1] is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of southern United States, Mexico and Central America.[2] It has a hard reddish brown to black exoskeleton and measures approximately 3 mm (0.12 in), about the size of a grain of rice. It is short-legged, the front of the males head is notched, the female possesses a wide elevated transverse ridge,[3] and the hind abdomen of both is round.[4]

Tree infestations[edit]

Dendroctonus frontalis inhabits several Pinus species. Host trees in the United States include primarily P. taeda, P. echinata, P. elliottii, P. virginiana, P. rigida, P. palustris, P. serotina, P. pungens and P. strobes, P. ponderosa, P. engelmannii and P. leiophylla.[4] Host trees in Central America include P. caribaea, P. engelmannii, P. leiophylla, P. maximinoi and P. oocarpa.[4] In the south-eastern United States it is considered one of the most important causes of economic loss in forestry.[5] About $900 million worth of damage was caused by this species from 1960 to 1990 in the southern United States.[6]


  1. ^ "Southern Pine Beetle". Texas Archive of the Moving Image. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  2. ^ "Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, 1868". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  3. ^ "Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann". University of Florida. University of Florida. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c FAO Forestry Department (2009). "Dendroctonus frontalis" (PDF). Global Review of Forest Pests and Diseases. A Thematic Study Prepared in the Framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. FAO Forestry Papers. 156. Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 978-92-5-106208-1.
  5. ^ Matthew J. Ungerer & Matthew P. Ayres & María J. Lombardero (1999). "Climate and the northern distribution limits of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 26 (6): 1133–1145. CiteSeerX doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00363.x. JSTOR 2656057. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-24.
  6. ^ University of Florida Article by James R. Meeker, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry; Wayne N. Dixon, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry; and John L. Foltz and Thomas R Fasulo, University of Florida published November 2000,

External links[edit]