Dendrophryniscus

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Dendrophryniscus
Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae01.jpg
Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Dendrophryniscus
Jiménez de la Espada, 1870
Type species
Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus
Jiménez de la Espada, 1870
Species

10, see text

Dendrophryniscus is a genus of true toads in the family Bufonidae.[1][2] They are endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Amazophrynella was separated from Dendrophryniscus in 2012 based on molecular genetic evidence that indicated deep divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, the latter retaining the name Dendrophryniscus whereas the former was described as a new genus Amazonella,[3] later amended to Amazophrynella because of homonymy.

Description[edit]

Dendrophryniscus are small to medium-sized toads measuring 15–47 mm (0.59–1.85 in) in snout–vent length. Their body form resembles that of Atelopus. The hind limbs are well developed. The parotoid glands are absent, as are external tympana. The skin is uniformly granulose to warty. Dorsal coloration is cryptic.[3]

With the exception of Dendrophryniscus leucomystax, Dendrophryniscus breed in phytotelmata. In contrast, Amazophrynella are pond breeders, which is presumably an ancestral trait in bufonids.[3]

Species[edit]

There are ten recognized species:[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1870". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut (2012). "Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (3): 826–838. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.023. PMID 22166838.